Novo

Guerra Civil Inglesa, Segunda (1648)

Guerra Civil Inglesa, Segunda (1648)


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

A Guerra Civil Inglesa , Richard Holmes & Peter Young, um dos primeiros trabalhos de um dos historiadores militares mais conhecidos do país, este é um único volume soberbo da história da guerra, de suas causas às últimas campanhas da guerra e no fim do protetorado.


A Guerra Civil em torno de Birmingham 1642-1648

Agosto de 1642 Carlos I sitiou Coventry sem sucesso e mudou-se para Nottingham. Ele deixou uma guarnição no castelo Kenilworth. As tropas parlamentares de Coventry e Warwick moveram-se para o Castelo Kenilworth e Carlos I foi forçado a mover suas tropas para Tamworth

Agosto de 1642 Batalha de Curdworth Bridge Lichfield Road / Marsh Lane Curdworth B46
Sir Richard Willys (cavaleiro / monarquista) enviado para escoltar 2 tropas de cavalo, um de dragões, 500 soldados de infantaria e bagagem do Castelo Kenilworth ao Castelo Tamworth. Os monarquistas deixaram Kenilworth viajando via Berkswell, Meriden, Packington e Coleshill, Warwickshire 1200 tropas parlamentares e homens de Birmingham tentaram afastar os monarquistas via Fillongley, Maxstoke e Coleshill.
Sir Richard Willys (cavaleiro / monarquista) formou seus homens em formação de batalha ao norte da Ponte Curdworth. Ele atacou os parlamentares que estavam cercados por terreno pantanoso ao sul da ponte. Os parlamentares recuaram e Sir Richard Willys mudou-se para o Castelo Tamworth. 20 homens foram mortos e enterrados perto da parede sul da chance da Igreja Curdworth.

17 de outubro de 1642 King Charles 1st. (cavaleiro / monarquista) marchou em direção a Birmingham,

17 de outubro de 1642 O príncipe Rupert (cavaleiro / monarquista) sobrinho do rei (cavaleiro / monarquista) marchou de Sturbridge a Solihull para se encontrar com Carlos I. Um grupo parlamentar comandado por Lord Willoughby de Parham (88 cavaleiros e soldados) a caminho de Worcester surpreendeu o príncipe Rupert. homens (300 pés e nove tropas de cavalo) descansando em King's Norton Green (ainda existe), uma escaramuça aconteceu. 50 cavaleiros mortos, 20 feitos prisioneiros e 20 (parlamentares / cabeças redondas) forças mortas. Thomas Hall Grammar School (ainda existe) mestre posteriormente pároco, preso cinco vezes, roubado, ameaçado de morte. Seu livro & quotThe Font Guarded & quot (1652) foi o primeiro livro publicado em Birmingham, dedicado ao povo de Birmingham. A quem ele prometeu sua biblioteca.
1662 ato de uniformidade expulso Hall como padre,
13/4/1665 Hall morreu, sepultado no cemitério de Kings Norton.
1892 livros removidos da igreja.
1911 livros catalogados
Livros de 1936 exibidos na biblioteca central
1983 uma placa para ele na velha escola primária.


18 de outubro de 1642 registros do parlamento relatam a escaramuça em Kings Norton
Worcestershire ao sul de Birmingham 18 de outubro de 1642 o rei Charles I ficou em Aston Hall Warwickshire (ainda existe) com Sir Thomas Holte

18 de outubro de 1642 O exército do rei Carlos I (cavaleiro / monarquista) saqueou Birmingham (parlamentar / cabeça redonda), enquanto passava. Houve alguns saques e Charles mandou enforcar dois capitães por causa disso. Birmingham foi uma importante fonte de armas, dando aos parlamentares 15.000 espadas e nenhuma aos monarquistas. Em vingança, o trem de bagagem Charles I foi capturado na mansão.

18 de outubro de 1642 um confronto ocorreu na fazenda Hawkesley no dia seguinte ao conflito em Kings Norton


19 de outubro de 1642 trem de bagagem monarquista levado ao Castelo de Warwick (ainda existe) por parlamentares. Tropas capturadas levadas para a igreja de St Johns em Coventry (ainda existe)

19 de outubro de 1642 O rei Carlos I supostamente depois de passar a noite no Aston Hall, o rei teria tido seu Royal Standard desfraldado (e então ele fez um discurso) em um lugar próximo - conhecido a partir de então como Kings Standing.


3 de abril de 1643 a.m. (Segunda-feira de Páscoa) O príncipe Rupert, sobrinho do rei, conhecido como "Príncipe Ladrão Duque de Plunderland" (cavaleiro / monarquista) se aproximou com 2.000 homens e pediu alojamento, mas foi recusado. Ele prometeu nenhuma represália para o
roubo de trem de bagagem anos anteriores, mas ele não foi acreditado. Os dragões mercenários alemães de Rupert não eram confiáveis. O Príncipe Rupert estabeleceu seu quartel-general no Ship Inn. Homens acampados em Kemp's Hill (agora Camp Hill)
1974 Ship Inn demoliu os parlamentares, tinha apenas 200 mosquetes e 140 mosqueteiros de Lichfield, sem artilharia e sem fortificações. Eles tentaram barricar a Deritend High Street, perto do rio Rea. Duas cargas de dragão monarquista foram repelidas. Os monarquistas liderados pelo conde de Denbigh flanquearam as barricadas ao sul, atravessaram o Rea e subiram a Mill St e High Street Deritend, passando pelo Old Crown Inn (ainda existe) e o Golden Lion (ainda existe, mas mudou) agora em Cannon Em Hill Park, um esqueleto completo com capacete de guerra civil foi encontrado aqui em 1815.

3 de abril de 1643 da tarde. Um grupo de cavaleiros parlamentares liderados pelo Capitão Richard Graves (grevis / greves) escudeiro de Kings Norton / Moseley de Moseley Hall (ainda existe), (parlamentar / cabeça redonda) foram perseguidos por monarquistas em direção a Cape Hill Smethwick Staffordshire. (ele era em 1646 o carcereiro de Carlos I em Holmby House, Northamptonshire quando um coronel, mas ele era suspeito de ser um monarquista
simpatizante e fugiu para a França para se juntar a Charles). Robert Porter
(parlamentar / cabeça redonda), o proprietário da fábrica da cidade de Birmingham viajou com Graves. O conde de Denbigh, na casa dos 60 anos, que liderou o ataque em Deritend no início do dia, foi ferido por um oficial parlamentar, supostamente capitão Richard Graves, a quem perseguia ao longo de Shirland Lane (Shirland Road) perto de Cape Hill. Denbigh morreu em 8 de abril de 1643. ele era o favorito do Príncipe Rupert, que, segundo se afirma, ordenou a queima de Birmingham como represália (de acordo com Hutton 1782, o incêndio foi iniciado no nº 12 da Bull Street). 4 de abril, quatro dias antes da morte de Denbigh, isso é improvável. Este ato foi usado como propaganda pelos parlamentares. 1/3 das casas foram queimadas (80) algumas fontes dizem imediatamente, mas provavelmente no dia seguinte, aproximadamente 5.300 residentes em Birmingham

4 de abril de 1643 O moinho da cidade de Robert Porter, Lower Mill Street, no rio Rea, que fez 15.000 espadas para o parlamento, foi derrubado por monarquistas possivelmente por causa do ferimento anterior de Denbigh.


10 de julho de 1643 A esposa de Henrietta Maria Charles I marchou de Walsall a Kings Norton (cavaleiro / monarquista). Ela se hospedou no Saracen's Head (ainda existe) no gramado de Kings Norton. Ela tinha uma escolta de cavaleiros, 3.000 cavaleiros e 30 companhias de soldados de infantaria. Eles acamparam perto do rio Rea, a área ainda chamada de acampamento e Camp Lane

11 de julho de 1643 Henrietta Maria conheceu o Príncipe Rupert em Stratford on Avon

28 de agosto de 1643 O filho de Sir Thomas Holte, Eduardo, morreu de peste enquanto trabalhava para o rei em Oxford.

