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Geografia da Índia - História

Geografia da Índia - História


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ÍNDIA

A Índia está localizada no sul da Ásia, fazendo fronteira com o Mar da Arábia e a Baía de Bengala, entre a Birmânia e o Paquistão.

A massa terrestre total da Índia é 2.973.190 quilômetros quadrados e está dividida em três regiões geológicas principais: a planície indo-gangética, o Himalaia e a região da Península. A Planície Indo-Gangética e aquelas porções do Himalaia dentro da Índia são conhecidas coletivamente como Norte da Índia. Sul
A Índia consiste na região peninsular, freqüentemente denominada simplesmente Península. Com base em sua fisiografia, a Índia é dividida em dez regiões: o
Planície Indo-Gangética, as montanhas do norte do Himalaia, as Terras Altas Centrais, o Deccan ou Planalto Peninsular, a Costa Leste (Coromandel
Costa no sul), a Costa Oeste (costas de Konkan, Kankara e Malabar), o Grande Deserto Indiano (uma característica geográfica conhecida como Deserto de Thar em
Paquistão) e o Rann de Kutch, o vale do Brahmaputra em Assam, as cordilheiras do nordeste que cercam o Vale de Assam e as ilhas de
o Mar da Arábia e a Baía de Bengala.


Clima: O Himalaia isola o Sul da Ásia do resto da Ásia. Ao sul dessas montanhas, o clima, assim como o terreno, é altamente diverso, mas alguns geógrafos dão a ele uma caracterização geral de uma palavra - violento. O que os geógrafos têm em mente é a brusquidão da mudança e a intensidade do efeito quando a mudança ocorre - o início das chuvas das monções, enchentes repentinas, erosão rápida, extremos de temperatura, tempestades tropicais e flutuações imprevisíveis nas chuvas. Em termos gerais, a agricultura na Índia é constantemente desafiada pela incerteza do clima.

É possível identificar as estações, embora não ocorram de maneira uniforme em todo o sul da Ásia. O Serviço Meteorológico Indiano divide o ano em quatro estações: o inverno relativamente seco e frio de dezembro a fevereiro; o verão quente e seco de março a maio; as monções do sudoeste de junho a setembro, quando os ventos marítimos predominantes do sudoeste trazem chuvas para a maior parte do país; e no nordeste, ou recuando, as monções de outubro e novembro.

A monção sudoeste sopra do mar para a terra. A monção sudoeste geralmente quebra na costa oeste no início de junho e atinge a maior parte do sul da Ásia na primeira semana de julho (ver fig. 6). Por causa da importância crítica das chuvas das monções para a produção agrícola, as previsões da data de chegada das monções são observadas com atenção por planejadores do governo e agrônomos que precisam determinar as datas ideais para o plantio.

MAPA DE PAÍS


Efeitos da geografia na história da Índia

Os pontos a seguir destacam os oito principais efeitos da geografia na história da Índia. Os efeitos são: 1. Diferentes zonas locais, unidades políticas e culturais 2. O deserto de Thar tornou a defesa dos índios difícil 3. Isolamento da Índia 4. Negligência de Defesa 5. Preservação da cultura indígena primitiva 6. Impacto do Clima 7. Ausência de forte poder naval 8. Desenvolvimento de Belas Artes.

Efeito # 1. Diferentes zonas locais, unidades políticas e culturais:

As variadas características físicas do subcontinente indiano levaram à formação de diferentes zonas locais, unidades políticas e culturais. Por conta da diferença nas características físicas e barreiras naturais, a Índia passou a ser dividida em diferentes unidades políticas e culturais.

O norte da Índia, o planalto de Deccan, os planos peninsulares e os Ghats - todos possuem características políticas e sociais especiais próprias, que são bastante distintas umas das outras. A civilização ariana não pôde exercer muita influência sobre o Deccan. No Extremo Sul, a linguagem, os costumes e as idéias dos não-arianos continuaram a dominar.

Efeito # 2. O deserto de Thar tornou a defesa dos índios difícil:

O deserto de Thar, que fica entre as planícies do Vale do Indo e o Ganges, também afetou muito o curso da história da Índia. Como o deserto de Thar separa essas duas regiões em duas unidades diferentes, a Defesa Indiana foi enfraquecida. Isso beneficiou enormemente os invasores estrangeiros que chegaram à Índia pelas passagens nas montanhas do noroeste.

Como a maior parte das regiões indianas foi separada por esta região pelo grande deserto, os recursos do norte da Índia não puderam ser totalmente reunidos contra os invasores estrangeiros. Em vista da resistência limitada que lhes foi oferecida, os invasores obtiveram várias vitórias decisivas e chegaram até Delhi.

Efeito # 3. Isolamento da Índia:

A Índia foi separada do resto do mundo pelo Himalaia no Norte e pelo mar nos outros três lados. Como resultado, a Índia viveu isolada e desenvolveu seu próprio estilo de vida e desenvolvimento. Sem dúvida, algumas das culturas e civilizações estrangeiras encontraram seu caminho para a Índia através das passagens do norte, mas sua influência foi muito limitada.

Efeito # 4. Negligência de defesa:

A separação da Índia do resto do mundo por barreiras naturais deu ao povo da Índia antiga uma sensação de segurança e eles ignoraram completamente a defesa do país. Na verdade, eles nunca prestaram atenção à segurança de suas fronteiras. Isso inevitavelmente resultou em uma série de invasões na Índia do outro lado da fronteira. Essa negligência dos militares foi responsável pela escravidão do país pelos estrangeiros.

Efeito # 5. Preservação da cultura indígena primitiva:

O acesso a certas áreas tem sido tão difícil que elas permanecem completamente isoladas do resto do país. Os vastos desertos arenosos, as florestas intransponíveis e as altas cadeias de montanhas forneceram abrigo às tribos primitivas que foram expulsas das planícies.

Como essas áreas não podiam ser facilmente abordadas, as tribos primitivas selvagens continuaram a desenvolver sua própria cultura, que existe até hoje. Algumas das tribos primitivas proeminentes que existem até hoje incluem Bhils, Kols, Santhals, Gonds, etc. Essas tribos conseguiram manter suas características primitivas apenas por causa dos terrenos difíceis de sua área.

Efeito # 6. Impacto do clima:

O clima do país também exerceu grande influência no curso da história indiana. O clima tropical foi o grande responsável pelo fracasso dos índios em resistir aos invasores estrangeiros das regiões frias.

Os terrenos montanhosos do sul tornaram o povo de Maharashtra e Rajputana robusto. As pessoas que vivem nessas áreas tiveram que trabalhar duro para ganhar seu sustento e desenvolveram qualidades de guerreiro.

Essas pessoas resistiram fortemente a todas as tentativas de privá-los de sua liberdade. Isso se deve principalmente às condições físicas prevalecentes nesta região, de modo que os maratas e os rajputs foram capazes de oferecer uma forte resistência aos governantes de Delhi.

A variedade de clima que prevalece nas diferentes partes do país também exerceu grande influência no curso da história. Embora cidades ricas e prósperas existissem em abundância em Uttar Pradesh, Bengala e Bihar devido às boas chuvas, a fome atrapalhou muito a criação de cidades semelhantes em Rajasthan e Deccan.

Os rios que fluem do Himalaia ao longo do ano contribuíram muito para a prosperidade e o desenvolvimento das planícies, o que, de outra forma, teria transformado a Índia em um deserto. A fertilidade e a conseqüente riqueza do povo das planícies convidaram invasores estrangeiros à Índia.

Mahmud Ghaznavi e Muhammad Ghori atacaram esta região várias vezes e levaram enormes quantidades de ouro, prata, diamantes e outros artigos valiosos sempre que atacaram esta região. Esta região também continuou a ser o campo de todas as atividades políticas e culturais e vários impérios importantes surgiram e caíram aqui.

A prosperidade e a riqueza da região também tornaram o povo amante da paz e luxuoso. As pessoas das montanhas Vindhya foram responsáveis ​​pela divisão do país em duas partes distintas - Norte e Sul. Essa divisão natural foi responsável por duas histórias distintas do norte e do sul. Em grande medida, isso também manteve o sul da Índia imune à turbulência política do norte.

