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Citas

Citas


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Os citas eram um povo nômade cuja cultura floresceu entre os séculos 7 e 3 aC em um território que variava da Trácia, no oeste, através da estepe da Ásia Central, até as montanhas Altai da Mongólia, no leste. Isso cobre uma área de cerca de 2500 milhas (4000 km) de comprimento. A geografia da estepe de planícies abertas, estepe deserta e extensões de estepe florestal sobre as quais se distribuíam conduzia a um modo de vida pastoril, em vez de estabelecido, envolvendo a produção agrícola. Como resultado, esses nômades da estepe tinham poucos centros urbanos e tinham um estilo de vida nômade; cavalgando, cuidando de rebanhos e vivendo em carroças cobertas.

Origens

Os citas tinham uma identidade cultural comum expressa em seu nomadismo guerreiro, sua forma de governo e arte e vestimentas únicas.

Embora haja muito debate sobre as origens das populações citas, "afirma Heródoto, e a maioria dos estudiosos modernos concorda, eles se mudaram [para o oeste] da Ásia para a Europa pelo grande corredor de estepe." (A. Yu Alexeyev, Citas, 23) No entanto, no primeiro século AEC, o historiador grego Diodorus Siculus, afirma que os citas inicialmente se mudaram para o norte do rio Araxes, na Armênia. Outra visão moderna é que eles se moveram para o sul "em várias ondas das estepes do Volga-Ural para o norte do Mar Negro" (A.I. Melyukova, Citas e sármatas, 99). Escrevendo no século 5 aC, Heródoto também mostra os sármatas, separando-se dos citas do mar Negro, movendo-se para o leste. Em seguida, as recentes descobertas arqueológicas em Tuva nas montanhas Altai, que datam o assentamento cita no final do século 9 aC, sugerem origens primitivas no leste. No entanto, como os cronistas chineses do século I dC falam de seus cabelos ruivos e olhos azuis, seus traços caucasianos e língua indo-européia sustentam origens da Idade do Bronze no oeste, provavelmente dos celtas.

Considerando a fluidez de movimento que a estepe da Ásia Central permite, não é surpreendente que tantas migrações declaradas de diferentes locais tornem difícil localizar o início. Em última análise, é totalmente possível que, após uma expansão inicial de longo alcance a partir do oeste, tenha havido de fato migrações subsequentes de muitos pontos de origem. Embora sua origem seja debatida, um consenso geral identifica que as culturas citas das estepes da Eurásia são compostas principalmente por quatro grupos principais:

  • Pontic Scythians, em torno do Mar Negro
  • Sármatas, do norte do Mar Cáspio e áreas dos rios Don e Volga, na atual Rússia
  • Massagetas na estepe do deserto da Ásia Central
  • Sakā no leste da Ásia Central

Todos os quatro tinham uma identidade cultural comum expressa em seu nomadismo guerreiro, sua forma de governo e arte e vestimentas únicas.

Guerra Cita

O equipamento militar cita incluía uma grande variedade de armas. Além de atirar flechas a cavalo, eles também usavam machados de batalha, maças, lanças, espadas, escudos e, para proteção pessoal, armaduras de escamas e capacetes. Por causa de sua capacidade coletiva de permanecer em movimento e com cavalaria ágil, Heródoto diz que os citas eram "invencíveis e impossíveis de se aproximar" (Histórias, 4,46). Com tais armas e habilidade tática, não é surpresa que diferentes nações frequentemente solicitem serviços militares citas.

Em 490 aC, arqueiros montados em Sakā ajudaram os persas contra os gregos na Batalha de Maratona e novamente na Batalha de Platéia em 479 aC. Os guerreiros citas estavam da mesma forma entre a lista de chamada que se juntou a Dario III (r. 336-330 aC) contra Alexandre o Grande (356-323 aC) na Batalha de Gaugamela em 331 aC. Ápio, o historiador romano, mostra "príncipes citas" do Mar Negro, instrumental na derrota de Mitrídates VI (r. 120-63 aC) por Pompeu (106-48 aC) em 63 aC. (Guerras mitridáticas, 17.119) Além disso, como primos e vizinhos dos partas, os citas vieram em auxílio da Pártia, quando, após problemas dinásticos, o rei parta Sinatruces I (r. C. 75-69 aC) foi instalado no trono com a ajuda dos citas. De acordo com Cássio Dio, os citas também desempenharam um papel fundamental em ajudar Artabano II (r. 12-38 / 41 DC), ele mesmo meio cita, a garantir a Armênia para a Pártia. (57.26) Tácito apóia esta afirmação mostrando Artabano "coletando auxiliares na Cítia" antes de entrar na batalha. (Anuais, 6.44.1)

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No entanto, os citas não eram apenas fazedores de reis ou aliados poderosos. A vitória mais espetacular da Cítia foi talvez contra o Império Persa Aquemênida. Com uma estratégia de atrito - conduzindo o inimigo profundamente em território amigo, estendendo as linhas de suprimento e, em seguida, com táticas de ataque e corrida e emboscada finalizando seu oponente com flechas atiradas a cavalo - os citas frustraram o de Dario, o Grande (r. 522- 486 aC) incursão no território cita. Isso deu a eles a reputação de serem invencíveis. Somando-se a esse sucesso, Ateas (429-339 aC), rei dos citas pônticos, expandiu o interesse cita na Trácia, estabelecendo o alcance mais ocidental da Cítia desde o Don até o Danúbio.

Após a derrota e morte de Ateas nas mãos de Filipe II da Macedônia (r. 359-336 AEC) em 339 AEC, sendo pegos em uma armadilha no rio Jaxartes por Alexandre, o Grande, os citas nunca mais recuperariam sua reputação de invencível. Mais golpes vieram quando os citas tentaram assumir o monopólio comercial dos gregos no Mar Negro, atacando suas colônias. Vindo em socorro dos gregos no final do século 2 AEC, Mitrídates VI causou uma derrota devastadora aos citas, assim como os romanos em 63 EC, quando os citas novamente atacaram os quersoneses. Finalmente, durante o século 4 EC, os citas desapareceriam completamente do registro histórico quando foram devastados pelos hunos e assimilados pelos godos.

Governo da Cita

Enquanto Heródoto se refere aos 'reis' citas, e alguns pelo nome, como acontece com a maioria dos povos tribais, o governo cita era mais uma confederação de tribos e chefes. A estrutura tribal confederada da Cítia é revelada no relato de Heródoto sobre a invasão da Cítia pela Pérsia quando Dario insultou o alto rei da Cítia, Idanthyrsus, para se levantar e lutar "ou chegar a um acordo com seu mestre". Idanthyrsus respondeu, dizendo que aquele não era o modo de guerra da Cítia; eles lutariam em seus próprios termos. Mas quando outros "reis citas" ouviram a ameaça de Dario, ficaram apopléticos. Esses reis imediatamente implementaram táticas de bater e correr. Eles então pediram a destruição da ponte que os persas usariam para escapar. Embora os citas não tenham sido bem-sucedidos em destruir a ponte, o apelo do rei para a ação causou a retirada de Dario. (Histórias, 4.126-142) Em última análise, o relato de Heródoto revela que, embora um alto rei ou chefe representasse a nação cita nas mensagens entre notáveis, outros subchefes também expressaram sua opinião e tiveram uma palavra significativa na implementação da ação.

Tão importante quanto sua estrutura tribal, a organização comunal dos militares citas teria sido uma parte não celebrada de seu sucesso. Um copo de ouro fabricado no século 4 AEC a partir do Kul'-Oba kurgan (monte mortuário) na Crimeia mostra soldados acampados. Enquanto dois, com lanças e arcos em punho, parecem contemplar seu destino na próxima ação, um demonstra como amarrar um arco; um remove o dente de seu camarada, enquanto outro faz curativos na perna machucada de um companheiro. Outro artefato em relevo dourado do mesmo kurgan demonstra um ritual comum onde dois guerreiros bebem juntos de um chifre. Essas representações revelam modos de vida destinados a incutir um propósito comum e camaradagem entre os soldados, onde os indivíduos que lutam por amigos contra o inimigo criam uma frente unida e mais resiliente. No entanto, embora a lealdade cita entre os soldados fosse de fato robusta, a lealdade do grupo era para com sua tribo e chefe.