18 de dezembro de 1643 Thomas Holte emprestou 40 mosqueteiros do coronel Leveson, do castelo Dudley.


26 de dezembro de 1643 1.200 parlamentares de Birmingham atacaram o Aston Hall, mantido por Sir Thomas Holte, um monarquista. Mosqueteiros realistas não podiam competir com a artilharia parlamentar. O salão Aston foi restaurado após a restauração de Carlos II em 1660

28 de dezembro de 1643 após um cerco de 3 dias usando artilharia, Holte teve que se render.
Ele foi preso e a casa saqueada. 12 cavaleiros mortos e 60 cabeças redondas. Cinco soldados enterrados no cemitério de Aston de acordo com os registros da igreja. Aston Hall Aston Warwickshire (ainda existe), alegados danos da guerra civil causados ​​por balas de canhão ainda evidentes

Abril de 1644 O príncipe Rupert e o príncipe Maurice (irmão de Rupert), sobrinhos do rei, roubaram tantas ovelhas e gado quanto puderam de Birmingham, provavelmente quando Fox estava em Hawkesley

Abril de 1644 tropas parlamentares / cabeças redondas de Edgbaston Hall sob o comando do coronel Fox sitiaram a fazenda Hawkesley e expulsaram o proprietário, Sr. Middlemore, um monarquista / cavaleiro. The Edgbaston Garrison
1644 monarquistas levaram 19 cavalos e 150 bestas
Pilhagem de 1644 por tropas monarquistas de Dudley Castle e Lichfield
1644 O Sr. Middlemore um monarquista expulso pelos homens de Fox. Chamado de coronel & quottinker & quot fox porque seu pai era um walsall fundidor e & quotthe jovial tinker & quot ironicamente, já que raramente sorria, Fox profanou a vizinha igreja paroquial de Edgbaston e construiu fortificações no terreno do corredor. O chumbo do telhado da igreja foi derretido para fazer balas. Madeiras de telhado e pedra foram usadas para barricar o salão.
1644 fox também fortificou o salão Hazelwell em Stirchley (Strutley) antes da rodovia c18, esta era a rota principal de Birmingham para o sul e oeste. Coronel Thomas & quottinker & quot Fox autodenominado coronel dos irregulares (parlamentar / cabeça redonda). De Edgbaston Hall Fox, as tropas parlamentares / cabeças redondas avançaram e capturaram Bewdley, tomaram o castelo de Stourton, mas foram repelidas por uma grande força monarquista comandada pelo Coronel Gerard de Worcester.

De outubro de 1643 até abril de 1645 - 2.544 anos 18 foram gastos na guarnição. Fox foi acusado de lucrar com a guerra. Porter, o inquilino de Edgbaston manor denunciou o coronel fox por lucrar e foi premiado com o feudo de fox. Uma casa mais recente construída em 1718 fica no local do clube de golfe Edgbaston
Janeiro de 1645 nova pilhagem monarquista por 400 cavaleiros do castelo Dudley liderados pelo sargento. O major Henningham Prince Rupert (cavaleiro / monarquista) chegou para sitiar os parlamentares na fazenda Hawkesley. No dia seguinte, o rei Carlos I chegou com mais soldados, os parlamentares se renderam e a casa foi saqueada e destruída.
Hawkesley Farm Longbridge reconstruída em 1654. Houve uma descoberta de munição em campos vizinhos. Existem fragmentos de um fosso, escavações em 1957/58 revelaram um grande celeiro como a construção de Hawkesley Farm Longbridge perto de Birmingham Worcestershire, isso não deve ser confundido com Hawkesley Hall em West Heath.


17 de maio de 1645 destruição da casa de Littleton em Frankley pelo príncipe Rupert, sobrinho do rei, para impedir que caísse nas mãos dos parlamentares. A casa fica em frente à atual casa de fazenda de Westminster. A plataforma ainda pode ser vista, o fosso marcado no mapa.
Rupert mudou-se via (supostamente) Cannon Hill em Edgbaston, Worcestershire perto de Birmingham para Naseby

J 14 de junho de 1645 a batalha de Naseby

1648 Monarquistas escoceses cometem mais pilhagem monarquista, mas são derrotados em Warwick

meios de comunicação
Mapas de Birmingham / Edgbaston / West Midlands na guerra civil
Livros Dr. Guttery, a grande guerra civil nas paróquias do interior
Livro Civil Strife in the Midlands R E. Sherwood floor 6 Birmingham Reference
Biblioteca 942.06, panfleto 1, mostrando o Príncipe Rupert e seu cachorro & quotboy & quot, que foi morto na batalha de Marston Moor, Birmingham queima em segundo plano, mas está geograficamente incorreto, pois Daventry fica a leste de Birmingham e não a oeste. O panfleto 2 é uma folha de propaganda parlamentar produzida 10 dias após a escaramuça de Birmingham, que cita 80 casas destruídas.


Localizações
Ponte Curdworth
Kings Norton Green (local do conflito)
Ship Inn Camp Hill (demolido)
High Street Deritend onde ficava a ponte velha
The Old Crown Inn e o Golden Lion
Mill Lane Deritend (local da fábrica da cidade)
vista para cima em direção a Digbeth
São Martins, Praça de Touros
Mosaico da Guerra Civil representando os eventos da Guerra Civil & quotBattle of Birmingham & quot em abril de 1643. local de fogo iniciado pelos monarquistas Colmore Circus Birmingham (próximo a 12 Bull St)
Shireland Lane Cape Hill Smethwick local de escaramuça e Denbigh's fatal
ferindo
Saracens Head Kings Norton (Rainha Henrietta Maria dormiu aqui)
Camp Lane Kings Norton (local do acampamento monarquista) o pub do acampamento
Exterior do Aston Hall
Escada principal do corredor Aston
Cemitério de aston
Edgbaston Hall
Igreja Edgbaston
Ponte Bewdley
Stourton Castle
Hawkesley House Longbridge (local de dois cercos)
Cofton Hall (local do antigo salão)
Site do Frankley Hall de
Igreja Frankley
Cannon Hill Edgbaston
Saltley Hall
Rupert St Nechells
Prince Rupert Pub Nechells
Cromwell Lane Bartley Green

James M Hyland E.ed., B.a. P.g.c.e.
41 Woolacombe Lodge Road
Selly Oak
Birmingham
B29 6PZ

Virtual Brum é um site não oficial de Birmingham no Reino Unido sobre a cidade, também conhecida como Brummagem ou Brum.
As opiniões expressas não são as do Birmingham City Council ou de qualquer uma de suas agências. O site oficial do conselho pode ser encontrado em www.birmingham.gov.uk

2000 - 2008 Todas as fotografias digitais (salvo indicação em contrário) tiradas pela VirtualBrum usando uma câmera digital Fuji
para obter detalhes de uso, consulte Suporte este site


VirtualBrum
PO BOX 11148
Birmingham
B28 0ZR

Isenção de responsabilidade da foto: - Se algum gráfico ou texto estiver protegido por direitos autorais e você não quiser que eu o mostre aqui,
não me processe! Apenas apresente evidências de propriedade dos direitos autorais e eu irei deletar imediatamente.


Introdução

Pride & # 8217s Purge é o nome comumente usado para um evento que ocorreu em 6 de dezembro de 1648, quando soldados impediram que MPs considerados hostis ao Novo Exército Modelo entrassem na Câmara dos Comuns.

Apesar da derrota na Primeira Guerra Civil Inglesa, Carlos I manteve um poder político significativo. Isso permitiu que ele criasse uma aliança com Covenanters escoceses e parlamentares moderados para restaurá-lo ao trono inglês. O resultado foi a Segunda Guerra Civil Inglesa de 1648, na qual ele foi derrotado mais uma vez.