Efeito # 7. Ausência de forte poder naval:

Embora a Índia tenha uma longa costa com mais de 3.000 milhas, ela nunca manteve uma Marinha forte para sua defesa. Sem dúvida, a Índia desenvolveu atividades culturais e comerciais e estabeleceu contato com o mundo exterior por meio dos mares, mas nunca pensou no domínio político dessas regiões.

Vários índios inspirados pelo espírito de empreendedorismo e aventura foram para a ilha vizinha, como Burma, Java, Sumatra Malai etc., para divulgar a cultura indiana.

Os antigos governantes do sul também deram todo incentivo possível ao desenvolvimento da Marinha. Mas todas essas atividades foram guiadas por motivos pacíficos e não foi sentida a necessidade da criação de uma força naval forte. Na verdade, os governantes indianos perceberam as dificuldades de estabelecer um império ultramarino e se concentraram principalmente na ambição militar dentro da Índia.

Efeito # 8. Desenvolvimento de Belas Artes:

A geografia da Índia também exerceu enorme influência na vida e nos hábitos das pessoas. Em vista da abundância de riquezas e outros recursos no país, os indianos não apenas desenvolveram o hábito de ficar em casa, mas também se tornaram uma vida fácil.

Essa riqueza e fertilidade do solo indígena proporcionou ao povo muito lazer e eles se dedicaram à promoção da arte e da literatura. A literatura védica é um dos tesouros mais valiosos de nosso país.

As artes e ofícios também fizeram um progresso notável. As relíquias do período Mauryan e Gupta são os melhores espécimes de arquitetura, escultura, pintura, etc. desse período. No domínio da literatura, os trabalhos mais notáveis ​​produzidos durante os tempos antigos foram o Arthashastra de Kautilya e os dramas de Kalidas.

Duas das universidades de renome mundial Taxila e Nalanda também floresceram nas partes do norte do país. Essas universidades também atraíram estudantes de vários países estrangeiros. Como a maioria dos índios estava livre das preocupações mundanas, eles naturalmente passaram muito tempo refletindo sobre os problemas da vida e da morte e desenvolveram um estado de espírito especulativo.

Isso explica a predominância do espiritualismo na cultura indiana. Novamente, apenas as partes do norte foram sujeitas a invasões e influências estrangeiras. O Sul, que não era facilmente acessível aos invasores estrangeiros, continuou a ser promotor da civilização e cultura indígenas.


Mapa dos Estados da Índia

A Índia está dividida em 28 estados e 8 Territórios da União. Os estados são: Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand e Bengala Ocidental. Os Territórios da União são: Ilhas Andaman e Nicobar, Chandigarh, Dadra e Nagar Haveli e Daman e Diu, Território da Capital Nacional de Delhi, Jammu e Caxemira, Ladakh, Lakshadweep e Puducherry.

Cobrindo uma área total de 3.287.263 km2, a Índia é o 7º maior e o 2º país mais populoso do mundo. Localizada na parte centro-norte do país, no Território da Capital Nacional de Delhi está Nova Delhi - a capital da Índia. Situada na costa oeste do país está Mumbai - a maior e mais populosa cidade da Índia. É também o principal porto do país e também o centro industrial e comercial.


Geografia da Índia Antiga

A Índia e os países vizinhos são tão semelhantes em cultura e condições climáticas que a região é às vezes chamada de subcontinente indiano. Nos tempos antigos, a geografia da Índia era um pouco diferente do que é hoje. Na parte norte da Índia estão as montanhas do Himalaia e o Hindu Kush no noroeste. A região sul da Índia é cercada por três corpos d'água. Eles são o Mar da Arábia ao sudoeste do Oceano Índico no lado sul e ao sudeste fica a Baía de Bengala.

Nos tempos antigos, a Índia era muito mais estendida ao noroeste e oeste (consistindo em partes do Paquistão e Afeganistão modernos). Os Himalaias ficam ao norte como são hoje. No período antigo, havia muitos outros rios além dos predefinidos. O mais importante deles era o rio Saraswati, que não é rastreável agora. A geografia da Índia é de grandes extremos, abrangendo deserto, montanhas, floresta e selva. Todos esses ambientes são suscetíveis a períodos imprevisíveis de enchentes, secas e monções.

Embora a Índia possa ter algumas das características geológicas e climáticas mais extremas, essas condições difíceis também foram um grande trunfo para o desenvolvimento das primeiras civilizações da Índia. O Himalaia fornecia uma grande proteção contra invasões nômades e militares do norte, e outras cadeias de montanhas forneciam proteção semelhante no oeste e no leste. Os cursos de água do vale do Indo forneceram uma excelente fonte de comércio e comércio em toda a história da Índia.


As grandes influências culturais na comida [editar |

A Índia sempre se caracterizou pelo sincretismo, com a variedade de práticas culturais oriundas dos diferentes cantos do continente se fundindo e sangrando. Isso significa que embora possa haver diferenças de pontos de vista, às vezes fortes, ainda há uma forte tendência a coexistir, adotar partes de outras culturas que são apreciadas e ignorar o resto da melhor maneira possível. Os dois maiores desenvolvimentos nos últimos milênios no que diz respeito a fortes influências na culinária são o surgimento de três religiões principais (hinduísmo, budismo e jainismo) e ainda mais recentemente o controle do império mogol (ou mogol) de 1526 a 1707.

O hinduísmo como religião remonta a vários milhares de anos, e em todo esse tempo se adaptou de várias maneiras para abranger uma filosofia indiana mais ampla com várias escolas de pensamento. Agora, vou reservar um comentário sobre esta área porque não sei muito e não quero fazer uma besteira total de mim mesmo, mas há um monte de informações interessantes por aí para ler para qualquer pessoa que gostaria gostaria de digeri-lo. Com relação à comida, um princípio central da religião hindu é Ahimsa, "não faça mal", uma influência motriz por trás da longa tradição da culinária vegetariana na Índia. Grande parte da população vive com alguma variação de uma restrição dietética vegetariana.

O consumo de carne também é comum, mais ainda entre as populações muçulmanas, mas quando a carne é consumida, normalmente se restringe a frutos do mar, cordeiro ou frango. Na verdade, o fast food é um grande sucesso na Índia agora. A KFC abriu vários locais e o Church's Chicken recentemente entrou no mercado. O McDonald's adaptou seu menu para incluir hambúrgueres de cordeiro e nuggets de vegetais para atender aos gostos locais. Sem carne, entretanto. Na maioria dos estados o abate de gado é proibido. Dito isso, ainda existe uma pequena tradição no consumo de carne bovina, que mencionarei na seção de Gujarat. A proibição do abate de carne bovina faz sentido, porém, porque as vacas são um alimento básico para o povo da Índia. De vacas, eles obtêm leite, iogurte, queijo paneer, óleos de cozinha (ghee) e esterco de vaca para fertilizar as plantações. O gado também é usado para tracção e trabalho agrícola. Todos esses fatores tornam a vaca uma parte muito importante do modo de vida indiano.

A maioria das tradições de preparação de carne e muitos outros pratos indianos, particularmente no norte da Índia, originam-se da influência do Império Mughal. A cultura predominante para este império muçulmano era persa. Sua presença na culinária indiana vem com o estilo da maioria das preparações de carne, bem como com os métodos de cozinhar pratos indianos em molhos espessos e gordurosos com temperos. Trouxeram o método de cozimento da carne ao estilo tandoori, em caroços no espeto. Os pratos de carne preparados dessa maneira eram normalmente espetinhos preparados em fornos de cova para assar. Outra maneira popular de preparar pratos de carne era fazer recheios / almôndegas, fritar e selar e cozinhá-los em algum tipo de curry. Mesmo assim, os governantes mogóis respeitavam o choque e o horror dos moradores com a ingestão de carne bovina e, portanto, o consumo de carne entre os muçulmanos ainda se limitava a cordeiro e aves. Os trechos do império em torno de Cabul, que já foi uma grande cidade mogol e agora capital do Afeganistão, abraçaram as tradições de comer carne bovina, mas não pegaram na Índia.

Então, em poucas palavras, a tradição culinária vegetal que remonta a 6 milênios com a religião hindu, e as técnicas culinárias e o consumo de carne fortemente influenciados pelos muçulmanos, o império mogol.


Influência da Geografia na História da Índia

Para formar uma imagem holística da Índia, & # 8211 é necessária uma tentativa de compreender e apreciar o papel da geografia e da ecologia em moldar o caráter e a psique dos indianos.