Nomadismo e arquitetura cita

Embora os citas não sejam conhecidos por sua infraestrutura, isso não significa que não tenham tipos arquitetônicos que atendam às suas necessidades. Embora se acredite que eles eram totalmente nômades, Heródoto menciona dois outros tipos de citas: o "real" e o "agrícola". Mais do que cultivadores de subsistência, alguns agricultores, de fato, vendiam ou exportavam seus produtos. Não apenas teriam construído casas permanentes, mas, uma vez que seus esforços eram provavelmente cooperativos, eles também teriam desenvolvido assentamentos. Ao norte do Mar Negro, na atual vizinhança do rio Dnieper, Heródoto menciona os agricultores que habitavam uma terra de "viagem de três dias" de largura e "viagem de onze dias" de longa (Histórias, 4,17-20). O tamanho deste distrito reflete uma demanda significativa por produtos de grãos. Do ponto de vista arquitetônico, esses empreendimentos também exigiriam um sistema de depósitos para armazenamento e estradas para os pontos de transferência.

As carroças citas eram puxadas por bois e podiam ter dois ou três quartos.

Quanto aos citas reais, embora tenhamos a arquitetura de seus túmulos chamados kurgans de terraplenagens e catacumbas cuidadosamente acolchoadas, parece que eles também residiam com certo grau de permanência em assentamentos fortificados. O tamanho da terraplenagem da fortificação de Bel'sk no vale do rio Dnieper, na Ucrânia, não reflete apenas a superação de uma superestrutura significativa (20 milhas ou 33 km de circunferência), mas as indicações são de que era um centro de artesanato, riqueza e difusão troca. Mesmo assim, como atestam fontes antigas, os citas eram em sua maioria nômades. Mais de uma fonte menciona suas casas sobre rodas. Essas carroças cobertas eram puxadas por bois e podiam ter dois ou três quartos. Dependendo da posição do morador, pisos e paredes podem ser opulentemente adornados. Além disso, quando reunidas, as carroças teriam a aparência de uma cidade.

Cultura cita: arte, música e vestimenta

Muito do que se aprendeu sobre a cultura cita vem de descobertas recentes de kurgan ao norte do Mar Negro. Enquanto as fontes escritas antigas se concentram em seu caráter guerreiro nômade, os bens funerários citas adicionam outra camada de compreensão à sua notável sofisticação cultural e vibração social. Além do nível de habilidade intrincada em ouro cintilante, muitas peças contam uma história de vida e, portanto, um pente não é apenas um pente, mas é feito para mostrar guerreiros em combates ferozes. Um peitoral ou gorjal, do Tolstaya mogila kurgan, que mostra no registro superior, com requintados detalhes segmentados, cenas do cotidiano: a ordenha de uma ovelha, dois homens costurando uma camisa, bezerro e potros mamando. Em contraste, o registro inferior exibe cenas dramáticas de presas / predadores de gatos derrubando um veado e grifos mordendo e arranhando cavalos. Em seguida, em lugares escolhidos em direção ao pescoço estão cabras, coelhos, cachorros, gafanhotos e pássaros em miniatura.

Assim, os artefatos do Mar Negro oferecem instantâneos únicos, às vezes dramáticos, da moda, interesses, crenças, hábitos e visuais da vida diária citas como poucos bens fúnebres fazem. Muitos, como o gorget, têm temas de presa / predador, enquanto gatos reclinados ou veados reclinados também eram comuns. A tendência cita oscilava entre a captura incrivelmente realista do assunto no meio da ação e a representação abstrata da realidade. Assim, um veado ou gato pode ser retratado com precisão ou estilizado de forma única.

Igual ao seu gosto imaginativo em ouro, "os túmulos congelados do Altai fornecem uma visão incomparável da exuberância do vestido nômade: o amor por cores brilhantes e contrastantes e decorações intrincadas formadas por costura, bordado e fixação de corte de couro. outs "(Cunliffe, 207). Os itens de vestuário incluem sapatos, leggings, mangas ornamentados com detalhes e uma capa feminina com borda de pele. Da mesma forma, a sofisticação de suas roupas era igualada por uma afinidade com tatuagens. Os conhecedores de tatuagem de hoje apreciariam a arte lado a lado exibida nos braços de um indivíduo na Pazyrk. Tatuadas de forma indelével estão imagens abstratas de gatos, veados, carneiros, antílopes e cabras encaracolados.

Além disso, embora as descobertas do Mar Negro também revelem a escolha prática de calças e túnicas para os cavaleiros em um clima frio, elas também mostram o amor da Cítia pela música e pela dança. Alguns itens mostram dançarinos eróticos (novamente capturados habilmente no meio da ação) balançando ao som da música. No Sachnovka kurgan, uma faixa dourada mostrando um homem tocando a lira foi encontrada. Canos de panela feitos de ossos de pássaros foram encontrados em kurgan 5 em Skatovka. Em várias tumbas em Pazyryk, tambores de chifre de boi foram desenterrados e uma descoberta incrível de um instrumento semelhante a uma harpa que tinha pelo menos quatro cordas vem do kurgan 2. Barry Cunliffe o descreve como "feito de um único ressonador de madeira oco, a parte central do corpo era coberta por uma caixa de ressonância de madeira, enquanto as membranas de ressonância eram esticadas sobre a parte aberta do corpo "(226-27). Os tons emitidos por este instrumento por um músico habilidoso devem ter sido notáveis.

Origens Religiosas

Uma das coisas que o kurgan cita revela é a crença na vida após a morte. Além de objetos de arte, os itens colocados nos montes para a elite falecida incluíam armas, armaduras, partes de carroças, tapetes, tecidos de diferentes tipos, utensílios domésticos, alimentos e vinho lacrado em ânforas. Tal cuidado e provisão para seus mortos refletem como diz Renate Rolle, "uma expectativa do além" (Os citas, 118).

Adoração e simbolismo dos elementos teriam sido parte integrante do sistema de crenças cita.

Como todas as culturas antigas, a adoração e o simbolismo dos elementos teriam sido parte integrante do sistema de crenças cita. Com a extensão plana da estepe sobre a qual pisaram, uma característica proeminente na vida diária teria sido o céu encontrando-se com a terra no horizonte. Outra característica manifesta da qual a estepe eurasiana oferece pouca escapatória seria o sol. Então havia o do fogo. Fornecendo segurança contra feras à noite e utilidade prática diária na culinária e na metalurgia, o fogo nos tempos antigos era essencial e tinha considerável influência simbólica. Não é surpreendente, então, que a terra, o céu, o sol e o fogo passaram a ter um valor teológico particular para os citas. E não é surpreendente que, em sua réplica a Dario, Idanthyrsus alegaria que Héstia (deusa do fogo) e Zeus (deus do céu) eram os únicos deuses aos quais ele se curvaria (Heródoto, Histórias, 4.127.4.).

Heródoto relata oito divindades que os citas adoravam. Além de Héstia e Zeus, conhecidos pelos citas como Tabitha e Papaeus, havia Api (terra mãe), Goetosyrus (Apolo) e Argimpasa (Afrodite). Embora Heródoto omita seus nomes citas, ele também menciona Hércules, Ares e Poseidon. Esses deuses representavam elementos com os quais os citas estavam familiarizados: Ares era associado à guerra e Apolo ao sol. O visual da terra encontra o céu se expressou na crença de que quando o deus do céu, Papaeus, se uniu à Mãe Terra, todos os outros deuses nasceram. Embora pouco se saiba sobre ela, acredita-se que o equivalente cita a Afrodite era Argimpasa, cognata de Arti, a deusa iraniana da abundância material. Finalmente, a respeito de um elemento essencial do sucesso militar, o cavalo, Heródoto menciona Thagimasadas como equivalente a Poseidon, embora não como deus do mar, mas como patrono do cavalo.

Embora Heródoto entendesse a crença cita de sua perspectiva do panteão grego, ele diz que os citas não tinham imagens, altares ou templos. E, de fato, os achados do kurgan revelam poucos deuses e, então, apenas Argimpasa, sua deusa-mãe. Como Cunliffe menciona, "As divindades das camadas superiores do panteão não parecem ter sido antropomorfizadas, ou pelo menos nenhuma representação certa delas é conhecida" (276).