Convencidos de que apenas sua remoção poderia encerrar o conflito, os comandantes seniores do Novo Exército Modelo assumiram o controle de Londres em 5 de dezembro. No dia seguinte, os soldados comandados pelo Coronel Thomas Pride excluíram à força do Parlamento Longo aqueles parlamentares considerados seus oponentes e prenderam 45.

O expurgo abriu caminho para a execução de Carlos em janeiro de 1649, e o estabelecimento do Protetorado é considerado o único serviço militar registrado golpe d & # 8217état na história da Inglaterra. [1]


Nonington: the Kentish Rebellion & # 038 a Segunda Guerra Civil Inglesa de 1648

O artigo a seguir resume os papéis desempenhados na Rebelião de Kent, uma precursora da curta Segunda Guerra Civil Inglesa de 1648, por aqueles com conexões com Nonington.

A rebelião teve suas origens em parte nos distúrbios de Canterbury no dia de Natal de 1647, que começaram quando o prefeito puritano e oficiais de Canterbury tentaram proibir as celebrações tradicionais de Natal.

Em maio de 1648, membros da nobreza proprietária de terras e outros cidadãos proeminentes de Kent, incluindo o Coronel Robert Hammond e Anthony Hammond, seu sobrinho, de St. Alban's Court, Nonington, e Sir Thomas Peyton do vizinho Knolton Court apresentaram uma petição ao Parlamento em maio de 1648 e quando o Parlamento rejeitou a petição, uma rebelião foi levantada em apoio ao rei.

Em 23 de maio de 1648, uma assembleia do condado de cidadãos importantes de Kent realizada em Canterbury comissionou o coronel Robert Hammond para aumentar a força de soldados de infantaria e o coronel Robert Hatton para reunir uma força de cavalaria em apoio ao rei. Os dois coronéis não perderam tempo no cumprimento de suas comissões.

No dia seguinte, o coronel Hammond, com 300 soldados bem equipados e armados, e o coronel Hatton, com 60 soldados a cavalo, encontraram-se com outras forças realistas em Barham Downs.

Depois de algum sucesso inicial na campanha na área de East Kent contra partidários do Parlamento, a força do coronel Hammond aumentou para cerca de 1.000 homens e ele ainda fez campanha em Kent e além na causa realista.

Poucos dias depois, as guarnições dos pequenos castelos de defesa costeira Sandown, Deal e Walmer, originalmente construídos pelo rei Henrique VIII para defender a costa de East Kent e a navegação ancorada em Downs contra a invasão francesa, renderam-se aos rebeldes de East Kent sem lutar e os navios da frota inglesa situados em Downs, na costa de Deal e Walmer, também se juntaram aos rebeldes. Anthony Hammond, sobrinho do coronel Robert Hammond e também do St. Alban & # 8217s Court em Nonington, e o capitão Bargrave foram a Deal para negociar com a frota e foram auxiliados nas negociações pelo capitão John Mennes e pelo capitão Fogg. O capitão Mennes, um conhecido poeta e espirituoso com várias obras publicadas na década de 1650, era um oficial da Marinha que havia perdido seu cargo na Marinha por causa de suas simpatias realistas e após a restauração do rei Carlos II em 1660 ele se tornou Sir John Mennes, um Vice-Almirante e Controlador da Marinha. A esposa de Sir John, Jane, morreu em Fredville, então residência do Major John Boys, em 1662 e foi enterrada na Igreja de Nonington, onde há um memorial em sua memória. Isso tem uma certa ironia, pois em 1648 o Major John Boys era membro do Comitê Parlamentar de Kent, cujas ações foram, pelo menos em parte, responsáveis ​​pela rebelião.

O Castelo de Dover permaneceu nas mãos dos parlamentares e, para remediar esta situação, Sir Richard Hardres de Hardres Court perto de Canterbury, um dos líderes da rebelião que havia sido membro do Comitê Parlamentar de Kent em 1643, mas depois se tornou um monarquista, reuniu cerca de 2.000 homens e foram sitiar o castelo. Os monarquistas de East Kent rapidamente apreenderam o Mote Bulwark do castelo, onde encontraram estoques de munição que usaram para bombardear o castelo. Um dos irmãos Hammond, possivelmente Francis, teria comandado a artilharia que disparou 500 balas de canhão no Castelo de Dover que, apesar do bombardeio, resistiu ao cerco.

O Parlamento despachou tropas do Novo Exército Modelo sob o comando do Coronel Nathanial Rich e do Coronel Birkhamstead para retomar os castelos de Sandown, Deal e Walmer e levantar o cerco em Dover. As tropas do Coronel Birhamstead substituíram o Castelo de Dover em 6 de junho e ele permaneceu nas mãos do Parlamento até a Restauração da Monarquia em maio de 1660, quando Carlos II desembarcou em Dover a caminho do continente para Londres para reclamar a Coroa.

O coronel Rich começou a sitiar os castelos menores. Walmer se rendeu em 12 de julho, mas o outro resistiu aos seus esforços por algum tempo enquanto as forças realistas tentavam levantar os cercos do mar.

Após o fim do cerco de Donnington, Sir John Boys de Bonnington em Goodnestone perto de Wingham, que não deve ser confundido com seu parente distante Major John Boys de Fredville na paróquia vizinha de Nonington, foi relatado como tendo ido para a Holanda. Sir John retornou por mar para East Kent em agosto de 1648 com cerca de 1.500 mercenários holandeses e flamengos e participou de várias escaramuças com as forças parlamentares perto de Deal em uma tentativa vã de aliviar os cercos nos castelos de Deal e Sandgate. Durante uma das últimas escaramuças, Sir John foi levemente ferido, foi registrado que ele estava “Baleado na barriga, picado no pescoço e ferido na cabeça com a coronha de um mosquete”. Felizmente, a fivela do cinto da espada absorveu a maior parte da força da bala do mosquete e Sir John sobreviveu aos ferimentos após se refugiar no Castelo de Sandown.

Deal Castle se rendeu em 25 de agosto depois que a guarnição recebeu a notícia da vitória de Cromwell em Preston por meio de uma mensagem anexada a uma flecha disparada sobre as paredes do castelo. O Castelo de Sandown, a cerca de um quilômetro da costa do Castelo de Deal, resistiu até 5 de setembro, quando a guarnição, incluindo Sir John Boys, se rendeu. O coronel Rich serviu então como capitão do Castelo Deal de 1648 a 1653.

Sir John Boys foi preso por algum tempo e depois libertado, mas continuou em desacordo com o Parlamento até a Restauração da Monarquia em 1660. Em 1659, ele recebeu outra sentença de prisão por petição para um parlamento livre e foi preso no Castelo de Dover.

Após a derrota dos rebeldes de Kent, o Coronel Robert Hammond participou da defesa de Colchester, que foi sitiada pelas forças parlamentares de julho de 1648 até a derrota das forças realistas na Batalha de Preston (17 a 19 de agosto de 1648). esperança de alívio para a guarnição sitiada e, consequentemente, depuseram as armas na manhã de 28 de agosto. Os termos de rendição declararam que “Os senhores e senhores (os oficiais) eram todos prisioneiros de misericórdia”, e que os soldados comuns deveriam ser desarmados e receber passes que lhes permitissem voltar para casa depois de fazer o juramento de não pegar em armas contra o Parlamento novamente. O povo de Colchester pagou £ 0,14.000 em dinheiro para proteger a cidade de ser pilhada pelas forças parlamentares vitoriosas.

O Coronel Robert Hammond da Corte de St. Alban não deve ser confundido com seu nome, por causa do Coronel Robert Hammond (1621–24 de outubro de 1654), mais conhecido por atuar como carcereiro Carlos I no Castelo de Carisbrooke de 13 de novembro de 1647 a 29 de novembro de 1648 e por esse serviço O Parlamento votou nele uma pensão. Ele serviu como oficial no Novo Exército Modelo de Cromwell durante o início da Guerra Civil e sentou-se na Câmara dos Comuns em 1654.