O que observamos é um ajuste harmonioso dos ambientes físicos e culturais.

Além disso, notamos que as características físicas do subcontinente facilitando a coexistência de diferentes níveis de culturas em diferentes regiões se devem às condições ecológicas e geográficas.

Fonte da imagem: 8dd4d2aa9263c5094bdf-9f7114a943e0980c1bc96778d91d93b7.r3.cf2.rackcdn.com/FA33F53E-A16D-4507-B629-0279042BC139.jpg

Também notamos a ausência de um padrão uniforme de cultura em toda a Índia em qualquer época. Nós nos deparamos com o fenômeno de culturas muito complexas coexistindo com outras em vários estágios de evolução em diferentes partes da Índia, ao longo de sua história, dependendo de sua configuração ecológica.

Outra característica notável é que as características físicas também regulam o sistema de comunicação, assim como os níveis culturais. Com base nas características físicas do subcontinente e no sistema de comunicação, deve-se notar que, enquanto as principais bacias hidrográficas constituíam as áreas de atração, as regiões tribais constituem as áreas de retardo.

As áreas de relativo isolamento situam-se entre as áreas de atração e retardo. Embora se concorde que a história de qualquer nação e seu ambiente são mutuamente complementares, deve-se ter em mente que o determinismo geográfico por si só não pode explicar o processo histórico de qualquer nação.

Pode-se concordar que as características geográficas desempenham um papel significativo, embora não sejam os motores principais do processo histórico. O principal motor do processo histórico é o homem, o animal social e o fabricante de ferramentas, ou o esforço consciente coletivo de todos os humanos desejosos da mudança necessária para tornar suas vidas melhores, mais pacíficas e mais felizes. Apesar disso, o conhecimento das características fisiográficas básicas da Índia é essencial para a compreensão do processo histórico.

O subcontinente indiano é dividido em:

(b) Planícies Indo-Gangéticas, e

Essas três divisões são subdivididas para melhor compreensão do processo histórico. Os Himalaias fornecem água perenemente para os três grandes sistemas & # 8211 Indus, Ganga e Brahmaputra e fornecem grandes quantidades de aluvião para as planícies. Portanto, da foz do Indo à foz do Ganges, temos uma planície aluvial espalhada por uma área de, cerca de 3.200 kms com uma largura de 320 kms.

Não é exagero sugerir que, enquanto as planícies do Indo testemunharam o florescimento da primeira civilização urbana do subcontinente, as planícies gangéticas desempenharam um papel crucial na sustentação e nutrição da vida urbana, estado e estrutura de poder imperial. As planícies indo-gangéticas e a Índia peninsular são separadas pela Índia central, cobrindo 1.600 km que se estendem de Gujarat a Orissa ocidental.

As colinas Aravali no Rajastão separam a planície do Indo da península. Esta zona compreende as cordilheiras de Vindhyan e Satpura e o planalto Chota Nagpur. A Índia peninsular forma a extremidade sul da Índia central.

Era uma massa de terra antiga e rochosa estável. Ele desce suavemente de oeste para leste. Quatro rios principais, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna e Kaveri fluem para a Baía de Bengala. Ao criar planícies aluviais, esses rios criaram áreas nucleares em planícies e deltas que sustentaram continuamente o crescimento cultural ao longo da história.

Os rios Narmada e Tapti fluem para o oeste e se juntam ao Mar da Arábia em Gujarat depois de percorrer uma longa distância na região montanhosa da Índia central. O planalto de Deccan começa aqui e se estende desde Vindhyas, no norte, até os limites do sul de Karnataka. O solo negro de Maharashtra e as partes adjacentes da Índia central são adequados para a agricultura com arado.

É muito interessante notar que, apesar das chuvas e instalações de irrigação inadequadas, a agricultura precoce começou no período Calcolítico no planalto de Deccan. O planalto de Deccan termina com os Gates Ocidentais no oeste e no leste é separado das planícies costeiras do leste pelos Gates Orientais.

As planícies costeiras orientais são mais largas do que as planícies costeiras ocidentais. Os ramos peninsulares básicos dos Gates Orientais são os Nilgiris e as colinas de cardamomo. Essas divisões geográficas são aproximadamente coincidentes com as regiões lingüísticas atuais.

Devido à variação ecológica e geográfica, o que percebemos é a biodiversidade e também a diversidade de estilos de vida em todo o subcontinente da Índia. Não é de admirar que o caráter e a atitude indianos em geral sejam influenciados pelos caprichos da natureza. Portanto, é um fato aceito que o padrão de desenvolvimento das culturas materiais na Índia é amplamente influenciado por fatores geográficos e ecológicos.

É por causa da localização geográfica do subcontinente. Como o subcontinente indiano é periférico ao Oriente, as influências orientais são claramente visíveis no padrão de desenvolvimento da cultura e, com o passar do tempo, essas influências foram absorvidas por uma cultura sintética da Índia.

Até 1922, acreditava-se que as raízes e os primórdios da civilização indiana residiam na obra dos arianos, que não eram nativos da Índia e que vieram para a Índia como migrantes. No entanto, a descoberta repentina da civilização Indo ou cultura Harappa em 1922 revelou que o início da vida civilizada pode ser rastreado até 5.000 anos aC.

Desde então, o debate tem ocorrido entre estudiosos estrangeiros e indianos sobre quem poderiam ser os construtores originais ou indígenas desta florescente cultura indígena urbana. Tornou-se uma questão controversa, levando a uma divisão aguda entre os estudiosos. Embora muitos acreditem que os construtores da civilização Harappa não sejam arianos e pré-arianos, ou dravidianos, nas últimas décadas o problema ariano reabriu e agora prevalece a visão de que os arianos eram nativos da Índia e a chamada invasão do Arianos é um mito e que Harappans também são arianos.

Esforços estão sendo feitos para levar a antiguidade da cultura Harappan de volta a 8.000 anos ou mais. Infelizmente, tornou-se um assunto tão disputado que os estudiosos e as pessoas em geral estão divididos em campos de guerra, jogando insinuações uns contra os outros, causando enormes danos à unidade e à solidariedade, o que é essencial para a sobrevivência de um sentimento de unidade. Não pode ser provado sem dúvida, que no passado distante, existiu ou uma raça ariana pura ou uma raça dravidiana pura e a cultura daquela época não pode ser rotulada como puramente ariana ou puramente dravidiana.

Estamos esquecendo que esta divisão ariana e dravidiana baseada em características raciais e linguagem, costume e tradição, é uma construção colonial inventada para necessidades estratégicas. Consciente ou inconscientemente, nos tornamos vítimas da construção egoísta e estreita dos senhores coloniais e estamos nos tornando alvo de chacota por não termos nos libertado da escravidão mental do Ocidente. Este é um dos maiores obstáculos que impedem a Índia de se tornar uma nação por um século ou mais.

Essa divisão criou um abismo intransponível entre os índios. Como se essa questão controversa não fosse suficiente para desestabilizar a sociedade, outra visão ganhou popularidade de que os habitantes originais do subcontinente indiano são os adivasis, que foram marginalizados no processo histórico pela tradição da hegemonia brâmane.

Está em circulação a ideia de que a dominação bramânica é responsável por afastar os adivasis, os construtores originais da cultura indiana, da corrente dominante, por tratá-los como párias ou marginalizados. Essa crença também criou um estereótipo da sociedade indiana como hierárquica e piramidal em substância e forma.


Vida politica

Governo. O sistema nacional de governo é uma república federal democrática liberal, tornando a Índia a maior democracia do mundo. O país está dividido, para fins administrativos, em vinte e oito estados de base linguística, além de outros sete pequenos "Territórios da União" administrados diretamente pelo governo central em Nova Delhi, a capital nacional.

Liderança e funcionários políticos. O parlamento central em Nova Delhi consiste na Casa do Povo ( Lok Sabha ) e o Conselho de Estados ( Rajya Sabha ).

Todos os estados têm assembleias legislativas ( Vidhan sabha ) e conselhos legislativos ( Vidhan Parishad ) Os membros do parlamento e das legislaturas estaduais são selecionados em eleições democráticas. Uma exceção a este procedimento é que o Lok Sabha tem dois assentos reservados para membros anglo-indianos, e dos 4.072 assentos em todas as assembléias legislativas estaduais, 557 foram reservados para candidatos das castas programadas e mais 527 para candidatos do Tribos programadas. Estas disposições têm assegurado que as principais populações minoritárias tenham representação legislativa e interesse em prosseguir o processo eleitoral. O Lok Sabha recentemente teve membros titulares de vinte e um partidos diferentes. As legislaturas estaduais também hospedam uma multiplicidade de partidos políticos.