Mulheres guerreiras da Cítia: a conexão com a Amazônia

Finalmente, um aspecto surpreendente no estudo da Cítia é o papel eminente que as mulheres desempenharam na vida militar e política de seu povo. Sem precedentes até os tempos modernos, parece que alguns ganharam - como um grupo - status social igual ao de seus homens. Enquanto a narrativa das Amazonas encontra seu caminho na tradição moderna (Mulher Maravilha), a realidade de sua história tem sido debatida por muito tempo. O relato de Heródoto conta a história de uma raça estrangeira de mulheres guerreiras chegando às costas da Cítia. Como um grupo, eles mantiveram sua independência, mas acabaram se misturando a um bando de jovens citas enviados a eles por anciãos citas. Embora falassem línguas diferentes, os dois grupos viajaram para o leste para formar sua própria tribo. Heródoto afirma que os sármatas foram o resultado dessa união e falavam uma língua cita híbrida. Além disso, essas ferozes mulheres guerreiras mantinham sua independência seguindo seus costumes antigos, muitas vezes caçando por conta própria e guerreando ao lado de seus homens. Eles também proibiram suas filhas de se casarem até que matassem um homem em combate. (Histórias, 4.110-117)

Appian valida o status soberano / guerreiro das mulheres citas. Ao descrever o triunfo de Pompeu por derrotar Mitrídates VI, ele inclui, entre a procissão de reis e generais capturados, "governantes femininos da Cítia" (Guerras Mitridáticas, 17,116-17). O fato de Appian mencionar governantes do sexo feminino, plurais e contemporâneos, indica um status de governo amplo, compartilhado, comum e cooperativo. Além disso, a referência de Heródoto de Tomyris, a rainha guerreira cita, derrotando Ciro, o Grande (c. 600-530 aC) em batalha séculos antes, mais uma vez sugere uma tradição de soberania feminina (Histórias, 1.205-14).

O registro de sítios arqueológicos também indica amplo guerreiro, senão status soberano, para as mulheres citas. Em 1993, no extremo leste da confederação cita em Ak-Alakha, no planalto de Ukok, nas montanhas Altai, os escavadores encontraram o cemitério de uma rica mulher cita. O fato de ela ser a figura central do local, enterrada com objetos de status, rodeada por seis cavalos selados, torna provável que ela fosse pelo menos uma das principais elites de seu povo. Finalmente, de acordo com Cunliffe, no território sármata, "um quinto dos túmulos de guerreiros escavados datando do quinto ao quarto séculos são femininos, enquanto no território cita mais de quarenta sepultamentos femininos de guerreiros são conhecidos" (219).


Se houver confusão, pode ser uma sobreposição de linguagem e identidade, ou seja, um problema de identidade geográfica, Referência Oxford:

  • O sentimento de apego de um indivíduo ou grupo ao país, região, cidade ou vila em que vivem

Se pegarmos dia moderno Irã (identidade linguística) e Turquia (identidade geográfica), a confusão se instalará. O importante é NÃO fazem isto. Houve uma pergunta anterior sobre o povo turco e os mongóis - onde expliquei a genealogia linguística e biológica (com referência ao Línguas altaicas).

Portanto, estamos olhando muito mais para trás no tempo - 850 AC, quando nenhum Irã nem Turquia existia. A melhor abordagem é olhar para isso de um perspectiva migratória, ou seja, de onde eles vêm - & quota formação e desenvolvimento de um grupo étnico& quot. O termo correto aqui é etnogênese (ou seja, origens).


Wusun se funde com o Saka para se tornar os saxões

As origens misteriosas dos saxões antes de eles se fundirem com os anglo-saxões e várias outras tribos para então se tornarem anglo-saxões, é um mistério. Uma conexão misteriosa que encontrei está na antiga Ásia Central, relacionada a uma tribo cita chamada Sacae ou Saka e também a outra tribo há muito perdida conhecida nos tempos antigos pelos chineses como Wusun ou Usun.

Essas duas tribos mais tarde se fundiriam e seriam chamadas de Sacae-Sun ou Sako-Usuni, e mais comumente conhecidas por nós hoje como & # 8220Saxons. & # 8221 Esses mesmos saxões que encontramos vários séculos depois, quando mais tarde seriam encontrados em Grã-Bretanha, Irlanda e Escócia, com muito mais tribos, como os anglos e pictos.

Essas tribos de saxões mais tarde se fundiram em uma tribo que conhecemos como & # 8220Anglo-saxões. & # 8221

Foi durante o século 7 a.C. na antiga Ásia Central, aproximadamente no que hoje é o atual Turquestão e China, que aqui havia vários povos antigos que viveram nesta região que certamente não eram os habitantes originais. Existem vários relatos históricos de tribos estrangeiras que nos contam os nomes das pessoas que ocuparam esta região. Na literatura chinesa, você encontrará nomes para essas tribos como Wusun (Usun), Jiankuns, Yuechis (Yuezhi ou Yue-Tchi) e Se.

Os altos, conhecidos como Wu Suns, vêm para a Ásia Central & # 8211 & # 8220Bárbaros de olhos verdes e cabelos ruivos. & # 8221

Os Wusun (pronuncia-se Oo-soon) cuja casa ficava originalmente no noroeste da China foram descritos no comentário do século 7 ao Hanshu por Yan Shigu, & # 8220 Entre os vários Rong nas regiões ocidentais, a forma Wusun & # 8217s era a mais estranha e os atuais bárbaros que têm olhos verdes e cabelos ruivos e são como macacos, pertenciam à mesma raça dos Wusun. & # 8221

Outra descrição do Wu Sun também pode ser encontrada no livro, & # 8220Marching Sands & # 8221 por Harold Lamb, & # 8220Os anais chineses antigos, & # 8221 observou Sir Lionel & # 8221 observou Sir Lionel com tolerância & # 8220declarou que o Wusun , os & # 8216Tall Ones & # 8217 eram lutadores formidáveis. Os Sacae ou Citas dos quais descendem foram uma das raças conquistadoras do mundo. É essa herança de força que preservou o remanescente do Wusun - para nós encontrarmos. & # 8221

Outro relato que encontrei diz: & # 8220Xinjiang, mostrando o local de Mongghul Kiira (perto do rio Hi [Yili]), o território Wusun aproximado & # 8211 Os alanos, escreve Ammianus, eram & # 8220 altos e bonitos [e] seus cabelos inclina-se para ser loiro & # 8221 (31.2.2 ver Rolfe 1939, 3: 391).

A descrição que nos foi dada na Wikipedia diz

& # 8221 Os Wūsūn (chinês: 烏孫 literalmente & # 8220Netos do corvo & # 8221) eram nômades de fala indo-europeia ou nômades de fala turca ou estepe semi-nômade que, segundo a história chinesa, viveram originalmente no oeste de Gansu, no noroeste China, perto do povo Yuezhi. Depois de serem derrotados pelos Xiongnu (por volta de 176 aC), eles fugiram para a região do rio Ili e (lago) Issyk Kul, onde permaneceram por pelo menos cinco séculos e formaram uma força poderosa. & # 8221

Alguns estudiosos propuseram que os Wusun podem ter sido idênticos às pessoas descritas por Heródoto (IV.16-25) e na Geografia de Ptolomeu e # 8216s como Issedones. A localização exata de seu país na Ásia Central é desconhecida. Os Issedones são & # 8220 colocados por alguns na Sibéria Ocidental e por outros no Turquestão Chinês, & # 8221 de acordo com E. D. Phillips.

Heródoto, que supostamente obteve suas informações através de fontes gregas e citas, descreve-os como vivendo a leste da Cítia e ao norte dos Massagetas, enquanto o geógrafo Ptolomeu (VI.16.7) parece colocar as estações comerciais de Issedon Scythica e Issedon Serica no Tarim Basin.

Os registros chineses mencionam pela primeira vez o & # 8220Ushi & # 8221 em Andin e Pinlian (modernos Pinlian e Guüan na República Popular da China) entre as tribos Lu-hun e Kuyan. A transcrição de Ushi significa & # 8220raven generation & # 8221 e é semanticamente idêntica a U-sun & # 8211 & # 8220raven descendants & # 8221. A presença de um corvo como totem do clã entre os antigos Usuns está fora de dúvida. Na lenda de Usun, os ancestrais dos Usuns eram um corvo e um lobo. Isso se reflete no tamga Usun-Ashina (Oshin) com uma imagem de corvo.

Os primeiros registros históricos relativos aos Wusun, nomeá-los como uma tribo separada e distinta da confederação Xiongnu, vivendo no território da moderna província de Gansu, no vale do Ushui-he (rio chinês Raven). Não está claro se o rio recebeu o nome da tribo Usun ou vice-versa.