A rebelião de Kent foi discutida no Parlamento, o que se segue é um extrato de um registro do processo parlamentar de 1º de junho de 1648.
Farther Account of the Kent Proceedings em geral.
De Kent veio mais longe neste dia para este propósito: & # 8216Na quarta-feira de maio passado, Sua Excelência com quatro regimentos de cavalo e três de pé, com algumas companhias soltas do regimento do coronel Ingoldsby & # 8217s, marchou de Eltham (onde estavam os Fields por aí na noite anterior) para Craford Heath, onde as ditas Forças foram encaminhadas para um Rendezvous, e depois disso marcharam através do & # 8217 Dartmouth, e então pararam em um Heath a duas milhas da cidade, onde Sua Excelência tinha Inteligência, Que um grupo de Kentish fortificou e barracou uma ponte que levava a Gravesend: um grupo comandado foi enviado sob a conduta dos maridos principais, cerca de 300 cavalos, que montaram cerca de 100 pés atrás deles: Quando eles se aproximaram da ponte, o inimigo disparou forte sobre eles nossos Homens, apesar de ter caído, e o Cavalo nadou através da Água, e assim superou a esta altura o Inimigo percebendo em que Perigo eles eram, fugiu: Criança Principal que os comandava, e era muito ativo, dificilmente esca ped, tendo seu Cavalo baleado, então ele o abandonou, seu Filho foi baleado nas costas e levado. Houve cerca de 20 mortos no local, vários feridos e 30 prisioneiros levados, muitos escaparam, escondendo-se nos campos de milho e nas casas. O Grupo do Inimigo consistia nos camponeses da região, os marinheiros e alguns aprendizes de Londres: Um certo Sr. Phips foi muito ativo em atacar os compatriotas.

Depois disso, os maridos principais avançaram com um grupo duas ou três milhas além de Gravesend, e depois receberam ordens para marchar para Maulin, em direção à qual o Exército marcha nesta manhã de Mapham, uma vila muito pequena (onde o Lorde General esquartejou na noite passada, e suas Forças sobre isso nos Campos) e fará uma parada perto de Maulin, onde as ordens serão dadas. Sua Excelência enviou uma Proclamação para a Prevenção de Desordens em Soldados, ou a Tomada de Pilhagem em sua Marcha, Cavalos ou Mercadorias, e para restaurar o que foi assim tomado. Há muito poucos homens nas cidades pelas quais marchamos, mas apenas as Mulheres gemendo tristes, temendo o mau sucesso que seus maridos provavelmente terão. O Inimigo é muito Numeroso, dado ser pelo menos Dez Mil, entre os quais uma grande parte Cavaleiros. Seus principais líderes são, Sir Gamaliel Dudley, Sir George Lisle, Sir Will. Compton, Sir Robert Tracy, Coronel Leigh, Sir John Many, Sir Tho. Peyton, Sir Tho. Palmer, Esquire Hales, supostamente General, Sir James Hales, Sir William Many, Sir John Dorrell, Sir Thomas Godfrey, Sir Richard Hardresse Coronel Washington, Coronel Hammond, Coronel L & # 8217Estrange, Coronel Culpepper, Coronel Hacker, Sr. James Dorrell, Sr. George Newman, uma vez Coronel do Parlamento, e Sr. Whelton, Tesoureiro do Parlamento.

Sir Rich. Hardresse forçado pelo major Gibbon a recuar para Canterbury.

O Major Gibbon, no Relief of Dover Castle, forçou Sir Richard Hardresse a recuar para Canterbury, que sitiou aquele lugar e neste dia esperamos estar sobre o rio em Maidstone, ou Aylesford, e forçar o Inimigo a fugir ou nade, pois deixamos um forte grupo de cavalos, pés e dragões, para compensar a passagem em Rochester, enquanto caímos do outro lado do rio e construímos Maidstone e Aylesford. O Major Gibbons está em Dover, então eles não têm nada além do Mar para onde voar.

O seguinte extrato de um artigo publicado na "The Gentleman’s Magazine" em 1797 fornece um relatório mais completo da Rebelião de Kent e seus participantes.
“Temo que ele tenha contemporizado na época da rebelião. Lloyd em suas “Memórias dos Lealistas [London fol.1668] quando fez um relato do levante em Kent, em 1648, nomeia Sir John Roberts, com o Sr. Hales, Sir William Brockman, o Sr. Matthew Carter, Sir Anthony Aucker , Sir Richard Hardres, Coronel Hatton, Sr. Arnold Braime, Sir John Mynnes e Coronel Hamond, que, com o resto dos cavalheiros do condado de Kent, importunaram George Gõring, Conde de Norwich, para aceitar o cargo de General. Mas aproveitarei esta oportunidade para mencionar alguns detalhes deste caso de um pequeno tratado muito raro e curioso, intitulado "Uma relação mais verdadeira e exata daquela tão honrosa quanto infeliz Expedição de Kent, Essex e Colchester, por M [atthew ], um ator leal nesse noivado, Anno Dom. 1648. Impresso no ano de 1650 ”. A disposição de Canterbury começou a se mostrar, por um motim, no dia de Natal de 1647 e, continuando os distúrbios, o parlamento enviou o regimento de pé do coronel Huson para ser aquartelado lá, em cuja chegada Sir William Man, o Sr. Lovelace, o Sr. Savine, o Sr. Dudley Wild e outros foram apreendidos e levados prisioneiros para o Castelo de Leeds. Cerca de duas semanas antes de Whitsuntide, o Parlamento enviou o Serjeant Wild e o Serjeant Steele, em uma comissão especial, de oyer e terminer, para julgar os insurgentes de vida ou morte: mas o grande júri não encontrou os projetos de lei ao contrário, eles aceitaram esta oportunidade de redigir uma petição ao Parlamento, datada de 11 de maio de 1648, reclamando de suas queixas e exigindo que o Rei fosse admitido para tratar, pessoalmente, as duas casas do Parlamento. Afirma-se que Sir Henry Heyman e Sir Michael Livesay foram os dois grandes oponentes a esta petição. O Parlamento enviou uma ordem aos vice-tenentes para suprimir e impedir a assinatura desta petição e, consequentemente, foi emitida uma ordem de alguns dos vice-tenentes, datada de Maidstone, 16 de maio, assinada, entre outros, por James Oxendon e William James. Os peticionários publicaram uma justificativa e resposta sobre o que os bandos de trem foram ordenados a sair: isto exasperou os peticionários ”, que resolveram, como os homens de Kent, manter, se fosse possível, sua antiga honra e liberdades, ou pereceriam na tentativa” Senhor Clarendon parece impreciso ao colocar a culpa em um armamento muito apressado, antes que o exército escocês tivesse entrado no reino, no Sr. Hales, impulsionado pelo zelo intemperante do Sr. Roger L'Estrange, pois um manifesto já havia sido elaborado e assinado , em nome dos "cavaleiros, senhores, clérigos e franqueados do condado" em execução, eles apreenderam todas as armas e munições em Scott's Hall, Ashford, Feversham e outros lugares, apesar do esforço vão de Sir Michael Livesay, e alguns outros vice-tenentes, para suprimi-los quando o Sr. Hales levantou uma grande festa, naquela parte do condado, para se juntar a eles. Agora havia corpos fortes reunidos em Wye, Ashford, Sittingbourne, Rochester, Gravesend e ampc. e em 23 de maio, uma grande reunião do condado ocorreu em Canterbury e, depois de ter elaborado outro protesto espirituoso, reclamando da indignidade com que sua petição havia sido tratada, os comissários, confiados para aquela parte do condado, deram comissão a O Coronel Robert Hammond para levantar um regimento de pé, e o Coronel Hatton para levantar um regimento de cavalos: seu encontro foi em Barham-down, onde, no dia seguinte, o Coronel Hammond veio, com 300 pés, bem equipado e armado e o coronel Hatton, com cerca de 60 cavalos.