O chefe de estado é o presidente, e há também um vice-presidente, não eleito por franquia geral, mas por um colégio eleitoral. O presidente é auxiliado por um conselho de ministros e nomeia o primeiro-ministro de cada governo. Este primeiro-ministro é o líder do partido dominante ou de uma coligação de partidos proeminentes e foi eleito membro do parlamento. O presidente tem o poder de dissolver um governo e ordenar novas eleições ou de demitir um governo estadual problemático e declarar o "governo do presidente".

Problemas sociais e controle. Os índios vivem sob o domínio da lei desde os tempos antigos. A lei hindu foi codificada há mais de dois mil anos nos livros chamados Dharmasastras. Agora existe uma hierarquia jurídica em todo o país, com o Supremo Tribunal à sua frente. O procedimento legal é baseado no Código Penal Indiano (IPC), que foi elaborado em meados do século XIX, e no Código de Processo Penal de 1973. A constituição promulgada em 1950 foi mais longe do que qualquer outro país do sul da Ásia ao restringir a influência de sistemas jurídicos tradicionais que, na prática, se aplicavam apenas aos seguidores de uma religião em particular, sejam eles hindus, budistas, muçulmanos, cristãos, judeus ou parsi.

A enorme profissão jurídica ajuda a levar os casos lentamente através do complexo aparato de magistrados e tribunais de nível superior, às vezes criando a impressão de que o litígio é um esporte nacional. Embora multas e prisão sejam as punições mais comuns, a Suprema Corte manteve a legalidade da pena de morte.

Atividade militar. Cinco guerras com o Paquistão e uma com a China desde a independência proporcionaram treinamento a várias gerações de soldados. A Índia, portanto, tem um forte programa de defesa nacional, com quatro serviços nacionais: exército, marinha, força aérea e guarda costeira (desde 1978). Em 1996, essas filiais


Índice

Geografia

Um terço da área dos Estados Unidos, a República da Índia ocupa a maior parte do subcontinente indiano no sul da Ásia. Faz fronteira com a China no nordeste. Outros vizinhos são o Paquistão no oeste, Nepal e Butão no norte e Birmânia e Bangladesh no leste.

O país pode ser dividido em três regiões geográficas distintas: a região do Himalaia no norte, que contém algumas das montanhas mais altas do mundo, a Planície Gangética e a região do planalto na parte sul e central. Seus três grandes sistemas fluviais - o Ganges, o Indo e o Brahmaputra - têm deltas extensos e todos nascem no Himalaia.

Governo
História

Uma das primeiras civilizações, a civilização do Vale do Indo floresceu no subcontinente indiano a partir de c. 2600 a.C. para c. 2000 a.C. É geralmente aceito que os arianos entraram na Índia c. 1500 a.C. do noroeste, encontrando uma terra que já era o lar de uma civilização avançada. Eles introduziram o sânscrito e a religião védica, um precursor do hinduísmo. O budismo foi fundado no século 6 a.C. e se espalhou por todo o norte da Índia, principalmente por um dos grandes e antigos reis da dinastia Maurya, Asoka (c. 269–232 a.C.), que também unificou a maior parte do subcontinente indiano pela primeira vez.

Em 1526, invasores muçulmanos fundaram o grande Império Mogul, centrado em Delhi, que durou, pelo menos no nome, até 1857. Akbar, o Grande (1542–1605) fortaleceu e consolidou este império. O longo reinado de seu bisneto, Aurangzeb (1618–1707), representa a maior extensão do Império Mogul e o início de sua decadência.

Os britânicos exercem influência, suprimem os índios

Vasco da Gama, o explorador português, desembarcou na Índia em 1498 e, durante os 100 anos seguintes, os portugueses tiveram um monopólio virtual do comércio com o subcontinente. Enquanto isso, os ingleses fundaram a Companhia das Índias Orientais, que instalou sua primeira fábrica em Surat em 1612 e começou a expandir sua influência, lutando contra os governantes indianos e os comerciantes franceses, holandeses e portugueses simultaneamente.

Bombaim, tomada dos portugueses, tornou-se a sede do domínio inglês em 1687. A derrota dos exércitos franceses e mongóis por Lord Clive em 1757 lançou as bases do Império Britânico na Índia. A Companhia das Índias Orientais continuou a suprimir levantes nativos e estender o domínio britânico até 1858, quando a administração da Índia foi formalmente transferida para a Coroa Britânica após o Motim de Sepoy das tropas nativas em 1857–1858.

Gandhi lidera o desafio do domínio britânico

Após a Primeira Guerra Mundial, na qual os estados indianos enviaram mais de 6 milhões de soldados para lutar ao lado dos Aliados, a agitação nacionalista indiana atingiu novas alturas sob a liderança de um advogado hindu, Mohandas K. Gandhi, chamado Mahatma Gandhi. Sua filosofia de desobediência civil exigia a não cooperação não violenta contra a autoridade britânica. Ele logo se tornou o líder do Partido do Congresso Nacional Indiano, que era a ponta de lança da revolta. Em 1919, os britânicos atribuíram responsabilidades adicionais às autoridades indianas e, em 1935, a Índia recebeu uma forma federal de governo e uma medida de autogoverno.

Em 1942, com os japoneses pressionando duramente as fronteiras orientais da Índia, o Gabinete de Guerra britânico tentou e não conseguiu chegar a um acordo político com os líderes nacionalistas. O Partido do Congresso assumiu a posição de que os britânicos deveriam abandonar a Índia. Temendo a desobediência civil em massa, o governo da Índia realizou prisões generalizadas de líderes do Partido do Congresso, incluindo Gandhi.

Independência originada pela partição da Índia e do Paquistão

Gandhi foi libertado em 1944 e as negociações para um acordo foram retomadas. Finally, in Aug. 1947, India gained full independence. The victory was soured, however, by the partitioning of the predominantly Muslim regions of the north into the separate nation of Pakistan. The Muslim League, led by Mohammed Ali Jinnah, demanded a separate nation for the Muslim minority to prevent Hindu political and social domination. Indian Hindus, however, had hoped for a unified rather than balkanized Indian subcontinent. Lord Mountbatten as viceroy partitioned India along religious lines and split the provinces of Bengal and the Punjab, which both nations claimed. The partition of Pakistan and India led to the largest migration in human history, with 17 million people fleeing across the borders in both directions to escape the bloody riots occurring among sectarian groups. Armed conflict also broke out over rival claims to the princely states of Jammu and Kashmir.

Jawaharlal Nehru, nationalist leader and head of the Congress Party, was made prime minister. In 1949, a constitution was approved, making India a sovereign republic. Under a federal structure the states were organized on linguistic lines. The dominance of the Congress Party contributed to stability. In 1956, the republic absorbed former French settlements. Five years later, the republic forcibly annexed the Portuguese enclaves of Goa, Damao, and Diu.

Nehru died in 1964. His successor, Lal Bahadur Shastri, died on Jan. 10, 1966. Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, became prime minister, and she continued his policy of nonalignment.

India Supports Independence Movement That Leads to the Creation of Bangladesh

In 1971, the Pakistani army moved in to quash the independence movement in East Pakistan that was supported by India, and some 10 million Bengali refugees poured across the border into India, creating social, economic, and health problems. After numerous border incidents, India invaded East Pakistan and in two weeks forced the surrender of the Pakistani army. East Pakistan was established as an independent state and renamed Bangladesh.

In May 1975, the 300-year-old kingdom of Sikkim became a full-fledged Indian state. Situated in the Himalayas, Sikkim was a virtual dependency of Tibet until the early 19th century. Under an 1890 treaty between China and Great Britain, it became a British protectorate and was made an Indian protectorate after Britain quit the subcontinent.

Indira Gandhi's Leadership Is Challenged

In the summer of 1975, the world's largest democracy veered suddenly toward authoritarianism when a judge in Allahabad, Indira Gandhi's home constituency, found Gandhi's landslide victory in the 1971 elections invalid because civil servants had illegally aided her campaign. Amid demands for her resignation, Gandhi decreed a state of emergency on June 26 and ordered mass arrests of her critics, including all opposition party leaders except the Communists.