Os registros históricos também nos dão prova dessa força poderosa dos Wusuns que foram para a batalha com os Yuechis & # 8220 Os Yue-Tchi, repelidos pelos Wu-Suns em 130 aC, se lançaram sobre Bactria & # 8221 (ver as notas a pág. 119: 13). & # 8220Os Sacx eram então mestres nisso e sua expropriação resultou em pressioná-los em parte para a Índia, onde fundaram um reino, e também em parte para os vales pró-Pamirianos, especialmente o de Oxus. Os Yue-Tchi governaram a Ásia central até 425 A. D. Eles foram despojados, por sua vez, pelos Hoas, ou Epthalite Huns & # 8221 (Hunos Brancos).

Os citas e Saka da nação Se & # 8211 & # 8220Todos os Sakai eram citas, mas nem todos os citas eram Sakai. & # 8221

Além dos wusuns e yuechis, havia outra ou várias tribos maiores que ocuparam o que os chineses chamam de & # 8220Se nação & # 8221, e essas pessoas como um todo são geralmente identificadas como citas, mas pelos chineses como a Sé. Havia outro grupo de citas que eram diferentes dos outros citas e a quem os persas e os gregos chamavam de sacas ou sakas. Diz-se que o Saka período durou até cerca de 200 AC quando Wusun tribos mudaram-se para a área do leste.

Os antigos eruditos gregos e romanos acreditavam que & # 8220 todos os Sakai eram citas, mas nem todos os citas eram Sakai. & # 8221

O termo citas ou citas é usado para descrever vários antigos povos nômades iranianos que viviam na Cítia, a região que abrange a estepe Pôntico-Cáspio e partes da Ásia Central ao longo da Antiguidade Clássica. Os antigos persas chamavam todos os citas de Σάκαι (Sacae, Heródoto 7.64). Sua principal tribo, os & # 8220Royal Scyths & # 8221 governaram as vastas terras ocupadas pela nação como um todo (Heródoto 4.20), chamando-se Σκώλοτοι (Scōloti, Heródoto 4.6). O termo cita, como cimério, era usado para se referir a uma variedade de grupos do mar Negro ao sul da Sibéria e Ásia central.

& # 8220Eles não eram um povo específico & # 8221, mas sim uma variedade de pessoas & # 8220, referidos em várias épocas da história e em vários lugares, nenhum dos quais era sua terra natal original. & # 8221 Esta é a chave em compreender esta época da história e os fatos de que eles certamente não estavam unidos como um povo ou tribo na época. No entanto, eles eram provavelmente todos do mesmo sangue ou parentes muito próximos.

A confusão em torno do Saka é parcialmente devido aos persas, mas de acordo com Heródoto, os persas chamam todos os citas pelo nome de Sakas. A palavra inglesa Saxon é derivada da palavra persa Sacae-sun ou & # 8220Sak, & # 8221 que significa cão. Os persas que admiraram a liderança de todas as tribos citas, chamando-as de Sacae. O Sakai ou Sakas e Sacse, Saha, Sahia, da Índia ou o Straxa Mediano, são todos mutações desta mesma palavra Sak.

Albinus diz: "Os saxões eram descendentes dos antigos Sacae (os Sakas) da Ásia e que eventualmente foram chamados de Saxões." Heródoto havia dito que os persas deram o nome de Sacae ou Sacans a todos os citas. Plínio diz que os Sakai, que se estabeleceram na Armênia, foram chamados de Sacassani. Ptolomeu também menciona um povo cita originado de Sakai, com o nome de saxões. ”

Isso nos diz que os historiadores daquela época e os próprios Saka eram considerados uma tribo separada das outras tribos citas, e isso pode ser devido ao Saka ter outras alianças tribais e / ou de sangue que teriam tornado os Saka diferentes com base no DNA e que possivelmente eram parentes dos outros citas, mas separados por raça, costumes, alianças tribais e destino.

Sakas e Wu Suns, os Saka-Suns ou Saxones formam várias tribos

Os fatos são que os Scythians, Saka e Wu Suns eram as tribos mais formidáveis ​​nesta área da Ásia Central na época. Você descobrirá que quando combina Sacae ou Sakas com os Wu Suns, você obtém os Sacae-Suns ou Sakas-Suns. Os Sacae-Suns ou Saka-Suns soam muito familiares aos saxões, que acredito serem as verdadeiras origens do nome inglês & # 8220Saxones ou Saxões. & # 8221 Os Wu Suns eram a raça que os chineses chamavam de & # 8220tall aqueles & # 8221 e que tinham olhos azuis ou verdes com cabelos loiros ou brancos e pele branca.

No livro intitulado China & # 8217s Últimos Nômades: A História e Cultura da China & # 8217s Kazaks Página 33, temos um relato dessa fusão e também das últimas tribos formadas a partir dessa mesma união. & # 8220O povo wusun mudou-se para o oeste, para o vale do rio Hi, por volta do século III a.C. Aqui, eles se fundiram com os Saka, conhecidos em & # 8230. As tribos Wusun-Saka desta área incluem Jersak, Bessak, Bersak e Kazsak, o nome desta última tribo & # 8230 & # 8221

Os kazsaks eram conhecidos como grande tribo tártaro que então se misturou com os Kalrauk e Kirgis ou são a mesma tribo. Eles estão relacionados a quem as fontes chinesas chamam de Jpovos iankun. De acordo com o Livro Histórico da Dinastia Tang, & # 8220o povo Jiankun é alto e tem cabelos brancos, pele branca e olhos verdes. & # 8221 Hoje, os Jiankun são conhecidos hoje como os Quirguiz (também escrito Kirgiz, Kirghiz), que são um povo turco que vive principalmente no Quirguistão. A palavra & # 8220Kyrgyz & # 8221 é derivada da palavra turca & # 8220forty & # 8221, com -Iz sendo um antigo sufixo plural, referindo-se a uma coleção de quarenta tribos. Quirguistão também significa & # 8220imperecível & # 8221, & # 8220inextinguishable & # 8221, & # 8220imortal & # 8221, & # 8220unconquerable & # 8221 ou & # 8220undefeatable & # 8221,

O Jiankun ou Quirguiz eram bastante fortes no terceiro século, quando eram vizinhos de Wusun. Como afirmado acima, os Jiankun eram considerados altos e tinham cabelos brancos, Branco pele e olhos verdes. Eles também foram descritos em textos da Dinastia Tang como tendo & # 8220 cabelos vermelhos e olhos verdes & # 8221, enquanto aqueles com cabelos e olhos escuros eram considerados descendentes de um general chinês Li Ling. Esta descrição é muito semelhante à que nos foi dada pelos Wusuns, que me diz que eles certamente eram parentes ou eram os mesmos povos. Na Wikipedia, eles são descritos como os primeiros quirguizes, conhecidos como Yenisei Kyrgyz ou Xiajiasi (黠戛斯), aparecem pela primeira vez em registros escritos nos anais chineses do Sima Qian & # 8216s Registros do Grande Historiador (compilado de 109 aC a 91 aC), como Gekun ou Jiankun (鬲 昆 ou 隔 昆).

Nos séculos 18 e 19, os escritores europeus usaram a palavra & # 8220Kirghiz & # 8221 (a forma anglicizada do russo contemporâneo & # 8220киргизы & # 8221) para se referir não apenas às pessoas que agora conhecemos como quirguizes, mas também aos seus mais numerosos parentes do norte, os cazaques. Quando a distinção teve que ser feita, termos mais específicos foram usados: Burut (буруты), Kara-Kirghiz (кара-киргизы) ou & # 8220Dikokamennye Kirgizy & # 8221 (дикокаменные киргизы) para o Quirguistão propriamente dito, e Koisaks para os cazaques.

Antes da época dos citas, os hititas governavam esta terra

Se você estudar a história antes dessas datas e desses povos posteriores chamados de citas ou citas que entraram em cena, você descobrirá que esta área e seus reinos foram fundados por uma enorme tribo que teve um dos maiores impérios que rivalizou ou ultrapassou o Egípcios. Essas pessoas foram chamadas de hititas. Os citas parecem ser uma tribo e raça híbrida que descendeu dos hititas originais, que ocuparam originalmente esta região por milhares de anos antes de os citas ou aquele nome entrarem em cena.