Este coronel Robert Hammond era uma pessoa muito diferente do governador de Carisbrooke-Castle, que se casou com a irmã de Hampden e com quem foi confundido por ignorância. Ele era tio de Anthony Hammond, de St. Alban's, em Nonington esq. e posteriormente foi governador do castelo de Gowran, na Irlanda, onde foi vergonhosamente baleado por Cromwell. [Veja os erros em Memórias de Cromwell de Noble, II. p. i22.]. O coronel Robert Hatton era filho de Sir Robert Hatton, de Oswalds, em Bishopsbourne, knt. que morreu em 10 de janeiro de 1653, deixando também uma filha, Elizabeth, que se casou com Sir Anthony Aucher. O coronel Hatton morreu em 1658 e foi sepultado em Bourne em 19 de outubro. De Barham-down, onde a maioria da nobreza do condado os encontrou. O coronel Hammond e o coronel Hatton marcharam com seus homens para os aposentos em Dover. “E Sir Richard Hardres, Sir Anthony Aucher e o Sr. Anthony Hammond, juízes de paz, e homens tão vigorosos, tão reais e tão indulgentemente industriosos na propagação do noivado quanto os homens podiam ser, com o Sr. Thomas Peake , marchou para Sandwich. ” Aqui eles encontraram um impostor, que se autodenominava Príncipe de Gales; e aqui eles tiveram a oportunidade de enviar cópias de sua petição à Frota. Uma convocação foi enviada para o castelo de Dover para se render, bater em vão e o mesmo para os castelos de Deal e Walmer. Cartas também foram enviadas à França e à Holanda, para trazer mais de 10.000 homens. Agora, "os comissários, com o resto dos cavalheiros, marcharam em direção a Deal, carregando com eles o regimento do Coronel Hammond, sendo neste momento completado a mil, bem armados, e perfeitamente resolvidos, com cores voando, de branco, respondendo à cândida inocência de um compromisso de pacificação e do Coronel: o cavalo de Hatton, com alguns dragões: os cavalheiros, com cerca de quarenta anos, foram ordenadamente reunidos em uma tropa e, marchando assim por todo o caminho até os Downs, deram um grande aparência bonita, tanto para o país de um lado, quanto para os navios ancorados em Downs, do outro, o que encorajava ambos e desanimava também os castelos, então com um tratado de rendição ”. Deal os recebeu com alegria: seu castelo e o de Walmer foram entregues, e a frota abraçou sua causa. Eles agora marcharam para Sandwich, deixando o Sr. A. Hammond e o Capitão Bargrave em Deal para lidar com o fugitivo, para o qual também enviaram a Sir John Mennes e o Capitão Fogg, dois oficiais da marinha, que haviam sido deslocados por sua lealdade . De Sandwich eles marcharam para Canterbury e “naquela noite, sendo domingo à noite, eles alojaram-se em Canterbury, não perdendo nenhuma oportunidade, ou minuto, sem uma melhoria da melhor vantagem, no dia seguinte sendo nomeados para seu encontro em Rochester . Aqui vieram muitos cavalheiros, e outros, para se juntar a eles, que não estavam de todo comprometidos antes, a não ser contra nós, entre os outros, Sir John Roberts, e um ou dois vice-tenentes mais, que assinaram a petição e assinaram ao empréstimo de dinheiro, embora eles já tivessem se comprometido, com o resto do Comitê, contra a petição, mas sim como médicos, que por um interesse particular são ágeis para ajudar e agradar aos outros, para lucrar, do que por um afeto cordial a uma empresa tão justa e honesta. ” Aqui o coronel Hammond completou seu regimento e, nessa época, o conde de Thanet mostrou grande atividade sobre Ashford, Hothfield e Charing, embora depois tenha apostatado. Este pequeno exército agora marchou para Rochester, e parte até avançou até Dartford quando, com um boato de que Lorde Fairfax estava avançando contra eles, eles voltaram para Rochester. The next day, the whole met at a rendezvous at Barming-down, near Maidstone, where the Earl of Norwich was chosen general, and whence they marched back into quarters, contrary to the General’s opinion, who advised that the whole should remain together in the field but the Council of war determining otherwise, the General, with a large body, returned to “Rochester, where Sir Anthony Aucher and Mr. Hales left them, intending to return the next day: but, alas! in the night, Lord Fairfax marched down upon the party remaining at Maidstone, consisting of the regiments of Sir John Mayney and Sir William Brockman, who, notwithstanding a most gallant resistance, were beaten, before the news reached the main army who however, on the first rumour, were drawn out, and had actually begun their march. Had the whole remained together at Maidstone, perhaps the fate of the King and kingdom might have been turned by it! On this intelligence, Col Hammond and Col. Hatton were ordered back to Sittingbourne, and afterwards to remain at Canterbury, where Sir Richard Hardres was prevailed on to return, to secure the Eastern parts for Major Osborn, whose name is altered by a pen, in my book to Gibbon, and whom I strongly suspect to he Mr. Thomas Gibbon the elder, of Westcliffe, an officer of the Parliament, was already in those parts, with a troop of horse, securing Sir Michael Livesay, who was raising all the force he could thereabouts. The Earl of Norwich now pushed on, with the remainder of his army, to Greenwich, whence, after some difficulties, they crossed the Thames, and got to Colchester of which the subsequent surrender, with the melancholy fates of Sir Charles Lucas, Sir George Lisle, and the Lord Capel, are well known”.


Fontes primárias

(1) John Milton, The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649)

Surely they that shall boast, as we do, to be a free nation, and not have in themselves the power to remove or to abolish any governor supreme, or subordinate, with the government itself upon urgent causes, may please their fancy with a ridiculous and painted freedom, fit to cozen babies but are indeed under tyranny and servitude, as wanting that power which is the root and source of all liberty, to dispose and economise in the land which God hath given them, as masters of family in their own house and free inheritance. Without which natural and essential power of a free nation, though bearing high their heads, they can in due esteem be thought no better than slaves and vassals born, in the tenure and occupation of another inheriting lord, whose government, though not illegal or intolerable, hangs over them as a lordly scourge, not as a free government - and therefore to be abrogated.

Though perhaps till now no protestant state or kingdom can be alleged to have openly put to death their king, which lately some have written and imputed to their great glory, much mistaking the matter, it is not, neither ought to be, the glory of a Protestant state never to have put their king to death it is the glory of a Protestant king never to have deserved death. And if the parliament and military council do what they do without precedent, if it appear their duty, it argues the more wisdom, virtue, and magnanimity, that they know themselves able to be a precedent to others who perhaps in future ages, if they prove not too degenerate, will look up with honour and aspire towards these exemplary and matchless deeds of their ancestors, as to the highest top of their civil glory and emulation which heretofore, in the pursuance of fame and foreign dominion, spent itself vaingloriously abroad, but henceforth may learn a better fortitude - to dare execute highest justice on them that shall by force of arms endeavour the oppressing and bereaving of religion and their liberty at home: that no unbridled potentate or tyrant, but to his sorrow, for the future may presume such high and irresponsible licence over mankind, to havoc and turn upside down whole kingdoms of men, as though they were no more in respect of his perverse will than a nation of pismires.

(2) John Lilburne, Richard Overton and Thomas Prince, Englands New Chains Discovered (March, 1649)

If our hearts were not over-charged with the sense of the present miseries and approaching dangers of the Nation, your small regard to our late serious apprehensions, would have kept us silent but the misery, danger, and bondage threatened is so great, imminent, and apparent that whilst we have breath, and are not violently restrained, we cannot but speak, and even cry aloud, until you hear us, or God be pleased otherwise to relieve us.