Despite strong opposition to her repressive measures, particularly resentment against compulsory birth control programs, in 1977 Gandhi announced parliamentary elections for March. At the same time, she freed most political prisoners. The landslide victory of Morarji R. Desai unseated Gandhi, but she staged a spectacular comeback in the elections of Jan. 1980.

In 1984, Gandhi ordered the Indian army to root out a band of Sikh holy men and gunmen who were using the most sacred shrine of the Sikh religion, the Golden Temple in Amritsar, as a base for terrorist raids in a violent campaign for greater political autonomy in the strategic Punjab border state. The perceived sacrilege to the Golden Temple kindled outrage among many of India's 14 million Sikhs and brought a spasm of mutinies and desertions by Sikh officers and soldiers in the army.

Indira and Rajiv Gandhi Are Gunned Down

On Oct. 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two men identified by police as Sikh members of her bodyguard. The ruling Congress Party chose her older son, Rajiv Gandhi, to succeed her as prime minister for four years. While running for reelection, Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated on May 22, 1991, by Tamil militants who objected to India's mediation of the civil war in Sri Lanka.

The ruling Congress Party lost the parliamentary elections of May 1996, and its waning resulted in a period of political instability. The Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) then became the dominant force in politics, with Atal Bihari Vajpayee as prime minister.

India and Pakistan Test Nuclear Weapons

In May 1998, India set off five nuclear tests, surprising the international community, which widely condemned India's pronuclear stance. Despite international urging for restraint, Pakistan responded by conducting several nuclear tests of its own two weeks later. India has resisted signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty for nuclear weapons and has been slapped with sanctions by the U.S. and other countries. Less than a year later, in April 1999, both India and Pakistan tested nuclear-capable ballistic missiles.

Kashmir Continues to Test Relationship Between India and Pakistan

India and Pakistan have held various talks about the disputed territory of Kashmir, which is the issue at the base of their chronic antagonism and their displays of nuclear strength. India controls two-thirds of this Himalayan region, which is the only Indian state that is predominantly Muslim.

The Indian Air Force launched air strikes on May 26, 1999, and later sent in ground troops against Islamic guerrilla forces in Kashmir. India blamed Pakistan for orchestrating violence in Kashmir by sending soldiers and mercenaries across the so-called Line of Control that divides Kashmir between India and Pakistan. Pakistan countered that the guerrillas were independent Kashmiri freedom fighters struggling for India's ouster from the region. Most international sources agreed with India's assumption that Pakistan was arming the soldiers. In Aug. 1999, Pakistan was forced to withdraw, but fighting continued sporadically during the coming year.

In Oct. 2001, violence again broke out in the region when a suicide bombing by a Pakistan-based militant organization killed 38 in India-controlled Kashmir. India retaliated with heavy shelling across the Line of Control. India, angered by Washington's sudden coziness with Pakistan following the Sept. 11 attacks, took the opportunity to point out that, while Pakistan might be helping the U.S. fight terrorism on the Afghan front, it was simultaneously supporting terrorism on its own borders with India. On Dec. 13, 2001, suicide bombers attacked the Indian parliament, killing 14 people. Indian officials blamed the deadly attack on Islamic militants supported by Pakistan.

Hope for a peaceful solution to the conflict in Kashmir was raised in Nov. 2002, when a newly elected coalition government in India-controlled Jammu and Kashmir vowed to reach out to separatists and to improve conditions in the state. But hopes were dashed in March 2003, following the slaughter of 24 Hindus in Kashmir. Officials blamed the massacre on Islamic militants. Days after the violence, both India and Pakistan test-fired short-range missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads. Two bombs exploded in Mumbai (Bombay) in August, killing more than 50 people and injuring about 150. Indian officials blamed Lashkar-e-Taiba, a Pakistan-based militant Islamic group. But in Nov. 2003, India and Pakistan declared their first formal cease-fire in 14 years. The cease-fire applied to the entire Line of Control dividing Kashmir. Relations between the two countries have continued to thaw, though no real progress has been made.

Electoral Upset Brings Congress Party to Power

In one of the most dramatic political upsets in modern Indian history, the Indian National Congress Party, led by Sonia Gandhi, prevailed in parliamentary elections in May 2004, prompting Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee to resign. Although the country prospered economically under Vajpayee's rule, a substantial number of India's poor felt they had not benefitted from India's economic growth. Sonia Gandhi, the Italian-born widow of former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi, dealt a further shock to the country when she refused to become prime minister. The BJP had vociferously protested Gandhi's expected elevation to prime minister because of her foreign birth. The Congress Party instead chose former finance minister Manmohan Singh, who became India's first Sikh prime minister.

On Dec. 26, 2004, a tremendously powerful tsunami ravaged 12 Asian countries. Nearly 11,000 people perished in India.

President Bush announced in March 2005 that he would allow American companies to provide India with several types of modern combat weapons, including F-16 and F-18 fighter jets. The announcement was seen as an attempt to balance Bush's offer to sell Pakistan about two dozen F-16s.

India and the U.S. Reach Deal on Nuclear Technology

In March 2006, President Bush and Prime Minister Singh agreed to a controversial civil nuclear power deal that permitted the sale of nuclear technology to India despite the fact that India has never signed the international Nuclear Nonproliferation agreement. Since 1998, the U.S. has imposed sanctions on India for undertaking nuclear tests. Critics of the deal contend that allowing India to circumvent the international treaty will make it more difficult to negotiate with Iran and North Korea and their nuclear ambitions. In September 2008, the Nuclear Suppliers Group, comprised of representatives from 45 countries, voted in favor of the deal, bringing it a step away from implementation. The U.S. Congress approved the deal in Oct. 2008 it was the last hurdle for the implementation of the controversial agreement. India's Bharatiya Janata Party, which opposes the deal, called it a "nonproliferation trap." The deal could be scrapped if India uses the fuel for its weapons program.

Pratibha Patil, of the governing Congress party, was elected president in July 2007, becoming the country's first woman to hold the post. She defeated Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, of the opposition Bharatiya Janata Party.

Prime Minister Singh survived a confidence vote in July 2008, taking 275 votes to the opposition's 256. Eleven members of Parliament abstained. He had lost the support of Communist parties as he sought to seal the deal that has the U.S. providing India with nuclear technology and fuel for civilian purposes.

Squirmishing along Kashmir's Line of Control broke out over the summer of 2008, after more than four years of relative calm. The problems arose after authorities in Indian-controlled Kashmir transferred 99 acres of land to a trust that runs a Hindu shrine, called Amarnath. Muslims launched a series of protests. The government rescinded the order, which outraged Hindus. About 40 people were killed in the protests and counterdemonstrations, which involved several hundred thousand people. Despite the hostilities, a trade route between India and Pakistan across the line of control opened in October for the first time in 60 years.

Terrorists Attack Landmarks in Mumbai

Religious and ethnic clashes that pitted Muslims against Hindus and Hindus against Christians broke out throughout India in the summer and fall of 2008. The violence was exacerbated by a series of terrorist attacks largely blamed on Islamic militants, including one in the northern state of Assam that killed at least 64 people and wounded hundreds in October. In total, well over 200 people died in the attacks.

India launched its first unmanned spacecraft in October 2008 for a two-year mission to map a three-dimensional atlas of the Moon and search for natural resources on the Moon's surface.

About 170 people were killed and about 300 wounded in a series of attacks that began on Nov. 26 on several of Mumbai's landmarks and commercial hubs that are popular with foreign tourists, including two five-star hotels, a hospital, a train station, and a cinema. Indian officials said ten gunmen carried out the attack, which was stunning in its brutality and duration it took Indian forces three days to end the siege. India's police and security forces were ill-prepared for such an attack, which many inside India are calling their own September 11. In fact, Indian sharpshooters were not equipped with telescopic sights, and therefore withheld firing in fear of killing hostages rather than terrorists. In addition, a 2007 report to Parliament warned that India's shores were particularly vulnerable. (The perpetrators reportedly arrived in Mumbai by boat.)