Quem os chineses chamam de Se, são as mesmas pessoas que os gregos chamavam de Sakas. The Sakas were of Scythian descent, and the Scythians I believe I can prove descend from the Hittites whom in turn the Sakas and Saxons would also be descendants of as well. Herodotus tells us that the Sakas had “high caps tapering to a point and stiffly upright.” Asian Saka headgear is clearly visible on the Persepolis Apadana staircase bas-relief – high pointed hat with flaps over ears and the nape of the neck. The Hittites for whom we now have a tremendous amount of archaeological evidence also had worn these exact same tall pointed caps or hats. Many depictions of Hittite men with pointed hats and shoes with curled-up toes have been found in many locations in modern day Turkey.

In addition, there are also many references to the Hittites that have been found and translated in Egyptian inscriptions that describe them as powerful neighbors, who wore boots with turned-up toes, were fond of silver, and and at times they were great enemies of the Pharaohs. This was up until a peace treaty was concluded between Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II and Hittite King Hattusili III, that the Egyptians and Hittites made an “eternal treaty” of “peace and brotherhood for all time.”

I would assume since we hear virtually nothing of the Hittites from the ancient Greeks, that they either did not know of the Hittites, or they simply did not know how to read Egyptian or Hittite heliographs at the time. This would make perfect sense. In any event, we do have Greek historian Herodotus describing the Sakas with “high caps tapering to a point”, and we have a tremendous amount of actual science from both the Egyptians and the actual Hittites themselves that they had also worn pointed caps.

A Possible Wusuns, Sakas, Hittite and Amorite Connection to the Bible

Most modern day stories that we have of these peoples come from the East where they appear to have had a significant impact in this region in the time of the Old Testament and also the beginning of the New Testament. However, you will not find the name of “Wusuns” in the bible today or any religious historical documents. They seem to have just disappeared off the face of the earth, leaving very little evidence behind.

The presence of a possible Nordic type race that was tall, fair skinned and had blue eyes can also be found among the biblical Amorites, that I believe also makes a possible connection to whom the Chinese depicted as the Wusuns. In addition, the Wusun appear to sound very similar to white Syrians who were said to be descendants of the Hittites and may have also been descendants of the Amorites. The white Syrians were also generally tall, with white or blonde hair and light blue or even grey eyes. This possible connection to the Wusuns places them right in the heart of biblical history, and also in the location of these stories in connection to the Amorites who were said to be as “tall as cedars.”

The historical accounts that I have given above of these mysterious peoples describe them with such terms as the “Green Eye Devils,” the tall ones, and also the blue-eyed, red-bearded people, which gives us a clue how so-called European DNA was infused into these regions of the world. The descriptions of the tribe of the Wusuns and also the historical accounts of the merger with the Sakas, gives us researchers clues to not only what race these peoples may have been, but also the origins of the tribe known as the Saxons who later went on to help shape much of Europe and the west as we know it today.

In closing, here is a bible passage to ponder until my next article under Ezekiel 16:3 – “And say, Thus said the Lord GOD to Jerusalem Your birth and your nativity is of the land of Canaan your father was an Amorite, and your mother a Hittite.”

In my next article I would like to explore this possible connections of the Wu Suns and Saxons with the biblical Hittites and Amorites.

IMAGE CREDIT

Ancient Üysin 3-1 centuries BCE Taldıqorğan region in Jetisu. Reconstruction by Shayahmetov


The Scythians Inhaled, That’s the Point

The Scythian penchant for inhaling marijuana smoke is something we still enjoy millennia later. What’s interesting is that they set up what we would call ‘saunas’ for the specific purpose of inhaling the smoke. The burning hemp seeds were covered by a small tent under which they placed their head. Herodotus believed the Scythians used the vapor baths for washing, but it was more likely a religious ritual.

It is easy to dismiss this incident as a very special ritual and not something that defined the Scythians. However, discovering a Scythian shaman’s body in a frozen, undisturbed grave in the Altai Mountains in 1993 has changed that mindset a little.

The shaman’s corpse was found with hashish and several other hemp products. Known as the ‘Siberian Ice Maiden,’ MRI scans found that she had breast cancer. She may have used cannabis to manage the pain!

Not every ancient writer approved of cannabis use. Hesychius of Alexandria opined that the Scythian incense known as hemp had “the power of stealing the youthful vigor of all who stand near.” It seems there have been Jeff Sessions-type people around since the dawn of time.


Tattooed Scythian Warriors, Descendants of the Amazons? Parte um

Herodotus describes the Scythians living in the area north of the Black Sea about three thousand years ago. According to him they traced their ancestry directly from Zeus and the river nymph Borysthenis, daughter of the river god Borysthenes, the union of which produced a son named Tagitaos and he in turn had three sons with a human woman, demigods, who were the progenitors of the three Scythian tribes. It is said that in the time of the sons of Tagitaos there came down from heaven four items made of gold. These items were a plow, a yoke, a cup and a battle axe. Each brother attempted to use the items but they were met with a blazing fire or great heat but when the youngest approached the items the fire was gone and they worked only for him and from him the tribe of the Royal Scythians was formed. If one looks at such a tale with modern eyes we could imagine that the items were technology coded to only function for one individual and possibly dangerous as it was also said that anyone who slept while guarding these items in the open would die within a year

Now while Herodotus, the historian and teller of this tale doubted that the Scythians were indeed the descendants of Zeus, he nonetheless recorded their accounts. He also tells a different account where they are the descendants of another of Zeus’ sons, Heracles and the half serpent half goddess Echidna, but that story seems like a more fanciful telling of the first story and involves many of the same events. He goes on to say that he favours a third version of their origin which tells of wandering Asiatic tribes that migrated into the lands of the Cimmerians.

The longer you look, the origin of the Scythians becomes more and more cloudy and some scholars contend that the Scythians referred to by Herodotus are really only the remnants of a much earlier people who were once widespread and very advanced with great cities, ships, farming and herding. If we remember the story of the golden plow, yoke, cup and battle axe we would infer that farming must have been important to the early Scythians if their gods saw fit to gift them with a magical plow and yoke, not a very practical gift for nomadic horsemen. This possibility seems very likely since the Scythians of Herodotus’ time were known to be nomadic and the earlier Scythians are credited with developing the smelting of iron and bronze, the invention of the battle axe (actually credited to the Amazons among the Scythians), the pottery wheel, the bellows, the anchor and the science of horse breeding. One has to wonder why nomads would invent the anchor.

Fred Hamori wrote that Justinius II referred to the Scythians as one of the oldest civilizations in the world even older than the Egyptians and that they were most likely a northern Mesopotamian culture, not the later immigrant tribes who adapted many of their customs. The Scythians described by the Greeks were apparently an amalgamation of many peoples overlaying a very ancient culture that existed in the area around the Black Sea.

Whatever their origins, the Scythians were a remarkable people with a very ancient origin that remains a mystery. However, two more tales of the Scythians are even stranger. One is the story of the bald people who were once part of the royal Scythians but separated themselves and went to live isolated at the foot of a mountain. Herodotus described them thus Passing over a great extent of this rough country, you come to a people dwelling at the foot of lofty mountains, who are said to be all- both men and women- bald from their birth, to have flat noses, and very long chins. These people speak a language of their own the dress which they wear is the same as the Scythian. They live on the fruit of a certain tree, the name of which is Ponticum in size it is about equal to our fig-tree, and it bears a fruit like a bean, with a stone inside. … No one harms these people, for they are looked upon as sacred- they do not even possess any warlike weapons. When their neighbours fall out, they make up the quarrel and when one flies to them for refuge, he is safe from all hurt. They are called the Argippaeans .

Now we have a race of people who believe they were descended from the three sons of a god, they are so early that even in the time of Herodotus their origins were ancient history, they believed they had received technology directly from their gods and a small number of them, described as not normal humans lived apart and served as judges and protectors and the strange story gets even stranger…now we bring in the Amazons.

It seems that in all the histories of the Scythians one point is either marginalized or simply mentioned as if it is not important, but I contend that it is of upmost importance if we are to truly understand the psyche of the Scythians, the existence of the Amazons and in fact the history of all humanity.

In part two I discuss how the Amazons joined with the Scythians.

J. A. Salmonson, The Encyclopedia of Amazons (1991), ISBN 0385423667

F. G. Bergmann, Les Amazones dans l'histoire et dans la fable (1853)

J.Harmatta: "Scythians" in UNESCO Collection of History of Humanity – Volume III: From the Seventh Century BC to the Seventh Century AD. Routledge/ UNESCO. 1996.

The Real Scythians of Messopotamia, Fred Hamori, based on a work by Gyula Mszros

The History of Herodotus, George Rawlinson, ed. and tr., vol. 3, Book 4, Chapters 2-36, 46-82. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1885]

Margaretmoose

Margaret Moose

Margaret F. Moose is a native North Carolinian. She graduated from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro where she studied cultural and physical anthropology and fine art. She then attended the University of Pittsburgh and did graduate. Read More


The fall of scythia

In the second half of the fourth century b.c., however, several factors precipitated a crisis. The development of a dry and warm climate, together with overexploitation of the steppe grazing lands by the great herds, again triggered migration. As a result of these changes, from the second half of the fourth century b.c., the Sauromates and the Sarmates, tribes from central Eurasian steppes, began to venture across the Don River and threaten Scythian territories. Simultaneously, a powerful force arose in southern Europe that eventually changed the world's political order—Macedonia. This period also witnessed the reign of one of the greatest Scythian rulers, King Ateas (d. 339), an excellent warrior and experienced leader who supposedly ruled over all of Scythia. He fought Philip II (r. 359–336), the king who gave rise to Macedonian power, in a battle in the Lower Danube in which the Scythians suffered a shattering defeat and the aged king (apparently more than ninety years old) was killed in battle.

More defeats followed, such as the one suffered in 313 b.c. at the hands of one of the Diadoches, the Thracian ruler Lizymachos. The Sarmates moving in from the east also were an increasing threat. As a result, during the third century b.c., Scythian territories shrank to the area of the Crimea steppes, where a new political organization appeared with their capital in the so-called Neapolis Scythica. During the second century b.c., it still played a certain political role, fighting for survival with Chersonesus, with the Sarmates, and at the end with the Pontic kingdom of Mithridates VI Eupator (r. 120–63 b.c.). Finally, the influx of Sarmatian nomads into the Crimean region led to the intermixing of both elements. Remnants of the Scythians survived here until the third to fourth centuries a.d., when the Germanic Goths appeared on the scene. In the aftermath of the Hun invasion in 375 a.d. the Scythians disappeared from history.


Top 10 Interesting Facts about the Scythians

The Scythians were a nomadic tribe that dominated the steppes for nearly five hundred years (From the 8th to approximately the 3rd Centuries BC). The Scythians spoke a tongue from the Northeastern Iranian language family. The Scythians were renowned for their ability to shoot their arrows with deadly accuracy from horseback. This talent astounded their neighbors, who referred to them as the &ldquohorse-bowmen.&rdquo The greatest amount of territory under Scythian influence extended west to east from Ukraine to an area of Siberia just above Mongolia. Scythians settled as far west as what is now modern-day Romania and Hungary and appeared in what is now modern-day Iran just as the Assyrians and Medes were battling for supremacy in the Near-East.

The Assyrians attempted to imitate the grandeur of the Babylonians, but their despotic rule was held together by the might of their army and the terror of their secret agents. The Scythians displaced and drove another steppe tribe, the Cimmerians, toward Assyrian territory. These Cimmerians created havoc for the Assyrian army, who had great difficulty reacting to the raids of these swiftly moving horsemen. The increasing encroachment of the Cimmerians weakened the Assyrians and provided their vassals with opportunity to rebel. Egypt expelled the Assyrians and regained it independence. Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, panicked at his contracting frontiers and sacked Babylon and destroyed Susa in an attempt to terrorize his remaining peoples into submission. Meanwhile, in the wake of the Cimmerians, the Scythians were provided with increasingly tempting opportunities to raid Assyria. They surged into the Middle East, overwhelming the Assyrian infantry with their speed and firepower. The Babylonians and Medes formed an alliance, and with the mercenary aid of the Scythians, shattered the Assyrian Empire.

The full-bearded Scythians wore tall pointed caps, long coats clasped around their waists by a belt, and pants tucked into their boots. The wealthier warriors had iron scales sewn to leather as jackets, while the average Scythian relied on their round oblong wicker shields draped in leather for protection.

The primary weapon of the Scythians was their short composite bow, which could fire an arrow up to eighty yards. When they hunted birds, the Scythians used a fine arrowhead, as they aimed for the eyes. When they shot at other warriors, however, the Scythians used barbed arrowheads designed to tear a wound open on the way out. They also brewed their own poisons for their arrow tips, a mixture of snake venom, putrefied human blood, and, to hasten infection, dung. The secondary weapons of the Scythians were the sagaris, a curved battle-axe, and the akinakes, a curved short-sword.

The Scythians&rsquo culture may have disappeared long ago, but their burial mounds remain. These kurhans were built as repositories for the great Scythian chieftains and kings. Atop these strange mounds stood crudely carved stone figures, guarding the bodies and possessions of the deceased interned within. The largest of these kurhans are the height of a six-story building and are more than ninety metres across. The mounds were not just piles of dirt or refuse, but were actually layers of sod to provide grazing in the afterlife for the many horses buried along with the deceased.

As mentioned in the previous item, the burial of Scythian nobility was quite elaborate. In one kurhan uncovered in 1898, archaeologists found 400 horses arrayed in a geometric pattern around the body of the slain warrior. It was not only horses who were slaughtered, but consorts and retainers also had the dubious honor of joining their lord in the afterlife. Herodotus reported that mourners would pierce their left hands with arrows, slash their arms, and cut off portions of their ears in demonstration of their sorrow. A year following the burial, 50 horses and 50 slaves were killed, gutted, stuffed, and impaled on posts around the kurhan. The horses stood upright, mounted by the dead slaves, ghastly sentinels guarding the tomb of their slain lord.

Before the Scythians can be dismissed as blood-thirsty barbarians, one really needs to see their elaborate golden artwork. Scythian gold came from the Altai district and from frequent raids on Greek and Persian cities. Gold was sewn into their garments in the form of plates, fashioned into belts, broaches, necklaces, torques, scabbards, helmets, earrings, and ornaments, and worked into their weapons. The Scythians had an eye for design, especially depictions of griffins, lions, wolves, stags, leopards, eagles and &ndash the Scythians&rsquo favourite motif &ndash animals in deadly combat. The historian, William Montgomery McGovern, claimed, &ldquoFrom the mass of evidence now before us, it seems highly probably that this Scytho-Sarmatian animal style spread to all parts of the ancient world and had an important effect not only upon European art but upon the art of ancient China.&rdquo

After battle, Scythian warriors would drink the blood of the first enemy he had killed. With the bloody taste still in his mouth, the Scythian would decapitate the corpses of his slain enemies to use as grisly vouchers in the distribution of booty. Only warriors who presented the heads of their slain enemies would receive their share from the chieftain or king. After receiving his share, a warrior would take the scalps from his collection of heads as a lurid inventory of martial prowess. The scalps were affixed to their bridles and clothing and even sewn into cloaks. The skulls of the strongest, most respected, enemies were cut, gilded with gold, and made into wine goblets. Scythians also used the skin from their victims&rsquo limbs as covers for the quivers that hung on the right side of their belts.

The Scythians were fond of marijuana and were responsible for bringing it from Central Asia to Egypt and Eastern Europe. In one Scythian grave, archaeologists found a skull with three small holes drilled into it &ndash probably to ease swelling. Beside the skull, the archaeologists found a cache of marijuana, ostensibly to relieve the man&rsquos headache in the next life. From Herodotus comes what is, in all likelihood, the most ancient description of hotboxing: &ldquoAfter the burial . . . they set up three poles leaning together to a point and cover them with woolen mats . . . They make a pit in the centre beneath the poles and throw red-hot stones into it . . . they take the seed of the hemp and creeping under the mats they throw it on the red-hot stones, and being thrown, it smolders and sends forth so much steam that no Greek vapour-bath could surpass it. The Scythians howl in their joy at the vapour-bath.&rdquo

Herodotus relates the tale of a clash between Scythians and Amazons near the Sea of Azov. When the Scythians learned that their fierce opponents were, in fact, women, they sent their most virile warriors to woo, rather than war, these female warriors. Somehow, the Amazons were seduced by the charms of the wily Scythians. They were, however, unwilling to be the brides of their Scythian lovers, turning their nose up at the domestic role that Scythian wives were relegated to. Eventually, according to the tale, the two groups formed a joint tribe.
There is likely little truth to this tale, but archaeologists have recently found the remains of a number of well-armed Scythian women. In all likelihood, this means that Scythian society saw a place for female warriors.

In 513 BC The Scythians were attacked by Darius the Great, who raised a force of 700,000 men to put an end to their bothersome raids into his territory. Taking advantage of the vast steppe, the Scythians merely retreated when the Persians advanced and advanced when the Persians retreated. The Scythian scouts milled about, striking from a distance if any of the Persians ever had the misfortune of breaking formation or exposing a flank. Herodotus reports that, at one point, both sides had drawn up battle lines when a loud whooping arose from among the Scythian warriors. The Scythian horsemen suddenly broke their battle line and galloped impulsively after a hare. &ldquoThese fellows have a hearty contempt for us,&rdquo Darius is reported to have muttered to an aide. Running low on food and morale, Darius eventually withdrew his army.


The Hammer and Anvil

He moved his artillery to the bank of the river and began to shower the Scythians with projectiles—one of the projectiles said to have killed the Scythian chief Satraces or their champion warrior, nevertheless, it remains unknown, but the outcome seems to have not rattled the Scythians knees.

The artillery Alexander placed on the bank of river worked well for its intended use, which was to push the Scythians back, allowing the Macedonian forces to cross the river safely. Once the river was safe to cross, Alexander sent in a portion of cavalry first. However, some think that the use of cavalry was a military blunder that turned in his favor.

Battle between the Scythians and their enemies. (Domínio público)

Stephen Tanner, who wrote the popular book, “Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the War against the Taliban Insurgency” argues that the Macedonian element (cavalry) advanced in to quickly and was surrounded by the Scythians. However, it seems Alexander may have done this intentionally. The tactician knew better than to just send in an attack force for the slaughter. He knew he had to bait the Scythians, for if he did not, the Scythians would play a cat and mouse game of reverse attrition. In other words, the Scythians would lose few while the bigger forces would lose many!

Battle of the Jaxartes, Alexander crossing river. Battle movement images by Stephen Smith. (Creative Commons)

As the advance Macedonian cavalry came closer into contact with the Scythians, the Scythians broke themselves up into units and quickly moved into position surrounding the enemy from afar. Each unit began to form a circle and rode around like they were in a race, chasing each other’s tails. This was like how a hurricane is perceived it is a deadly circle that rotates about, spewing forth projectiles. The high winds represent the bow and whatever the winds spit out are the arrows.

With the advanced Macedonian cavalry now surrounded by many Scythian cavalry circles showering them down with arrows, Alexander began to advance with the rest of his force. Alexander knew that by sending in a small cavalry force as bait, the Scythians would quickly go after it. What the Scythians did not expect was what was coming next.

Battle of the Jaxartes, Alexander luring Scythians to battle. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Alexander then gave the orders for his light infantry to advance towards the Scythian cavalry in front of Alexander. Now, as the light infantry advanced towards the Scythians, Alexander than gave the order for a second part of his cavalry to block any flanking attempt by the Scythian horse archers. Once the pieces were in place, half of the Scythian cavalry found themselves surrounded. Alexander then gave the order to his heavy cavalry to charge at the surrounded Scythian horse archers. The heavy cavalry shot through the gaps between his light infantry and anti-flanking cavalry and plunged right into the Scythian ranks, thus allowing the advance cavalry unit that was sent in as bait to now focus on the Scythians that found themselves surrounded. This allowed Alexander’s anti-flanking cavalry to ward off the remaining Scythian cavalry, thus allowing the light infantry men to advance in quickly in order to dislodge any enemy combatants on horseback. Overall, it was a brilliant maneuver on Alexander behalf.

The Battle of Jaxartes – Alexander traps the nomadic Scythian cavalry. (Creative Commons)

The outcome of the battle was a Macedonian victory through Alexander’s brilliance. As for deaths, the Macedonians only killed a small number, roughly around 1,000 with another 150 captured. The main part of the Scythian cavalry force escaped capture. It was a small battle that produced a new tactic for consideration when facing the Scythians.


You are here: Casa Artigos História Religiosa From Israelite to Saxon

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From Israelite to Saxon
In speaking of the United States and Britain as modern Israel, it is necessary to remember certain things in order to avoid confusion. First of all, the people of Israel were no more divided into tribes, but had, centuries before, passed into the more advanced stage of national organization. It is the natural progress of any progressive people. First, it is the family, then the tribes, then the nation embracing the tribes. We must think of Israel as a nation and a company of nations, no more called Israel, for the best of reasons, but called by the name, above all others, of sons or House of Isaac, or Saxons, with many other branch names.

Secondly, we must remember that they were not the original founders of Israel in the Isles - that is to say, in Britain - but they came in very late in British history, even a thousand years after the House of David had arrived and been established there.

We shall, therefore, approach the subject of the ten-tribed House of Israel as being the consideration of a branch of the Israel people which, late in history, arrived in Britain, and added their strength to those who had preceded them.

We begin with the separation of the House of Israel from the House of Judah. Thereafter there were two nations in Palestine of the Israel stock, and their histories are separately recorded, with their separate lines of kings, in the books of Kings and Chronicles. Read them there, and be sure to read them separately.

Thence we find Israel carried captive to Halah, Habor, and the River Gozan. Professor Odlum says of this deportation:

"The distance to which Israel was carried from their own country in about 721 B.C. was not less than seven hundred miles in a north and east direction. The Syrian desert, the River Euphrates, the Mesopotamian region, the Tigris, and three ranges of the Kurdistan mountains intervened between Samaria and the new home of Israel in captivity. In this district were the cities and regions of Halah, Habor, and the River Gozan, which flowed into the Caspian Sea, as it does today. This new home was the high tablelands of Media and Armenia . & quot

While settled in this district, they aided the Medes and Persians to break the power of their captors, the Assyrians. Afterwards Babylon went down before their arms.

From this time they were on their way to their new European home. They found unoccupied territory in the neighbourhood of Ar-Sareth in southeast Europe.

Here they occupied the Crimea, and spread up the waterways, passing the watershed and down the waterways to the Baltic and the North Seas.

Sharon Turner says: "The migrating Scythians crossed the Araxes, passed out of Asia, and suddenly appeared in Europe in the sixth century B.C."

Esdras in the Apocrypha tells us that the Ten Tribes left their exile and moved away across the Euphrates to a place called Arsareth (City or Hill of Sareth) (2 Esdras 13:39-45). To the northwest of the Black Sea is a river called Sareth to this day.

Herodotus, speaking of the same date as Esdras, says: "The Scythians emerged from beyond the Euphrates across the Armenian river Araxes."

Rev. W. M. H. Milner says: "The fugitive host, starting from upper Media, passed the north end of Lake Umri into the mountain valleys of the Kurds here some dropped off, and their children became in after ages the Nestorian Church. These were for thirteen centuries the missionaries of Asia."

Herodotus says the Persians called the Scythians Sakai, and Sharon Turner identifies these very people as the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons. The old Greek writers spoke often of the valour and the undaunted spirit of these Scythians. They say "No nation on earth can match them. They are unconquerable."

Professor Odlum continues: "From Josephus, the Jewish historian of the first century, we learn that at A.D. 70 the Ten Tribes were outside the Roman Empire. By other means we learn that they were in the south of Russia in immense multitudes, and known as the Scythians of Herodotus."

The burial places of the Israel people have furnished ample inscriptions to show clearly that the Crimea was a centre of residence for this people for ages, and that from it they spread up through Europe and eastward as far as China.

Diodorus says: "The Sacae sprang from people in Media who obtained a vast and glorious empire."

Ptolemy finds the Saxons in "a race of Scythians called Saki, who came from Media."

Pliny says: "The Sakai were among the most distinguished people of Scythia who settled in Armenia, and were called Sacae-Sani. & quot

Albinus says: "The Saxons were descended from the ancient Sacae in Asia."

Prideaux finds that "the Cimbrians (Kumrii) came from the Black and Caspian Seas, and that with them came the Angli. & quot

Sharon Turner, the most painstaking Saxon historian says: 'The Saxons were a Scythian nation, and were called Saca, Sachi, Sach-sen. & quot

Colonel Gawler, in Our Scythian Ancestors, says: "The word Sacae is fairly and without straining or imagination translated Israelites."

The Bible (Amos, chapter seven) solemnly takes cognizance of the change of the name of the nation and people from Israel to "the House of Isaac" (Saxons).

Thus we see these people settled about the Crimea, along the rivers of Europe from the sixth century B.C.

Their migrations to the Baltic and North Seas are well told by Du Chaillu, a scholar of England with a French name.

The militant progress of the Goths, Gotti, "Men of God," is well known in the history of Europe. The divisional names of Angles, Jutes, and so on, are duplicated today by the names our race now bears as English, Welsh, Scotch, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, (Anzacs), Americans, and so on.

From the sixth century B.C. to the time of the landing of Hengist and Horsa, these people had been steadily progressing up through Europe, God's Battle Axe Brigade (see Jer. 51:20). Finally, they came in and occupied the place, which had been made for them in the British Isles by the Roman occupation. Since that time they have been not the least important part of the Israel peoples dwelling in the "appointed place" (the British Isles), and extending to the overseas dominions the strength and energy of their race.

It has been possible only to touch authorities and evidences of the identity of the Anglo-Saxons with ten-tribed Israel. But even so, the array of standard authors who make declarations regarding this matter is startling, and it is clear that the scholar who denies an historic basis to the claim of Saxon identity with Israel speaks rather out of his lack of knowledge of standard literature, than out of his knowledge of the subject.

Quotes

"TO SERVE THE PRESENT AGE,
MY CALLING TO FULFIL,
O MAY IT ALL MY POWERS ENGAGE,
TO DO MY MASTER'S WILL!"

MAYNARD G. JAMES
(1902-1988)
HOLINESS EVANGELIST

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Approximate extent of Scythia and the Scythian languages (orange) in the 1st century BC

A new book provides additional evidence that the Scots of Scotland came from Scythia:

Book review: The Highland Clans, by Alistair Moffat

Not many have noted, as Moffat does, that when teams of geneticists led by Professor Bryan Sykes took DNA samples in the Celtic regions of Britain they discovered ancestries in the Caucasus, which lay within ancient Scythia, and Mediterranean Europe. If those prototypical Scotti had travelled from Scythia towards the setting sun they would most likely have journeyed over decades and centuries through the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Straits of Gibraltar…

Moffat locates the origins of the Scottish clans in bloodline and land. Around a thousand years ago extended family groups, the descendants of Picts (Clan Chattan) or Vikings (MacLeod) or Gaels (MacDonald) or Anglo-Normans (Fraser), sought to maintain their line and defend their acres. They evolved into a society which combined the ability to herd animals, grow crops, steal, trade and muster war parties from among the same modest body of men.

http://news.scotsman.com/features/Book-review-The-Highland-Clans.6223804.jp

Because we in the Living Church of God have long suspected that the term Scot came from Scythia and that some of the Scythians (and probably Parthians) were descended from many of the tribes of Israel.

Notice the following from Dr. D. Winnail:

Records of History

The Bible and history record that Assyrians carried the ten tribes of Israel into captivity, into what is today northern Iraq, northwestern Iran and Armenia—the area between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. The Black Obelisk from Nineveh in ancient Assyria (now in the British Museum) refers to the Israelites as the Khumri or the people of Omri (the name of the Israelite king who built Samaria—the capital city of the northern kingdom of Israel, as noted in 1 Kings 16:21–27). The Babylonians referred to these same people as the Gimiri. Around 500bc, the Persian king Darius carved an inscription of his conquests in three different languages on a rock face at Behistun in northwestern Iran. This inscription refers to the Gimri Enquanto o Sacae (who historians also identify with the Scythians who spread over Europe). Archeologist George Rawlinson stated, “We have reasonable grounds for regarding the Gimirri, ou Cimmerians… and the Sacae of the Behistun Rock… as identical with the Beth-Khumree of Samaria, or the Ten Tribes of the House of Israel” (The Story of Celto-Saxon Israel, Bennett, p. 151).
Clear historical and biblical evidence traces the ancient Israelite tribes’ migration through the lands of Armenia as well as northern Iraq and Iran. This agrees with historical records that trace the origins of people now living in Britain. The Declaration of Abroath (the “Scottish Declaration of Independence”), written in 1320ad, states that the Scots’ ancestors came from Greater Scythia (around the Black Sea) through the Mediterranean Sea to Spain and then to Britain “twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea” (Bennett, pp. 159–161). o Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, written around 800ad, traces the origins of the Saxon peoples to the region of Armenia (ibid., p. 209). In his work The Ruin of Britain, the early British writer Gildas (475–550ad) refers to the British people as Israelites. Irish legends call some of the first Irish settlers the tuatha de Danann (The Story of the Irish Race, MacManus, p. 5). Cyrus Gordon, a leading American archeologist, recognized the tuatha de Danann as the biblical tribe of Dan, and connected these Israelite peoples with Ireland and Denmark (Bennett, p. 79). These Danite peoples first arrived in Ireland around the time of the Israelites’ exodus from Egypt. It is also interesting that the Welsh refer to themselves as the Cymri or Cymru—after the Assyrian name for the people of Israel. The records of history link the national identities of England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Denmark with the Israelites of the Bible (Winnail D. Modern Nations and God’s Ancient Plan. Tomorrow’s World Magazine, Volume 8, Issue 4. July-August, 2006).

Hence, history shows some of the travels of the tribes of Israel. (Note: For more on the Scottish people, please see an article by Rod King titled Who Are the Scots?).

Notice additional information from Dr. Winnail:

Though many modern scholars have lost track of the Israelite tribes, the identity and location of the tribes of Israel have not realmente been lost!…Josephus, a Jew writing in the first century ad, recorded that “the ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude” (Antiquities of the Jews, 11:5:2). The phrase “beyond the Euphrates” reveals that the ten tribes were in Parthia—an area south of the Caspian Sea—where the Israelites had gone into captivity centuries earlier. Oxford Professor George Rawlinson noted that the Parthians were part of the Scythians, that their name “Parthi” meant “exiles” and that they had been under the dominion of the Assyrians and the Medes (The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, pp. 19, 26)—a description that fits the Israelites! Parthians heard Peter speak in Jerusalem on Pentecost (Acts 2:9). The early church historian Eusebius (263–339ad) relates that Christ’s disciple Andrew went to Scythia, and that Thomas went to Parthia (The History of the Church, 3:1:1). Early traditions also link Bartholomew and Philip with these same areas—which shows that the Apostles sabia the location of the Israelite tribes in their day.

Historians connect the Scythians with a people called the Sacae. In his translation of Herodotus’ As histórias, Rawlinson connected the Sacae—mentioned in inscriptions that Darius commissioned ca. 500bc on the Behistun Rock in northwestern Iran—“with the Beth-Khumree of Samaria, or the Ten Tribes of the House of Israel” (p. 378). In the Apocrypha, the book of 2 Esdras states that (after the fall of the Assyrian empire) “the ten tribes… took this counsel among themselves… [to] go forth into a further country… and they entered into the Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river” (2 Esdras 13:40–45)—they headed north through the gorges to the Crimea. Nineteenth century London historian Sharon Turner wrote, “The emigrating Scythians crossed the Araxes [a river between the Black and Caspian Sea], passed out of Asia, and invading the Kimmerians, suddenly appeared in Europe, in the seventh century before the Christian era” (The History of the Anglo-Saxons, vol. 1, pág. 98). Turner also described how the Scythians and a related people, the Kimmerians (Kimbri or Kumri or Cymry), eventually reached Britain, and that “The Welsh, who are their descendants, have always called themselves Cymry” (ibid., p. 34)—indeed, that name is on their postcards today!…

Prophetic Significance

Mas porque is it important, today, to know the identity and location of the tribes of Israel? Bible prophecies record traits of the tribes of Israel that will become obvious and recognizable “in the last days” (Genesis 49:1). Moses prophesied that the descendants of the Israelites would become utterly corrupt and face difficult times “in the latter days” (Deuteronomy 4:27–30 28:26–29). Jeremiah warns of a coming period of tribulation and chastisement for sinful Israelite nations that he calls a time of “Jacob’s trouble” (Jeremiah 30:1–15). God’s servants have the duty to warn His people of dangers that lie ahead (Isaiah 58:1 Amos 3:7). Understanding the location and identity of modern Israelite nations is a key to understanding Bible prophecies about their future, and it helps to target our message as these prophecies come alive hoje! (Winnail D. Finding the “Lost” Tribes of Israel. Tomorrow’s World magazine, Nov-Dec 2008, pp. 14-15)

We in the Living Church of God believe that the descendants of “lost tribes” of Israel ended up in Europe. And some further migrated to places such as the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and elsewhere.


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