Removing the King, the taking away the House of Lords, the overawing the House, and reducing it to that pass, that it is become but the Channel, through which is conveyed all the Decrees and Determinations of a private Council of some few Officers, the erecting of their Court of Justice, and their Council of State, The Voting of the People of Supreme Power, and this House the Supreme Authority: all these particulars, (though many of them in order to good ends, have been desired by well-affected people) are yet become, (as they have managed them) of sole conducement to their ends and intents, either by removing such as stood in the way between them and power, wealth or command of the Commonwealth or by actually possessing and investing them in the same.

They may talk of freedom, but what freedom indeed is there so long as they stop the Press, which is indeed and hath been so accounted in all free Nations, the most essential part thereof, employing an Apostate Judas for executioner therein who hath been twice burnt in the hand a wretched fellow, that even the Bishops and Star Chamber would have shamed to own. What freedom is there left, when honest and worthy Soldiers are sentenced and enforced to ride the horse with their faces reverst, and their swords broken over their heads for but petitioning and presenting a letter in justification of their liberty therein? If this be not a new way of breaking the spirits of the English, which Strafford and Canterbury never dreamt of, we know no difference of things.

(3) Gerrard Winstanley, The Law of Freedom (1652)

Kingly government governs the earth by that cheating art of buying and selling, and thereby becomes a man of contention his hand is against every man, and every man's hand against him. And take this government at the best, it is a diseased government and the very City Babylon, full of confusion, and if it had not a club law to support it there would be no order in it, because it is the covetous and proud will of a conqueror, enslaving the conquered people.

This kingly government is he who beats pruning hooks and ploughs into spears, guns, swords, and instruments of war that he might take his younger brother's creational birth-right from him, calling the earth his, and not his brother's, unless his brother will hire the earth of him so that he may live idle and at ease by his brother's labours.

Indeed this government may well be called the government of highwaymen, who hath stolen the earth from the younger brethren by force, and holds it from them by force. He sheds blood not to free the people from oppression, but that he may be king and ruler over an oppressed people.

Commonwealth's government governs the earth without buying and selling and thereby becomes a man of peace, and the restorer of ancient peace and freedom. He makes provision for the oppressed, the weak and the simple, as well as for the rich, the wise and the strong. He beats swords and spears into pruning hooks and ploughs. He makes both elder and younger brother freemen in the earth.

(4) Gerrard Winstanley, The Law of Freedom (1652)

When public officers remain long in place of judicature they will degenerate from the bounds of humility, honesty and tender care of brethren, in regard the heart of man is so subject to be overspread with the clouds of covetousness, pride, vain glory. For though at first entrance into places of rule they be of public spirit, seeking the freedom of others as their own yet continuing long in such a place, where honours and greatness is coming in, they become selfish, seeking themselves and not common freedom as experience proves it true in these days, according to this common proverb, Great offices in a land and army have changed the disposition of many sweet-spirited men.

And nature tells us that if water stands long it corrupts whereas running water keeps sweet and is fit for common use. Therefore as the necessity of common preservation moves the people to frame a law, and to choose officers to see the law obeyed, that they may live in peace: so doth the same necessity bid the people, and cries aloud in the ears and eyes of England, to choose new officers and to remove old ones, and to choose state officers every year.

The Commonwealth hereby will be furnished with able and experienced men, fit to govern, which will mightily advance the honour and peace of our land, occasion the more watchful care in the education of children, and in time will make our Commonwealth of England the lily among the nations of the earth.

(5) Oliver Cromwell commenting on the activities of the Levellers and the Diggers (1649)

What is the purport of the levelling principle but to make the tenant as liberal a fortune as the landlord. I was by birth a gentleman. You must cut these people in pieces or they will cut you in pieces.

(6) John Milton, The Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth (1660)

If we prefer a free government, though for the present not obtained, yet all those suggested fears and difficulties, as the event will prove, easily overcome, we remain finally secure from the exasperated regal power, and out of snares shall retain the best part of our liberty, which is our religion, and the civil part will be from these who defer us, much more easily recovered, being neither so subtle nor so awful as a king reinthroned. Nor were their actions less both at home and abroad, than might become the hopes of a glorious rising commonwealth: nor were the expressions both of army and people, whether in their public declarations or several writings, other than such as testified a spirit in this nation, no less noble and well-fitted to the liberty of a commonwealth, than in the ancient Greeks or Romans. Nor was the heroic cause unsuccessfully defended to all Christendom, against the tongue of a famous and thought invincible adversary nor the constancy and fortitude, that so nobly vindicated our liberty, our victory at once against two the most prevailing usurpers over mankind, superstition and tyranny, unpraised or uncelebrated in a written monument, likely to outlive detraction, as it hath hitherto convinced or silenced not a few of our detractors, especially in part abroad.

After our liberty and religion thus prosperously fought for, gained, and many years possessed, except in those unhappy interruptions, which God hath removed now that nothing remains, but in all reason the certain hopes of a speedy and immediate settlement for ever in a firm and Besides this, if we return to kingship, and soon repent (as undoubtedly we shall, when we begin to find the old encroachment coming on by little and little upon our consciences, which must necessarily proceed from king and bishop united inseparably in one interest), we may be forced perhaps to fight over again all that we have fought, and spend over again all that we have spent, but are never like to attain thus far as we are now advanced to the recovery of our freedom, never to have it in possession as we now have it, never to be vouchsafed hereafter the like mercies and signal assistances from Heaven in our cause, if by our ungraceful backsliding we make these fruitless flying now to regal concessions from his divine condescensions and gracious answers to our once importuning prayers against the tyranny which we then groaned under making vain and viler than dirt the blood of so many thousand faithful and valiant Englishmen, who left us this liberty, bought with their lives losing by a strange after-game of folly all the battles we have won, together with all Scotland as to our conquest, hereby lost, which never any of our kings could conquer, all the treasure we have spent, not that corruptible treasure only, but that far more precious of all our late miraculous deliverances treading back again with lost labour all our happy steps in the progress of reformation, and most pitifully depriving ourselves the instant fruition of that free government, which we have so dearly purchased, a free commonwealth.

(7) Edmund Ludlow, Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow (c. 1680)

In the mean time the Major-Generals carried things with unheard of insolence in their several precincts, decimating to extremity whom they pleased, and interrupting the proceedings at law upon petitions of those who pretended themselves aggrieved threatening such as would not yield a ready submission to their orders, with transportation to Jamaica or some other plantations in the West Indies and suffering none to escape their persecution, but those that would betray their own party, by discovering the persons that had acted with them or for them.

(8) Christopher Hill, O Inglês de Deus: Oliver Cromwell e a Revolução Inglesa (1970)

After the failure of his first Parliament and some unsuccessful royalist and republican conspiracies in the early months of 1655, Oliver accepted his generals' scheme for direct military rule. The country was divided into eleven districts, and over each a Major-General was set, to command the local militia as well as his own regular troops.

The Major-Generals took over many of the functions of Lords Lieutenants, formerly agents of the Privy Council in the counties. But their social role was very different. Lords Lieutenants had been the leading aristocrats of the county. Some Major-Generals were low-born upstarts, many came from outside the county: all had troops of horse behind them to make their commands effective. This was the more galling at a time when many of the traditional county families were beginning to benefit economically from the restoration of law, order and social subordination. The rule of the Major-Generals seemed to them to jeopardize all of these. There was not much temptation to return to local government under such circumstances.