Indian and U.S. officials said they have evidence that the Pakistan-based militant Islamic group Lashkar-e-Taiba was involved in the attack. Lashkar-e-Taiba, which translates to Army of the Pure, was established in the late 1980s with the assistance of Pakistan's spy agency, Inter-Services Intelligence, to fight Indian control of the Muslim section of Kashmir. The accusation further strained an already tense relationship between the two countries. India's home minister in charge of security, Shivraj Patil, resigned after the tragedy. While Pakistani president Zardari first denied that Pakistani citizens were involved in the attack, in December, Pakistan officials raided a camp run by Lashkar-e-Taiba in Muzaffarabad, the capital of Pakistan-controlled Kashmir, and arrested several militants. Muhammad Ajmal Qasab, a Pakistani and the only attacker who survived the Mumbai attack, was found guilty of murder and sentenced to death in May 2010 by an Indian court.

Between April 16 and May 13, 2009, India held general elections. The Indian National Congress won 206 seats and will lead a governing coalition called the United Progressive Alliance. The Bharatiya Janata Party came in second with 116 seats. Analysts attributed Congress's repeat victory to the party's ability to balance the concerns of poor farmers in the rural provinces and the urban middle class. Manmohan Singh remains the prime minister.

New Delhi's highest court overturned the ban on homosexuality in India in July 2009. Homosexuality was illegal in India since 1861. Court justices declared the old law to be a violation of human rights and equality outlined in India's constitution. On Dec. 11, 2013, the Indian Supreme Court reinstated the 1861 law. The ruling came after the court determined that the law had been improperly ruled unconstitutional by a lower court in 2009. The Supreme Court ruled that only Parliament had the power to change the 1861 law, which includes a decade long jail sentence for "carnal intercourse against the order of nature with man, woman or animal."

In 2011, Anna Hazare, a 74-year-old Indian activist went on two hunger strikes in his quest to force India's parliament to adopt legislation instituting an independent anticorruption agency called a Jan Lokpal, or ombudsman. The first strike, which garnered a great public following, ended after 13 days and an invitation to help draft a Lokpal bill. Mr. Hazare decided the legislation was too weak, which led to his second hunger strike in December, aborted after three days due to health concerns. On Dec. 27, a bill--still deemed unsatisfactory by Anna Hazare--was passesd in the lower house before being indefinately stalled in the upper house.

On July 13, 2011, Indian cities were put on high alert after three bombs exploded in Mumbai's business district during rush hour, killing 18 people and injuring more than 100. It was the worst terrorist incident in India's financial capital since a coordinated attack by gunmen in 2008.

India Tests a Long-Range Ballistic Missile

In April 2012, India successfully launched the Agni 5, a long-range ballistic missile that can reach Beijing and Shanghai, China, and can deliver a nuclear warhead. The exercise was seen as a response to China's recent investment in its military and its growing assertiveness on the military front. Some observers questioned if the move would spark an arms race in Asia. A week later, fuel was added to that speculation when Pakistan tested an intermediate-range ballistic missile that can also carry a nuclear warhead. While India and Pakistan are archrivals, both denied the tests were an act of brinkmanship, with Pakistan saying its exercise would "further strengthen and consolidate Pakistan's deterrence capabilities."

India was hit by the largest blackout in history in July 2012. More than half of India's population ?700 million people living in 22 out of the country's 28 states?lost power for two days. Authorities think residents in the northern states exceeded their allotment of electricity during a drought. For the most part, Indians took the blackout in stride, as such events are not unusual in a country whose power grid is still in development.

Gang Rape Case Ignites National Protests

Protests spread throughout India in late Dec. 2012 when a 23-year-old woman died after being gang raped by several men in a moving bus in Delhi. The woman had to be flown to Singapore after three abdominal operations at a Delhi hospital, where her intestines were removed due to damage done by a metal rod during the attack. Police said the attackers would be charged with murder. Sonia Gandhi, president of the Congress Party, said in a rare television appearance, "As a woman, and mother, I understand how protestors feel. Today we pledge that the victim will get justice."

The trial for the five men accused of the gang rape began in late January 2013. The men were charged with robbery, gang rape, and murder. Lawyers for the men said they would all plead not guilty.

In early Feb. 2013, India's government approved new, stiffer laws for sexual violence against women. The new laws included the death penalty in certain cases. The laws were a direct response to the nationwide outrage over the gang rape case. Parliament also created a special court that would hear rape cases much more quickly than India's regular justice system. Reports of sexual assault and rape skyrocketed in 2013 which suggested more willingness to come forward about these crimes since the country's new laws.

Ram Singh, the apparent driver of the bus, was found hanging in his jail cell on March 11, 2013. Officials ruled his death as suicide, but Singh's family said he was killed. On Aug. 31, a 17-year-old participant was convicted for his part in the gang rape he was sentenced to three years in a special juvenile correctional facility. On Sept. 13, Judge Yogesh Khanna had this to say: "In these times when crimes against women are on the rise, the court cannot turn a blind eye to this gruesome act,"as he handed down a sentence of death by hanging for each of the four convicted men.

Opposition Dominates 2014 Election

In May 2014's general election, the opposition Bharatiya Janata Party trounced the governing Indian National Congress Party, taking about 60% of the seats in parliament. The decisive victory gave the party an outright majority in parliament. Narendra Modi is set to become prime minister. The Congress party, headed by the Gandhi family, has prevailed over Indian politics since the country gained independence in 1947. The results reflected the country's dissatisfaction with lackluster economic growth, high inflation, and a series of corruption scandals. The election took place in nine phases from April 7 through May 12, making it the longest election in the country's history. Some 550 million votes were cast, and voter turnout was about 66%.

Modi assumed office on May 26, 2014. A Hindu nationalist, Modi was previously chief minister of Gujarat, a state in northwest India, where his administration had been praised for its economic policies, which have created rapid economic growth. However, Modi is a controversial figure, mainly for his administration's role in the 2002 Gujarat riots where the death toll was estimated between 900 to over 2000, with several thousand more injured. Most of the victims of the riots were Muslim. To curb the violence, Modi's government enforced curfews and asked for the army to intervene, but human rights organizations, the media, and the opposition argued that Modi's administration didn't do enough to stop the riots and, in some instances, even condoned it.

Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif accepted an invitation to attend Modi's inauguration. The invite was one of Modi's first decisions as prime minister. The two shook hands and exchanged pleasantries at the ceremony, a sign that there may be a thaw in relations between India and Pakistan.

Severe Heat Wave Kills More Than Two Thousand

According to officials, a severe heat wave in India has killed 2,330 people as of June 2, 2015. Andhra Pradesh, a state on India's southeast coast, has been the hardest hit with 42 people dying there within 24 hours. During the heat wave, temperatures hit as high as 48 degrees Celsius (118 degrees Fahrenheit) in some cities. If the death toll were to rise to more than 2,541, it would become the deadliest heat wave in India's history and the fourth deadliest heat wave in the world.


India Geography - History

eundia's extraordinary history is intimately tied to its geography. A meeting ground between the East and the West, it has always been an invader's paradise, while at the same time its natural isolation and magnetic religions allowed it to adapt to and absorb many of the peoples who penetrated its mountain passes. No matter how many Persians, Greeks, Chinese nomads, Arabs, Portuguese, British and other raiders had their way with the land, local Hindu kingdoms invariably survived their depradations, living out their own sagas of conquest and collapse. All the while, these local dynasties built upon the roots of a culture well established since the time of the first invaders, the Aryans. In short, India has always been simply too big, too complicated, and too culturally subtle to let any one empire dominate it for long.

True to the haphazard ambiance of the country, the discovery of India's most ancient civilization literally happened by accident. British engineers in the mid-1800's, busy constructing a railway line between Karachi and Punjab, found ancient, kiln-baked bricks along the path of the track. This discovery was treated at the time as little more than a curiosity, but archaeologists later revisited the site in the 1920's and determined that the bricks were over 5000 years old. Soon afterward, two important cities were discovered: Harappa on the Ravi river, and Mohenjodaro on the Indus.

The civilization that laid the bricks, one of the world's oldest, was known as the Indus. They had a written language and were highly sophisticated. Dating back to 3000 BC, they originated in the south and moved north, building complex, mathematically-planned cities. Some of these towns were almost three miles in diameter and contained as many as 30,000 residents. These ancient municipalities had granaries, citadels, and even household toilets. In Mohenjodaro, a mile-long canal connected the city to the sea, and trading ships sailed as far as Mesopotamia. At its height, the Indus civilization extended over half a million square miles across the Indus river valley, and though it existed at the same time as the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Sumer, it far outlasted them.

The first group to invade India were the Aryans, who came out of the north in about 1500 BC. The Aryans brought with them strong cultural traditions that, miraculously, still remain in force today. They spoke and wrote in a language called Sanskrit, which was later used in the first documentation of the Vedas. Though warriors and conquerors, the Aryans lived alongside Indus, introducing them to the caste system and establishing the basis of the Indian religions. The Aryans inhabited the northern regions for about 700 years, then moved further south and east when they developed iron tools and weapons. They eventually settled the Ganges valley and built large kingdoms throughout much of northern India.

The second great invasion into India occurred around 500 BC, when the Persian kings Cyrus and Darius, pushing their empire eastward, conquered the ever-prized Indus Valley. Compared to the Aryans, the Persian influence was marginal, perhaps because they were only able to occupy the region for a relatively brief period of about 150 years. The Persians were in turn conquered by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, who swept through the country as far as the Beas River, where he defeated king Porus and an army of 200 elephants in 326 BC. The tireless, charismatic conqueror wanted to extend his empire even further eastward, but his own troops (undoubtedly exhausted) refused to continue. Alexander returned home, leaving behind garrisons to keep the trade routes open.

While the Persians and Greeks subdued the Indus Valley and the northwest, Aryan-based kingdoms continued developing in the East. In the 5th century BC, Siddhartha Gautama founded the religion of Buddhism, a profoundly influential work of human thought still espoused by much of the world. As the overextended Hellenistic sphere declined, a king known as Chandragupta swept back through the country from Magadha (Bihar) and conquered his way well into Afghanistan. This was the beginning of one India's greatest dynasties, the Maurya. Under the great king Ashoka (268-31 BC), the Mauryan empire conquered nearly the entire subcontinent, extending itself as far south as Mysore. When Ashoka conquered Orissa, however, his army shed so much blood that the repentant king gave up warfare forever and converted to Buddhism. Proving to be as tireless a missionary as he had been as conqueror, Asoka brought Buddhism to much of central Asia. His rule marked the height of the Maurya empire, and it collapsed only 100 years after his death.

After the demise of the Maurya dynasty, the regions it had conquered fragmented into a mosaic of kingdoms and smaller dynasties. The Greeks returned briefly in 150 BC and conquered the Punjab, and by this time Buddhism was becoming so influential that the Greek king Menander forsook the Hellenistic pantheon and became a Buddhist himself. The local kingdoms enjoyed relative autonomy for the next few hundred years, occasionally fighting (and often losing to) invaders from the north and China, who seemed to come and go like the monsoons. Unlike the Greeks, the Romans never made it to India, preferring to expand west instead.

In AD 319, Chandragupta II founded the Imperial Guptas dynasty, which conquered and consolidated the entire north and extended as far south as the Vindya mountains. When the Guptas diminished, a golden age of six thriving and separate kingdoms ensued, and at this time some of the most incredible temples in India were constructed in Bhubaneshwar, Konarak, and Khahurajo. It was time of relative stability, and cultural developments progressed on all fronts for hundreds of years, until the dawn of the Muslim era.

Arab traders had visited the western coast since 712, but it wasn't until 1001 that the Muslim world began to make itself keenly felt. In that year, Arab armies swept down the Khyber pass and hit like a storm. Led by Mahmud of Ghazi, they raided just about every other year for 26 years straight. They returned home each time, leaving behind them ruined cities, decimated armies, and probably a very edgy native population. Then they more or less vanished behind the mountains again for nearly 150 years, and India once again went on its way.

But the Muslims knew India was still there, waiting with all its riches. They returned in 1192 under Mohammed of Ghor, and this time they meant to stay. Ghor's armies laid waste to the Buddhist temples of Bihar, and by 1202 he had conquered the most powerful Hindu kingdoms along the Ganges. When Ghor died in 1206, one of his generals, Qutb-ud-din, ruled the far north from the Sultanate of Delhi, while the southern majority of India was free from the invaders. Turkish kings ruled the Muslim acquisition until 1397, when the Mongols invaded under Timur Lang (Tamerlane) and ravaged the entire region. One historian wrote that the lightning speed with which Tamerlane's armies struck Delhi was prompted by their desire to escape the stench of rotting corpses they were leaving behind them.

Islamic India fragmented after the brutal devastation Timur Lang left in Delhi, and it was every Muslim strongman for himself. This would change in 1527, however, when the Mughal (Persian for Mongol) monarch Babur came into power. Babur was a complicated, enlightened ruler from Kabul who loved poetry, gardening, and books. He even wrote cultural treatises on the Hindus he conquered, and took notes on local flora and fauna. Afghan princes in India asked for his help in 1526, and he conquered the Punjab and quickly asserted his own claim over them by taking Delhi. This was the foundation of the Mughal dynasty, whose six emperors would comprise most influential of all the Muslim dynasties in India.

Babur died in 1530, leaving behind a harried and ineffective son, Humayun. Humayun's own son, Akbar, however, would be the greatest Mughal ruler of all. Unlike his grandfather, Akbar was more warrior than scholar, and he extended the empire as far south as the Krishna river. Akbar tolerated local religions and married a Hindu princess, establishing a tradition of cultural acceptance that would contribute greatly to the success of the Mughal rule. In 1605, Akbar was succeed by his son Jahangir, who passed the expanding empire along to his own son Shah Jahan in 1627.

Though he spent much of his time subduing Hindu kingdoms to the south, Shah Jahan left behind the colossal monuments of the Mughal empire, including the Taj Majal (his favorite wife's tomb), the Pearl Mosque, the Royal Mosque, and the Red Fort. Jahan's campaigns in the south and his flare for extravagant architecture necessitated increased taxes and distressed his subjects, and under this scenario his son Aurungzebe imprisoned him, seeking power for himself in 1658.

Unlike his predecessors, Aurungzebe wished to eradicate indigenous traditions, and his intolerance prompted fierce local resistance. Though he expanded the empire to include nearly the entire subcontinent, he could never totally subdue the Mahrattas of the Deccan, who resisted him until his death in 1707. Out of the Mahrattas' doggedness arose the legendary figure of Shivagi, a symbol Hindu resistance and nationalism. Aurungzebe's three sons disputed over succession, and the Mughal empire crumbled, just as the Europeans were beginning to flex their own imperialistic muscles.

The Portuguese had traded in Goa as early as 1510, and later founded three other colonies on the west coast in Diu, Bassein, and Mangalore. In 1610, the British chased away a Portuguese naval squadron, and the East India Company created its own outpost at Surat. This small outpost marked the beginning of a remarkable presence that would last over 300 years and eventually dominate the entire subcontinent. Once in India, the British began to compete with the Portuguese, the Dutch, and the French. Through a combination of outright combat and deft alliances with local princes, the East India Company gained control of all European trade in India by 1769.

How a tiny island nation, thousands of miles away, came to administer a huge territory of 300 million people is one of history's great spectacles. A seemingly impossible task, it was done through a highly effective and organized system called the Raj. Treaties and agreements were signed with native princes, and the Company gradually increased its role in local affairs. The Raj helped build infrastructure and trained natives for its own military, though in theory they were for India's own defense. In 1784, after financial scandals in the Company alarmed British politicians, the Crown assumed half-control of the Company, beginning the transfer of power to royal hands.

In 1858, a rumor spread among Hindu soldiers that the British were greasing their bullets with the fat of cows and pigs, the former sacred animals to Hindus and the latter unclean animals to Muslims. A year-long rebellion against the British ensued. Although the Indian Mutiny was unsuccessful, it prompted the British government to seize total control of all British interests in India in 1858, finally establishing a seamless imperialism. Claiming to be only interested in trade, the Raj steadily expanded its influence until the princes ruled in name only.

The Raj's demise was partially a result of its remarkable success. It had gained control of the country by viewing it as a source of profit. Infrastructure had been developed, administration established, and an entire structure of governance erected. India had become a profitable venture, and the British were loath to allow the Indian population any power in a system that they viewed as their own accomplishment. The Indians didn't appreciate this much, and as the 20th century dawned there were increasing movements towards self-rule.

Along with the desire for independence, tensions between Hindus and Muslims had also been developing over the years. The Muslims had always been a minority, and the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government made them wary of independence they were as inclined to mistrust Hindu rule as they were to resist the Raj. In 1915, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi came onto the scene, calling for unity between the two groups in an astonishing display of leadership that would eventually lead the country to independence.

The profound impact Gandhi had on India and his ability to gain independence through a totally non-violent mass movement made him one of the most remarkable leaders the world has ever known. He led by example, wearing homespun clothes to weaken the British textile industry and orchestrating a march to the sea, where demonstrators proceeded to make their own salt in protest against the British monopoly. Indians gave him the name Mahatma, or Great Soul. The British promised that they would leave India by 1947.

Independence came at great cost. While Gandhi was leading a largely Hindu movement, Mohammed Ali Jinnah was fronting a Muslim one through a group called the Muslim League. Jinnah advocated the division of India into two separate states: Muslim and Hindu, and he was able to achieve his goal. When the British left, they created the separate states of Pakistan and Bangladesh (known at that time as East Pakistan), and violence erupted when stranded Muslims and Hindu minorities in the areas fled in opposite directions. Within a few weeks, half a million people had died in the course of the greatest migration of human beings in the world's history. The aging Gandhi vowed to fast until the violence stopped, which it did when his health was seriously threatened. At the same time, the British returned and helped restore order. Excepting Kashmir, which is still a disputed area (and currently unsafe for tourists), the division reached stability.

India's history since independence has been marked by disunity and intermittent periods of virtual chaos. In 1948, on the eve of independence, Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic. His right-hand man, Jawarhalal Nehru, became India's first Prime Minister. Nehru was a successful leader, steering the young nation through a period of peace that was contrasted by the rule of Lal Bahadur Shastri, who fought Pakistan after it invaded two regions of India. Shastri died in 1966 after only 20 months in power, and he was succeeded by Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi.

With the name Gandhi (though no relation to Mahatma), Indira was a powerful, unchallenged leader, and opposition remained negligible until she abused her power by trying to suppress the press. When the rising opposition began to threaten her power, she called a state of emergency and continued to reform the nation, actually making some positive economic and political changes despite her questionable tactics. Her most unpopular policy was forced sterilization, and she was eventually defeated at the polls in 1977 by Morarji Desai of the Jenata party. She won back power in '79, however, but was later assassinated in 1984 by a Sikh terrorist. Although India's political climate remains divisive, the country has attained apparent stability in recent years. Today, India seems poised to realize its potential as an international economic power.


India’s Cultural and History Geography: The Deccan and Aryavarta

That India is an extremely diverse country is a widely known, but nonetheless true, platitude. For convenience, India is usually interpreted through geographical categories, such as North India, Northeast India, West India, or South India.

Indians themselves have historically seen their subcontinent as compromising two major regions, which better reflects cultural and historical divisions in the regions: the Aryavarta and the Deccan. While these somewhat reflect the common understanding of there being a north-south division in India, Aryavarta and the Deccan do not map on exactly to the ideas of North and South India. These two regions are defined by distinct topographies and geologies, and as a result, different social patterns and agricultural patterns. The Deccan is distinct from South India — which is usually defined as the five Dravidian-language speaking states of peninsular India — in that it includes Goa, Maharashtra, Odisha, much of Chhattisgarh, and parts of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Jharkhand.

Traditionally, either the Vindhya Mountains or the Narmada River in central India have traditionally formed the boundary between northern and southern India, between Aryavrata and the Deccan. The ancient Indian text the Manusmriti from the first century of the common era defines Aryavarta as “the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern Sea [Bay of Bengal] to the Western Sea [Arabian Sea].” Interestingly, texts from before the Manusmriti put the eastern boundaries of Aryavarta around the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna, leaving the ancient, relatively unorthodox (in the Hindu sense) kingdom of Magadh, today’s Bihar and Bengal — the homeland of Buddhism and Jainism — outside of Aryavarta. Modern Bengal is significantly different from the rest of northern India to this understanding to have some modern resonance.

Indeed, there are major differences between the historical Indian regions of Aryavarta and the Deccan, which are salient today. The Indo-Gangetic Plain which dominates Aryavarta has supported both a large and highly dense population, as well as empires that both swiftly expanded and fell due to the lack of topographic barriers. As the name suggests, Aryavarta was inhabited primarily by speakers of Indo-Aryan languages, and is the homeland of much of what is considered “standard” in Hinduism and Indian culture: Sanskrit, the reverence for the cow, an emphasis on vegetarianism as a sacred duty, well-defined caste divisions, worship of the god Rama, amongst other features. This is the classical Indian culture that emerged between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the famed Mauryan and Gupta empires.

Culturally and politically, the Deccan is not just a southward extension of Aryavarta, but like Tibet and Southeast Asian societies, an adaptation of classical Indic civilization to a new environment. The word itself derives from Sanskrit dakshina, meaning south, south of Aryavarta. This does not make it any less Indian than Aryavarta, but it certainly makes it distinct. Dominated by empires such as the Satavahanas, Vatakatas, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas, Cholas, Vijayanagara, and the Marathas, the Deccan has been home to many historically significant states that nonetheless have not attained the fame of the Ganges-based Mauryas, Guptas, Delhi Sultanate, and Mughals.

Much of the Deccan is arid and hilly, a triangular plateau that rises from central India toward its southern tip, flanked by two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats along its long coastlines: coasts which connected it more intimately, relative to Aryavarta, which was more influenced by Persia and Central Asia, to Greco-Roman and Southeast Asian trade.

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Aryavrata underwent massive demographic shifts with the spread of agriculture and migrations from West and Central Asia, whereas the Deccan absorbed only trickles of merchants and Brahmins from the north, and its population density remains significantly lower than that of the Ganges Valley. While Maharashtra and Odisha at the northern edges of the Deccan were Sanskritized and speak the Indo-Aryan languages found in northern India, the rest of the plateau remains linguistically Dravdian. These include some of the driest areas in India outside of the Thar Desert in Rajasthan, such as northeastern Karnataka. Yet other parts of the region, particularly between the Western and Eastern Ghats and the coasts — Kerala, the Konkan region of Goa and Maharashtra, and coastal Andhra Pradesh, are lush.

These factors all explain the features of the Deccan: It was home to longer lasting political entities, and was rarely unified. Tamil and Kannada, both of the Deccan, have the oldest continuous literary histories of any Indian language, implying cultural continuity, which would have been impossible in northern India, with its frequent political turnovers. Social mobility was and is greater today in the Deccan than in Aryavarta, according to a study by Dartmouth University.

As a result, the Deccan has been less agricultural, and more trade-oriented than Aryavarta. It has rarely been conquered, and much less held, by any empire based in the north, which explains why even today, its political and social patterns are different than the rest of India’s for example, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) wave that swept the rest of India in its 2019 general elections was much more muted in the south. As Manu S. Pillai put it in his book, Rebel Sultans, “there can be no lasting triumph in the south, and no distant overlord prevailed forever…the Deccan remained unyielding in spirit and in its spine. To some it was a kingdom of tantalizing treasures and marvellous opportunity to others, however, the Deccan became also something more sinister: the undoing of mighty kings, a graveyard of glorious empires.” Empires like the Delhi Sultanate and Mughals overreached and collapsed as a result of their attempts to control the Deccan.

The more Deccan is paradoxically both more modern and traditional than Aryavarta, similar in some ways to societies like Japan and Thailand that have mediated modernity through their distinct cultures. The dichotomy between tradition and modernity in Aryavarta is sharper, because the nature of society there has been one prone to more shocks and changes, so there is either the old, or the new, quite often.

India’s historical evolution and contemporary characteristics are often clearer to the observer when the ancient categories of Aryavarta and the Deccan are mapped onto modern India. These characteristics are still salient, and are an important and illuminating way of understanding the subcontinent.


Assista o vídeo: Historia Genética de los Nativos Americanos (Setembro 2022).


Comentários:

  1. Kekus

    Certo! Eu acho que essa é uma ótima ideia.

  2. Mezizshura

    Organização "Profstroyrekonstruktsiya" - implementação de serviços de alta qualidade: Operação e recursos de reconstrução.

  3. Tygogrel

    Esta é apenas uma convenção, nada mais

  4. Torn

    Você não está certo. Entre vamos discutir isso. Escreva para mim em PM, nós lidaremos com isso.

  5. Mauro

    Eu acho que essa é uma ótima ideia. Concordo plenamente com ela.

  6. Windgate

    Peço desculpas, mas, na minha opinião, há outra forma de decisão de uma questão.



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