The Major-Generals interfered, on security grounds, with simple country pleasures like horse-racing, bear-baiting, and cock-fighting. The Major-Generals were instructed not only to set the poor on work - the JPs' job anyway - but to consider by what means "idle and loose people" with "no visible way of livelihood, nor calling or employment. may be compelled to work". They were to see that JPs enforced the legislation of the Long Parliament (and indeed of the Parliaments of the 1620s) against drunkenness, blasphemy and sabbath-breaking - offences which the justices were ready enough to punish in the lower orders, but in them only. The Major-Generals were to make all men responsible for the good behaviour of their servants. They were to take the initiative against any "notorious breach of the peace'. They were to interfere in the licensing of alehouses - a matter on which the House of Commons had defeated even the great Duke of Buckingham. They also interfered, often quite effectively, against corrupt oligarchies in towns. They had little confidence in juries of gentlemen and well-to-do freeholders, and Cromwell himself shared the prejudice. Above all they took control of the militia, the army of the gentry, away from the "natural rulers". Quite apart from the latter's objections to having their running of local government supervised, controlled and driven, the whole operation was very costly. At least justices of the peace and deputy-lieutenants were unpaid.

(9) Peter Laslett, The World We Have Lost (1965) page 42

During the Commonwealth, at the height of what is usually called the English Revolution, the House of Lords was abolished. It is a remarkable fact that the peers as a status group were entirely unaffected by the fundamental change in the political constitution of the country. Those that did not go into exile with the royalists, went on living in their magnificent seats, enjoying their social and apparently all their other privileges, even some of their political eminence as individuals. Cromwell's government continued to address them by their titles and ended by attempting to create its own class of peers. This is eloquent testimony to the apparently indispensable function of the English peerage in the traditional English social structure and to the extent to which their order existed independently of the House of Lords itself.

(10) A. L. Morton, A People's History of England (1938)

Under the influence, temporarily, of General Harrison and the Fifth Monarchy men, and disgusted by the war policy of the merchants, Cromwell agreed to the calling of an Assembly of Nominees (known later as Barebone's Parliament) consisting 140 men chosen by the Independent ministers and congregations. It was a frankly party assembly, the rule of the saints, or that sober and respectable Independent middle and lower middle class which, in the country districts, had not been deeply influenced by the Levellers and remained to the end the most constant force behind the Commonwealth. The assembly soon proved too revolutionary and radical in its measures for Cromwell. After sitting five months it was dissolved in December, 1653, to make way for a new parliament for which the right wing group of officers around Lambert had prepared a brand new paper constitution - the Instrument of Government.

This constitution aimed ostensibly at securing a balance of power between Cromwell, now given the title of Lord Protector, the Council and parliament. The latter included the first time members from Scotland and Ireland and there was a redistribution of seats to give more members to the counties. Against this, the franchise was restricted to those who possessed the very high property qualification of £200 and by the disqualification of all who had taken part in the Civil Wars on the royalist side. The new parliament was thus anything but a popular or representative body, but this did not prevent it from refusing to play the part assigned to it, that of providing a constitutional cover for the group of high officers now controlling the Army. The parliament of the right proved as intractable as the parliament of the left had been and dissolved at the earliest possible moment in January 1655.

The country was divided into eleven districts, each under the control of a major-general. Strong measures were taken against the royalists, and it is from this period that much of the repressive legislation traditionally associated with Puritan rule dates. It should, however, be noted that the major-generals were often merely enforcing legislation of the preceding decade or even earlier. What the gentry most resented was forcible interference with the JPs in running local government as best pleased them.

(11) Gerald E. Aylmer, Rebelião ou revolução: a Inglaterra da Guerra Civil à Restauração (1986) page 174

The full system was in operation for something over a year, from the autumn of 1655 until the mid-winter of 1656-7. It is clear, both from their surviving correspondence with the Protector and his Secretary of State and from local government records where these are available, that some of the Major-Generals were more active than others some were tenderer towards royalists in their handling of the decimation tax, others took less part in local government as JPs and left alehouses and cruel sports to the ordinary magistrates in their counties. Hid their unpopularity was not an invention of post-Restoration royalist propaganda, as is evident from what happened in the next parliament. Most of them were outsiders to the areas where they were in charge, and a large proportion of them were self-made men below the social status and landed wealth of those who would normally have been JPs in most counties. Above all the decimation tax, whatever its intentions and whatever its justification in ex-Cavalier support for Penruddock's and other plots, looked like a return to the penal taxation of the 1640s and a breach of the 1652 Pardon and Oblivion Act.

(12) Hyman Fagan, The Commoners of England (1958) page 134

As long as he lived, the Commonwealth continued, for he was a very capable man and an able politician. During his rule the army remained loyal to him but when he died in 1658, all the disagreements came to the surface. Faced with a threatened revolt, the upper classes decided to restore the monarchy which, they thought, would bring stability to the country. The army again intervened in politics, but this time it opposed the Commonwealth. Its Commander-in-Chief, General Monk, went over to those who were planning to restore the king.

The restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660 was the decision of all the property-owning classes-the old nobility, the new nobility, the commercial interests and the manufacturers. For these classes, the land question had been solved. Land could now be bought and sold without restriction as any other commodity. The barriers to trade and commerce had been destroyed. The English Revolution had achieved its objective of sweeping away the barriers which were preventing the rise of the new system.

The English Revolution, during its first phase, shattered the bonds of feudalism, and laid the foundation for the new system of capitalism. The restoration was not a defeat of the English Revolution it consolidated the power of the commercial classes, Only the aims of the Levellers and Diggers had not been achieved. Although the king was restored to the throne the powers of Charles II were entirely different from those of Charles I. He ruled with limited powers, controlled by the commercial class. The Restoration showed the strength the new middle class, not its weakness, and was a sequel to the revolution. Indeed, as one writer puts it, although Charles II was called king by the Grace of God, in reality he was king by the merchants and squires.

The newly restored ruling class took revenge on the most active men of the English Revolution, as ruling classes have done throughout history. They took a gruesome revenge on Cromwell. They dug up his corpse in Westminster Abbey, dragged it through the streets, and hung it in chains on Tyburn gibbet. The condemned rebels went undaunted, to their death. On the way to the scaffold, Major-General Harrison of the New Model Army said: "I go to suffer upon the account of the most glorious cause that ever was in the world."


The Third English Civil War 1649-1651

The execution of Charles I did not sit well with the Scottish parliament and, in a direct snub to the newly formed Commonwealth south of the border, they declared the exiled Charles II King of Great Britain and Ireland. There was a condition, however, and this was that he agreed to Presbyterian Church rule across Britain before being allowed to land in Scotland.

Charles tried to improve his bargaining position by encouraging the Royalist champion, the Earl of Montrose, to come out of exile and raise a force once more. This Montrose did, but rather than a ‘threatening’ force he invaded Scotland with a small army and tried to recruit once more amongst the Highland clans. This plan never really got off the ground and his outnumbered army was destroyed at Carbisdale in April 1650. Charles abandoned Montrose to his fate, and the brave Earl was summarily executed in Edinburgh.

Shortly after this sad act had played out, Charles signed the Solemn League and Covenant and gained the support of the Scottish parliament and their covenanter armies. Cromwell now rightly saw Charles II as the major threat to the new Commonwealth and left Ireland in the hands of his subordinates to lead an army north to confront the Scottish.

The Battle of Dunbar, courtesy of Osprey Publishing

The armies met at the Battle of Dunbar in September 1650 where the outnumbered Parliamentarian forces were victorious and Cromwell went on to occupy much of southern Scotland.

Early the following year Charles was officially crowned King of Scotland, but by this time was frustrated by the lack of unity in the Scottish Parliament and so looked south for more Royalist support. After another defeat at the hands of Cromwell’s New Model Army at Inverkeithing in July 1651, Charles marched south across the border at the head of a small Scottish force and headed to the west of England. This was a traditionally Royalist area and the hope was that many English troops would flock to his banner. The support failed to materialise in the numbers needed and Cromwell defeated Charles at the Battle of Worcester in September 1651.

Charles was forced once more into exile, spending the weeks after Worcester evading capture in disguise. Moving through different safe houses and famously hiding out in an oak tree, Charles finally made it to the coast and escaped to France. This effectively ended the English Civil Wars.


A History of the Apocalypse – 6.3. The sectarianism of the English Civil War

In 1625 Charles I took the throne of England as the successor of James I, and his reign proved to be an endless struggle between Royalty and the Parliament. It was a period marked by conflicts, plots, assassinations, intrigues, open violence and street movements. Between 1629 and 1640 the king managed to obtain absolute power and he ruled England without the Parliament, but he gradually lost the loyalty of his supporters. As a result, amid the political and religious dissensions, in 1642 the English Civil War erupted.

The first part of the war, between 1642 and 1646, and the second part, between 1648 and 1649, were characterized by the instigation of the supporters of Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament. The third part of the war, between 1649 and 1651, consisted in the fight between the supporters of Charles II and the supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War led to the execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II and the replacing of the monarchy with the republican governments. In 1649 the Commonwealth was instituted until 1653, followed afterwards by two Protectorates of Oliver Cromwell and Richard Cromwell. The Civil War ended with the victory of the Parliament at the Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651. The Commonwealth was briefly reestablished between 1659 and 1660, before the restoration of the monarchy in the person of Charles II.

Between the collapse of the totalitarian-monarchical system of government and the establishment of the parliamentary one, 1640-1680 were years of unprecedented freedom. Stimulated by the fall of the old certainties and by millennial enthusiasm, by the possibility to freely meet and discuss, English society was experiencing the most diverse feelings. For some like John Milton the nation was heading toward a glorious destiny. During the Interregnum the poet depicted England as being saved from the traps of a worldly monarchy, as a new chosen nation of God, led by a Moses of the last days in the person of Oliver Cromwell. 561 Such expectations shaped the convenient notion that the Millennium would be first established in England, and only after that in the rest of the world. 562 For others, the anticipated collapse of England was a prelude for the collapse of the world. 563 Either way, the sense of social dissolution, the installation of chaos on all the levels of society and the fall of the Episcopal system gave rise to a wide range of discussions about how society should be restructured.

The philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke built systems of political philosophy. Leviatã (1651) and Two Treaties of Government (1689) promoted systems of government based on human reason. 564 Oliver Cromwell had the ambition to govern with a plutocratic parliament voted by an electorate of the rich. But back then the common Englishmen saw politics and religion as brother and sister and they thought about politics in religious terms. The Royalists wished to crown Charles II and to maintain monarchism according to the biblical tradition started by Saul and David, in contrast to parliament, which has no biblical support and is a purely human creation. Groups such as the Fifth Monarchists instigated for the establishment of a theocracy in order to prepare the path for Parousia. Gerrard Winstanley’s Diggers defended a radical-agrarian solution, while for others, such as Colonel Thomas Harrison or Lieutenant Colonel William Goffe, adopting one political system or another was irrelevant because God was about to come and establish his own order. 565

The turmoil of the English Civil War was the promised land for dissident political-religious groups because the overthrow of the monarchy significantly weakened the Anglican censorship. These groups were not political parties in the way they are understood today, but people gathered around certain beliefs. More precisely, they were a combination between political party, sect and secret society. Most of them had been founded before the Civil War, but they took advantage of the social chaos to come forward and make themselves heard. And, even though they supported different points of view, their rhetoric was similar. Furthermore, the individual allegiance to one group or another was very fluid, with the possibility to… (This text is incomplete. If you wish to read it in full, please purchase the book)


The Battle of Preston

The Battle of Preston destroyed the Royalists’ chances of success in the English Civil War. The victory of the Parliamentarians under the command of Oliver Cromwell over the Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton, meant it was the last battle of the English Civil War.

In April 1648, Marmaduke Langdale had led a group of Scots across the border to capture Berqick and Carlisle. On 8 July, the Marquis of Hamilton commanded a larger force into into Carlisle. This meant that by July, men were prepared to march south in support of the Royalist cause However, Scottish advance experienced delays which allowed the Parliamentarian force to cross the Pennines east to attack the invaders.

After Pembroke Castle fell to Cromwell on 11 July, more men were available to march north and support Lambert.

Battle of Preston

However, the Parliamentarian forces faced a stronger amy. Hamilton’s troops numbered 20,000, while Cromwell only had 9,000.

But Cromwell’s smaller army was disciplined, putting it in a superior position to the Scots’ army, which was dispersed over 20 miles. Although Hamilton’s cavalry had the advantage of travelling by horse, the units were disorganised and the terrain was not conducive to speedy travel. what’s more, the rain made the ground boggier than normal.

On 17 August Cromwell launched an attack on the infantry at the rear of Hamilton’s army.

The fighting in Preston was vicious. Hamilton soon realised that keeping his force dispersed over such a large distance was a big mistake. The fighting on 17 August at Preston killed thousands of the Scots’ troops.

The night of 17 August was extremely wet and the Scots who were still in the field were suffering from the damp and hunger. About 4,000 Scots laid down their weapons at Warrington instead of fighting a smaller Parliamentarian force. Hamilton surrendered his forces at Uttoxeter to John Lambert when his men refused to march.

Those soldiers who had volunteered to join Hamilton’s army were harshly treated by the Parliamentarian army. Many were sent as virtual slaves to the plantations in Barbados and Virginia. Those conscripted into the army were sent home.

The battle was a huge setback for Charles, who had lost his power-base in England, Wales, Ireland or Scotland.


On 16 August 1648 Oliver Cromwell and John Lambert, an English Parliamentary general and politician, marched down the valley of the Ribble towards Preston. They marched with the knowledge of the enemy, Hamilton's, dispositions and with intent to attack. Militia of Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland and Lancashire marched with them, alongside the Army. Despite this, they were still slightly outnumbered, having only 8,600 men and Hamilton having around 9,000. Hamilton's men, however, were mainly scattered along the road from Lancaster through Preston, towards Wigan.

Langdale, advanced guard for the Scots, called in his advanced parties on the night of 13 August and collected them near Longridge. Whether or not Langdale reported the advance of Cromwell is unknown, however, if he did then it appears Hamilton ignored the report. On 17 August Sir George Monro was with the Scots from Ulster and a half day's march to the north and Langdale was to the east of Preston.

After giving into the begging of his lieutenant-general, Hamilton sent Baillie across the Ribble to follow the main body just as Langdale, with 3,000 men and 500 horses, met the shock of Cromwell's attack on Preston Moor (now Moor Park). After four hours struggle Langdale's men were driven to the Ribble.

The Battle of Preston was fought in boggy terrain. With many of Hamilton's force based in Preston and the rest spread out over a large distance, Cromwell bludgeoned the Scots into submission. The fighting in Preston was considered bloody, even by the standards of the English Civil War.

The battle continued on 18 August, with many of the Scot's wet, hungry and their ammunition damp from the rain. This led to the Scots laying down their weapons at Warrington. Hamilton marched his men south away from Preston and was pursued through Wigan and Winwick to Uttoxeter and Ashbourne. It was there that the remnants of the Scottish army laid down its arms on 25 August.

The Battle of Preston was ultimately the finishing blow to the Royalist hopes in the Second Civil War.


English Civil Wars Causes

One of the primary reasons that caused the wars was the personality of Charles I. He believed in the divine rights of the kings could never accept the notion that a king can do anything wrong. Charles had seen the kind of relation to his father, James shared with the Parliament.

It was since then that he had thought that Parliament was wrong and during his tenure, he was known to argue with the Parliament on many matters. Charles did not allow the Parliament to meet for as long as eleven years. However, by 1642, Charles was forced to do what the Parliament said as they had the power to raise funds.

The biggest blow in the relation between the Parliament and Charles was in 1642 when he sent soldiers to arrest five of the Parliamentarians. This act of Charles to arrest the members of Parliament is said to have triggered the civil wars.


Assista o vídeo: La guerra de las dos rosas, guerra civil inglesa. (Outubro 2022).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos