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Truman Capote, autor de "In Cold Blood", morre

Truman Capote, autor de


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Truman Capote, o autor do romance policial pioneiro À sangue frio, morre aos 59 anos em Los Angeles.

À sangue frio contou a história do assassinato da família Clutter em 1959 em Holcomb, Kansas. Richard Hickock e Perry Smith, dois em liberdade condicional da Penitenciária do Estado de Kansas, decidiram roubar Herbert Clutter, um fazendeiro de sucesso, após ouvir o boato de que ele mantinha um cofre cheio de dinheiro em sua casa. Os dois homens chegaram à casa da fazenda Clutter em 15 de novembro de 1959. Depois de descobrir que não havia cofre, eles cortaram a garganta de Herbert Clutter e atiraram em sua cabeça. Perry Smith então atirou na esposa de Clutter, Bonnie, e em seus dois filhos adolescentes, Nancy e Kenyon. Hickock e Smith foram capturados pela polícia mais de um mês depois em Las Vegas. No julgamento, eles alegaram insanidade temporária, mas foram condenados e sentenciados à morte. Os dois morreram enforcados em 14 de abril de 1965, na Penitenciária do Estado do Kansas em Lansing.

Depois de ler um artigo sobre os assassinatos de Clutter, Truman Capote se interessou pelo caso e viajou para o Kansas com seu amigo de infância Harper Lee, que mais tarde escreveu Matar a esperança. Capote, uma figura extravagante que alcançou fama literária aos 23 anos com seu romance Outras vozes, outras salas e também escreveu a novela de 1958 "Breakfast at Tiffany’s", pesquisou meticulosamente o caso, com a ajuda de Lee. Capote conduziu uma série de entrevistas na prisão com os assassinos que lhe permitiram entrar em suas cabeças e descrever eventos e conversas como se estivesse presente.

Em Cold Bold foi originalmente serializado em O Nova-iorquino e então publicado em forma de livro em 1965. Referido por Capote como um “romance de não ficção”, tornou-se um best-seller internacional. A celebridade de Capote disparou, mas mais tarde ele lutou contra o vício das drogas e do álcool. Ele morreu de doença hepática em Los Angeles, na casa de Joanna Carson, a quarta esposa do apresentador de talk-show Johnny Carson.

Em 1967, uma versão cinematográfica de À sangue frio foi lançado, estrelado por Robert Blake como Perry Smith. Em 2005, um filme intitulado Capote contou a história da investigação do autor sobre os assassinatos de Clutter e sua fascinação pelo crime.


Primeira Vida (1924-1943)

Truman Capote nasceu como Truman Streckfus Persons em New Orleans, Louisiana, em 30 de setembro de 1924. Seu pai era Archulus Persons, um vendedor de uma respeitada família do Alabama. Sua mãe era Lillie Mae Faulk, uma jovem de 16 anos de Monroeville, Alabama, que se casou com Pessoas pensando que ele era sua passagem para fora da zona rural do Alabama, mas então percebeu que ele era só conversa e nenhuma substância. Faulk matriculou-se na escola de negócios e voltou para a casa de sua família para morar com sua família, mas logo percebeu que ela estava grávida. Ambos os pais foram negligentes: Pessoas fizeram alguns esforços empresariais questionáveis, incluindo tentar gerenciar um artista secundário conhecido como Grande Paxá, enquanto Lillie Mae embarcava em uma série de casos de amor. No verão de 1930, Lillie Mae deixou a família para tentar sobreviver na cidade de Nova York, deixando o filho com parentes em Monroeville, Alabama.

O jovem Truman passou os dois anos seguintes com as três irmãs Faulk: Jennie, Callie e Nanny Rumbley, todas inspiradoras para os personagens de suas obras. Seu vizinho na época era a moleca Nelle Harper Lee, a suposta autora de Matar a esperança, que protegeu Truman de valentões. Em 1932, Lillie Mae mandou chamar seu filho. Ela se casou com o corretor cubano de Wall Street Joe Capote e mudou seu nome para Nina Capote. Seu novo marido adotou o menino e o renomeou como Truman García Capote.

Lillie Mae desprezava a efeminação de seu filho e tinha medo de ter outros filhos com Joe Capote por medo de que eles se tornassem como Truman. Temendo que ele fosse homossexual, ela o mandou a psiquiatras e depois o despachou para uma academia militar em 1936. Lá, Truman sofreu abuso sexual por outros cadetes e, no ano seguinte, voltou para Nova York para estudar na Trinity, uma instituição particular de elite escola no Upper West Side. Lillie Mae também encontrou um médico que administraria injeções de hormônio masculino a seu filho.

A família mudou-se para Greenwich, Connecticut, em 1939. Na Greenwich High School, ele encontrou um mentor em seu professor de inglês, que o encorajou a escrever. Ele não conseguiu se formar em 1942 e, quando os Capotes se mudaram para um apartamento na Park Avenue, ele se matriculou na escola Franklin para retomar seu último ano. Na Franklin, ele fez amizade com Carol Marcus, Oona O’Neill (futura esposa de Charlie Chaplin e filha do dramaturgo Eugene O’Neill) e a herdeira Gloria Vanderbilt, todos eles apreciavam a glamorosa vida noturna de Nova York.


Reunião, 27 de fevereiro de 2020

A neve estava no chão, mas a primavera estava no ar quando cinco de nós nos reunimos na Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library para discutir o romance de não ficção de Truman Capote de 1966, "In Cold Blood". Os regulares Bill Briscoe, John Sturman, John Hawn e Dave Young deram as boas-vindas a um novo membro, Susie Windell. Sturman, bem preparado como sempre, guiou-nos neste trabalho que complementou com abundantes apostilas.

Minhas longas férias de inverno aparentemente confundiram meu cérebro, pois minhas anotações de nossa discussão estão uma bagunça. Parece que não passamos muito tempo falando sobre aquela dupla charmosa Dick e Perry e seu crime hediondo. Estávamos mais interessados ​​nas vidas curiosas do autor, Truman Capote, e seu pesquisador, Harper Lee, que ganhou um Pulitzer por "To Kill a Mocking Bird". Truman ficou puto porque nunca recebeu um Pulitzer, embora tenha se tornado muito rico e estabelecido um novo padrão para o romance policial. Corria o boato de que ele poderia ter começado como o verdadeiro autor de “Mockingbird”. E, claro, falamos sobre a turbulenta década de 1960 em que a maioria de nós viveu. O assassinato de JFK e outras atrocidades, juntamente com reportagens mais realistas, expuseram as várias doenças em nossa sociedade e mataram a visão confortável de Norman Rockwell da América com a qual crescemos.

Não está claro quanto tempo, se houver, Tru e KV passaram juntos. Ambos faziam parte de uma colônia de escritores (incluindo George Plimpton, E. L. Doctorow e outros) que periodicamente escapava de Manhattan para a comunidade de Sagaponack em Hampton, onde os aluguéis nos anos 70 eram muito baratos. O KV alto e desajeitado, dois anos mais velho que Tru, lembra-se de ter visto o autor de 5'4 "rodando em Long Island em um roadster com um volante que ele mal conseguia enxergar. Os dois gostavam de álcool e podem ter saído juntos naquele famoso bar, cujo nome não me lembro, no Main Sagg. Em algum momento, depois de se desentender com muitos amigos e apoiadores, Tru deixou Nova York e foi para a Costa Oeste, onde morreu em 1984. Tru era rico e famoso muito antes de Vonnegut e morreu 23 anos antes dele, após uma vida de dissipação.

"In Cold Blood" foi o último romance de Tru, embora ele tenha continuado a escrever memórias e peças curtas que lhe renderam mais desprezo do que dinheiro. Mas ele já era rico com o “Sangue” que lhe rendeu cerca de 6 milhões na moeda da época. Ele aceitou o projeto em uma atribuição da The New Yorker Magazine e trabalhou nele por seis anos. A publicação foi adiada até a merecida execução dos dois criminosos. Foi dito que Tru se recusou a se juntar aos esforços para atrasar a execução porque queria seu dinheiro, mas isso é apenas especulação.

Lembro-me de ter sido enviado para Kansas City, MO em um destacamento de 30 dias em algum momento da década de 1980. Um dia cruzei o rio para Olathe, KS e fiquei surpreso ao ver esta placa na Interestadual: “Colorado Border 400 Miles”. Eu fui imediatamente preenchido com uma sensação de vazio. Este é o caminho que nossa dupla desorientada deve ter tomado quando deixaram a Prisão Estadual de Kansas no rio Missouri para a fazenda Clutter no extremo oeste do Kansas [corrigido & # 8211 DEY] em 1959.

Tru chegou à fazenda Clutter não muito depois dos assassinatos. Ele estava acompanhado por seu assistente de pesquisa Harper Lee (seu vizinho de infância em Monroeville, Alabama), que ao longo de seis anos acumulou cerca de 8.000 páginas de anotações após entrevistas com os diretores e locais e examinando meticulosamente as evidências e os dados do julgamento. Apesar de toda a atenção aos detalhes, Tru manipulou os fatos para se adequar à sua narrativa. Demorou para as pessoas perceberem que o “novo jornalismo” exposto no “romance de não ficção” tomava liberdades com a verdade em busca de uma realidade alternativa.

O livro foi muito aclamado pela crítica, mas Stanley Kaufmann escreveu uma crítica bastante negativa para o New York Times. Alguns notaram que o livro demorou muito para chegar à linha de chegada e pareceu perder o fôlego no final. Tru parecia ter se ligado ao mais psicopata e violento Perry Smith. Ambos experimentaram muitos traumas e abandono na infância. Tru usou a metáfora de uma casa para sua educação e notou que enquanto ele saía pela porta da frente, Perry saiu pela porta dos fundos. Perry urinava na cama e Dick teve ferimentos na cabeça e pode ter sofrido de PTSD. Todos os três pareciam ter uma vida sexual confusa, mas Tru nunca se envolveu nisso. Que diabos, eram os anos sessenta! Um resumo da Wikipedia é copiado abaixo.

Após 90 minutos de palestra, o grupo classificou esta obra-prima como um “8” na escala incrivelmente precisa de Vonnegut de dez pontos. Em seguida, recuamos para uma nova lanchonete "Baby's" em 2147 N. Talbott Street para uma discussão mais aprofundada. Nossa próxima reunião acontecerá em 26 de março de 2020, quando John Hawn nos ajudará a entender a tentativa de KV de explicar o mundo do expressionismo abstrato em seu 1987 romance “Barba Azul”. Junte-se a nós às 11:00 na Biblioteca KV Memorial para o que promete ser uma discussão animada.

Ainda estamos tentando finalizar nossa programação de leitura para 2020. Devido à redução do número de membros, várias vagas ainda estão abertas e estamos procurando voluntários.

.A sangue frio: um relato verdadeiro de um assassinato múltiplo e suas consequências

À sangue frio é um romance de não ficção [1] do autor americano Truman Capote, publicado pela primeira vez em 1966, ele detalha os assassinatos em 1959 de quatro membros da família Herbert Clutter na pequena comunidade agrícola de Holcomb, Kansas.

Capote soube do assassinato quádruplo antes de os assassinos serem capturados e viajou para o Kansas para escrever sobre o crime. Ele estava acompanhado por seu amigo de infância e colega autor Harper Lee, e eles entrevistaram residentes e investigadores designados para o caso e tomaram milhares de páginas de anotações. Os assassinos Richard Hickock e Perry Smith foram presos seis semanas após os assassinatos e posteriormente executados pelo estado do Kansas. Capote passou seis anos trabalhando no livro.

À sangue frio foi um sucesso instantâneo e é o segundo livro sobre crimes verdadeiros mais vendido da história, atrás de Vincent Bugliosi & # 8216s Helter Skelter (1974) sobre os assassinatos de Charles Manson. [2] Alguns críticos consideram o trabalho de Capote & # 8217 o romance de não ficção original, embora outros escritores já tenham explorado o gênero, como Rodolfo Walsh em Operación Masacre (1957). [3][4] À sangue frio foi elogiado por sua prosa eloqüente, detalhes extensos e narrativa tripla que descreve a vida dos assassinos, as vítimas e outros membros da comunidade rural em sequências alternadas. As psicologias e experiências de Hickock e Smith recebem atenção especial, assim como o relacionamento complexo da dupla durante e após os assassinatos. À sangue frio é considerado pela crítica como um trabalho pioneiro no gênero do crime verdadeiro, embora Capote tenha ficado desapontado com o fato de o livro não ter conquistado o Prêmio Pulitzer. [5] Partes do livro diferem dos eventos reais, incluindo detalhes importantes. [6]

Herbert & # 8220Herb & # 8221 Clutter era um próspero fazendeiro no oeste do Kansas. Ele empregava até 18 trabalhadores agrícolas, que o admiravam e respeitavam por seu tratamento justo e bons salários. Suas duas filhas mais velhas, Eveanna e Beverly, haviam se mudado e começado a vida adulta. Seus dois filhos mais novos, Nancy, 16, e Kenyon, 15, estavam no ensino médio. A esposa de Clutter, Bonnie, teria ficado incapacitada por depressão clínica e doenças físicas desde o nascimento de seus filhos, embora isso tenha sido contestado posteriormente. [ citação necessária ]

Dois ex-condenados recentemente em liberdade condicional da Penitenciária Estadual de Kansas, Richard Eugene & # 8220Dick & # 8221 Hickock e Perry Edward Smith, roubaram e assassinaram Herb, Bonnie, Nancy e Kenyon nas primeiras horas da manhã de 15 de novembro de 1959. Um ex-companheiro de cela de Hickock & # 8217s, Floyd Wells, trabalhou para Herb Clutter e disse a Hickock que Clutter mantinha grandes quantias de dinheiro em um cofre. Hickock logo teve a ideia de roubar o cofre e começar uma nova vida no México. De acordo com Capote, Hickock descreveu seu plano como & # 8220a cinch, a pontuação perfeita. & # 8221 Hickock mais tarde contatou Smith, outro ex-companheiro de cela, sobre cometer o roubo com ele. [7] Na verdade, Herb Clutter não tinha cofre e negociava todos os seus negócios com cheque. [ citação necessária ]

Depois de dirigir mais de 650 quilômetros pelo estado de Kansas na noite de 14 de novembro, Hickock e Smith chegaram a Holcomb, localizaram a casa dos Clutter e entraram por uma porta destrancada enquanto a família dormia. Ao despertar os Clutters e descobrir que não havia cofre, eles amarraram e amordaçaram a família e continuaram a procurar por dinheiro, mas encontraram pouco de valor na casa. Ainda determinados a não deixar testemunhas, a dupla debateu brevemente o que fazer Smith, notoriamente instável e propenso a atos violentos em acessos de raiva, cortou a garganta de Herb Clutter & # 8217s e depois atirou em sua cabeça. Capote escreve que Smith relatou mais tarde, & # 8220Eu não queria fazer mal ao homem. Achei que ele era um cavalheiro muito bom. Fala mansa. Eu pensei assim até o momento em que cortei sua garganta. & # 8221 [8] Kenyon, Nancy e a Sra. Clutter também foram assassinados, cada um por um único tiro de espingarda na cabeça. Hickock e Smith deixaram a cena do crime com um pequeno rádio portátil, um par de binóculos e menos de US $ 50 em dinheiro. [ citação necessária ]

Mais tarde, Smith afirmou em sua confissão oral que Hickock assassinou as duas mulheres. Quando solicitado a assinar sua confissão, no entanto, Smith recusou. De acordo com Capote, ele queria aceitar a responsabilidade por todos os quatro assassinatos porque, disse ele, estava & # 8220sinto pela mãe de Dick & # 8217. & # 8221 Smith acrescentou, & # 8220Ela & # 8217s uma pessoa muito doce. & # 8221 [9 ] Hickock sempre afirmou que Smith cometeu todas as quatro mortes. [ citação necessária ]

Com base em uma denúncia de Wells, que contatou o diretor da prisão após saber dos assassinatos, Hickock e Smith foram identificados como suspeitos e presos em Las Vegas em 30 de dezembro de 1959. Ambos os homens acabaram confessando após interrogatórios por detetives do Kansas Bureau de investigação. Eles foram levados de volta ao Kansas, onde foram julgados juntos no tribunal do condado de Finney em Garden City, Kansas, de 22 a 29 de março de 1960. Ambos alegaram insanidade temporária no julgamento, mas os clínicos gerais locais avaliaram os acusados ​​e os declararam são. [ citação necessária ]

Hickock e Smith também são suspeitos de envolvimento nos assassinatos da família Walker, noção mencionada no livro, embora essa conexão não tenha sido comprovada. [ citação necessária ]

Uma moção de defesa para que Smith e Hickock passassem por testes psicológicos abrangentes foi negada em vez disso, três clínicos gerais locais foram nomeados para examiná-los e determinar se eles eram sãos no momento do crime. [10] Após apenas uma curta entrevista, os médicos determinaram que os réus não eram loucos e podiam ser julgados pelas regras do M & # 8217Naghten. Os advogados de defesa buscaram a opinião de um psiquiatra experiente do hospital psiquiátrico local do estado, que diagnosticou sinais definitivos de doença mental em Smith e sentiu que ferimentos anteriores na cabeça de Hickock poderiam ter afetado seu comportamento. [11] Esta opinião não foi admitida no julgamento, entretanto, porque sob a lei do Kansas, o psiquiatra só poderia opinar sobre a sanidade do réu no momento do crime. [11]

O júri deliberou por apenas 45 minutos antes de declarar Hickock e Smith culpados de assassinato. Suas condenações traziam uma sentença de morte obrigatória na época. [ citação necessária ]

Na apelação, Smith e Hickock contestaram as determinações de que eram sãos e afirmaram que a cobertura da mídia sobre o crime e o julgamento tendenciou o júri, [12] e que eles receberam assistência inadequada de seus advogados. Aspectos desses recursos foram apresentados três vezes à Suprema Corte dos Estados Unidos, que se recusou a ouvir o caso. [13]

Depois de cinco anos no corredor da morte na Penitenciária do Estado de Kansas, Smith e Hickock foram executados por enforcamento em 14 de abril de 1965. Hickock foi executado primeiro e foi declarado morto às 12h41, após enforcamento por quase 20 minutos. Smith o seguiu pouco depois e foi declarado morto às 1:19 da manhã [14]

Cobertura e discussão pública [editar |

Durante os primeiros meses de seu julgamento e depois, o caso de assassinato de Hickock e Smith & # 8217s passou despercebido pela maioria dos americanos. Só meses antes de suas execuções eles se tornaram "dois dos mais famosos assassinos da história". [15] Em 18 de janeiro de 1960, Tempo a revista publicou & # 8220Kansas: The Killers & # 8221, uma história sobre os assassinatos. [16] Inspirado por esse artigo, Truman Capote escreveu, em 1965 serializado em O Nova-iorquino, e em 1966 publicado como um & # 8220 romance de não ficção & # 8220, intitulado À sangue frio, um livro sobre crimes verdadeiros que detalhava os assassinatos e o julgamento. Devido à brutalidade e gravidade dos crimes, o julgamento teve cobertura nacional, e até recebeu cobertura internacional. [ citação necessária ]

A notoriedade dos assassinatos e o julgamento subsequente trouxeram efeitos duradouros para a pequena cidade do Kansas, e Capote tornou-se tão famoso e relacionado aos julgamentos que foi chamado para ajudar o Senado no exame do caso. [11] O julgamento também trouxe aos holofotes nacionais uma discussão sobre a pena de morte e doenças mentais. [15] Capote expressou que depois de completar o livro e entrevistar Hickock e Smith, ele se opôs à pena de morte. [11]

Este julgamento também foi citado como um exemplo das "limitações das regras M & # 8217 Naghten (também chamadas de teste M & # 8217 Naghten). & # 8221 [15] As regras M'Naghten são usadas para determinar se um criminoso era louco ou não no momento do crime e, portanto, incapazes de serem julgados com justiça. Autores como Karl Menninger criticaram fortemente o teste M & # 8217Naghten, chamando-o de absurdo. Muitos “advogados, juízes e psiquiatras” procuraram “contornar” as regras do M & # 8217Naghten. [17] Em Intenção & # 8211 Lei e Sociedade, James Marshall critica ainda mais as regras de M’Naghten, questionando os princípios psicológicos sobre os quais as regras se baseiam. Ele afirmou que "as regras do M & # 8217Naghten & # 8230 são baseadas em uma hipótese errônea de que o comportamento é baseado exclusivamente na atividade e capacidade intelectual." [18]

Em 2009, 50 anos após os assassinatos de Clutter, o Huffington Post perguntou aos cidadãos do Kansas sobre os efeitos do julgamento e suas opiniões sobre o livro e o subsequente filme e série de televisão sobre os eventos. Muitos entrevistados disseram que começaram a perder a confiança nos outros, “as portas estavam trancadas. Estranhos olhavam com suspeita. " Muitos ainda se sentiam muito afetados e acreditavam que Capote havia de certa forma se aproveitado de sua “grande tragédia”. # 8221 [19] Um artigo em O jornal New York Times afirma que na pequena comunidade de Holcomb, Kansas, a vizinhança evaporou. A ordem natural parecia suspensa. Caos prestes a invadir. & # 8221 [20]

Capote se interessou pelos assassinatos depois de ler sobre eles em O jornal New York Times. [21] Ele trouxe sua amiga de infância Nelle Harper Lee (que mais tarde ganharia o Prêmio Pulitzer de Ficção por seu romance Matar a esperança) para ajudar a ganhar a confiança dos moradores do Kansas.

Capote fez muitas pesquisas para o livro, compilando no final 8.000 páginas de notas. [22] Sua pesquisa também incluiu cartas do amigo do Exército de Smith e # 8217s, Don Cullivan, que esteve presente durante o julgamento. [23]

Depois que os criminosos foram encontrados, julgados e condenados, Capote conduziu entrevistas pessoais com Smith e Hickock. Smith fascina Capote especialmente no livro que ele é retratado como o mais sensível dos dois assassinos. O livro não foi concluído até que Smith e Hickock foram executados.

Uma explicação alternativa para o interesse de Capote & # 8217s afirma que O Nova-iorquino apresentou a história de Clutter para ele como uma das duas escolhas para uma história, a outra era seguir uma faxineira de Manhattan em suas rondas. Capote supostamente escolheu a história de Clutter, acreditando que seria a tarefa mais fácil. [24] Capote mais tarde escreveu um artigo sobre como seguir uma faxineira, que ele intitulou & # 8220A Day & # 8217s Work & # 8221 e incluiu em seu livro Música para camaleões.

À sangue frio trouxe a Capote muitos elogios da comunidade literária. No entanto, os críticos questionaram sua veracidade, argumentando que Capote mudou os fatos para se adequar à história, acrescentou cenas que nunca aconteceram e fabricou diálogos. [6] [25] Phillip K. Tompkins observou discrepâncias factuais em Escudeiro em 1966, depois que ele viajou para o Kansas e conversou com algumas das pessoas que Capote havia entrevistado. Josephine Meier era esposa do subxerife do condado de Finney, Wendle Meier, e ela negou ter ouvido Smith chorar ou que segurou sua mão, conforme descrito por Capote. À sangue frio indica que Meier e Smith ficaram próximos, mas ela disse a Tompkins que passava pouco tempo com Smith e não falava muito com ele. Tompkins concluiu:

Em suma, Capote conseguiu uma obra de arte. Ele contou muito bem uma história de grande terror à sua maneira. Mas, apesar do brilhantismo de seus esforços de autopublicação, ele cometeu um erro tático e moral que o prejudicará no curto prazo. Ao insistir que & # 8220todas as palavras & # 8221 de seu livro são verdadeiras, ele se tornou vulnerável aos leitores que estão preparados para examinar seriamente tal afirmação abrangente.

O escritor de crime verdadeiro Jack Olsen também comentou sobre as invenções:

Eu o reconheci como uma obra de arte, mas reconheço falsidade quando vejo…. Capote inventou citações e cenas inteiras…. O livro rendeu algo em torno de US $ 6 milhões em dinheiro da década de 1960, e ninguém queria discutir nada de errado com um fazedor de dinheiro como aquele no ramo editorial.

Suas críticas foram citadas em Escudeiro, ao que Capote respondeu: & # 8220Jack Olsen está com inveja. & # 8221 [26]

Isso era verdade, é claro…. Eu estava com ciúme - todo aquele dinheiro? Eu & # 8217 fui designado para o caso Clutter por Harper & amp Row até que descobrimos que Capote e seu primo [sic] Harper Lee já estava no caso em Dodge City por seis meses…. Esse livro fez duas coisas. Tornou o crime verdadeiro um gênero comercial interessante e bem-sucedido, mas também deu início ao processo de demolição. Eu apitei do meu jeito fraco. I & # 8217d publicou apenas alguns livros na época - mas, como era um livro escrito de maneira tão esplêndida, ninguém queria ouvir falar dele. [26]

O promotor no caso era Duane West, e ele afirma que a história carece de veracidade porque Capote não conseguiu acertar o verdadeiro herói. Richard Rohlader tirou a foto mostrando que dois culpados estavam envolvidos, e West sugere que Rohlader era quem merecia o maior elogio. Sem essa foto, acredita West, o crime poderia não ter sido resolvido. West tinha sido amigo de Capote & # 8217s por um tempo durante a escrita do livro, incluindo ser convidado de Capote & # 8217s na cidade de Nova York por Olá, Dolly! e conhecendo Carol Channing após o show. O relacionamento deles azedou quando a editora Capote & # 8217s tentou fazer West assinar um acordo de não concorrência para impedi-lo de escrever seu próprio livro sobre os assassinatos.

Alvin Dewey foi o investigador principal retratado em À sangue frio, e ele disse que a cena em que visita os túmulos dos Clutters & # 8217 foi uma invenção de Capote & # 8217. Outros residentes do Kansas entrevistados por Capote afirmaram que eles ou seus parentes foram caracterizados de maneira inadequada ou citados incorretamente. [27] Dewey disse que o resto do livro era factualmente preciso, mas outras evidências indicam que não é tão & # 8220 imaculadamente factual & # 8221 como Capote sempre afirmou ser. O livro retrata Dewey como o investigador brilhante que desvenda o caso do assassinato de Clutter, mas os arquivos recuperados do Kansas Bureau of Investigation mostram que Floyd Wells se apresentou para nomear Hickock e Smith como prováveis ​​suspeitos, mas Dewey não agiu imediatamente com base nas informações, como o livro o retrata, porque ele ainda acreditava que os assassinatos foram cometidos por habitantes locais que & # 8220 tinham rancor contra Herb Clutter & # 8221. [6]

Ronald Nye é filho do Diretor de Investigação do Kansas, Harold R. Nye, e colaborou com o autor Gary McAvoy na divulgação de partes dos cadernos de investigação pessoais de seu pai para desafiar a veracidade de À sangue frio. O livro deles E cada palavra é verdadeira [28] apresenta fatos anteriormente desconhecidos da investigação, sugerindo que a morte de Herbert Clutter pode ter sido um complô de assassinato de aluguel.

À sangue frio foi publicado pela primeira vez como uma série de quatro partes em O Nova-iorquino, começando com a edição de 25 de setembro de 1965. A peça foi uma sensação imediata, principalmente no Kansas, onde o número usual de Nova iorquino cópias esgotadas imediatamente. À sangue frio foi publicado pela primeira vez em forma de livro pela Random House em 17 de janeiro de 1966. [29] [30] O livro, no entanto, foi protegido por direitos autorais em 1965, e esta data aparece na página de título da maioria das impressões do livro e até mesmo em alguma biblioteca índices como a data de publicação original. A Biblioteca do Congresso lista 1966 como data de publicação e 1965 como data de copyright. [31]

A capa, desenhada por S. Neil Fujita, mostra um alfinete com o que originalmente parecia uma gota de sangue vermelha na ponta. Depois que Capote viu o desenho pela primeira vez, ele solicitou que a queda fosse feita em um tom de vermelho mais profundo para representar a passagem do tempo desde o incidente. Uma borda preta foi adicionada à imagem sinistra. [32]

Escrevendo para O jornal New York Times, Conrad Knickerbocker elogiou o talento de Capote & # 8217s pelos detalhes ao longo do romance e declarou o livro uma & # 8220 obra-prima & # 8221 - uma & # 8220agonizante, terrível, possuída, prova de que os tempos, tão fartos de desastres, ainda são capazes de tragédia & # 8221 . [33]

Em uma crítica polêmica do romance, publicada em 1966 por A nova república, Stanley Kauffmann, criticando o estilo de escrita de Capote & # 8217 ao longo do romance, afirma que Capote & # 8220 demonstra em quase todas as páginas que ele é o estilista mais ultrajantemente superestimado de nosso tempo & # 8221 e posteriormente afirma que & # 8220 a profundidade neste livro é não mais profundo do que o poço da mina de detalhes factuais, sua altura raramente é maior do que a do bom jornalismo e muitas vezes fica abaixo dela. & # 8221 [34]

Tom Wolfe escreveu em seu ensaio & # 8220Pornoviolence & # 8220: & # 8220 O livro não é nem um quem-fez nem um vai-eles-ser-pego, uma vez que as respostas a ambas as perguntas são conhecidas desde o início & # 8230 Em vez disso, o O suspense do livro & # 8217 é amplamente baseado em uma ideia totalmente nova em histórias de detetive: a promessa de detalhes sangrentos e a retenção deles até o fim. & # 8221 [35]

No O Independente& # 8216s Livro de uma série ao longo da vida, a crítica Kate Colquhoun afirma que & # 8220 o livro - para o qual ele fez uma reputação de 8.000 páginas de notas de pesquisa - é traçado e estruturado com talento redator tenso. Seus personagens pulsam com vida reconhecível, seus lugares são palpáveis. Uma prosa cuidadosa liga o leitor à história que se desenrola. Simplificando, o livro foi concebido para o jornalismo e nasceu de um romancista. & # 8221 [36]

Três adaptações para o cinema foram produzidas com base no livro. O primeiro enfoca os detalhes do livro, enquanto os dois últimos exploram o fascínio de Capote e # 8217 com a pesquisa do romance. À sangue frio (1967) foi dirigido por Richard Brooks e estrelado por Robert Blake como Perry Smith e Scott Wilson como Richard Hickock. Apresenta John Forsythe como o investigador Alvin Dewey, do Kansas Bureau of Investigation, que prendeu os assassinos. [37] [38] Foi nomeado para Melhor Diretor, Melhor Trilha Sonora Original, Melhor Fotografia e Melhor Roteiro Adaptado. [38] [39]

O segundo e o terceiro filmes enfocam as experiências de Capote & # 8217s ao escrever a história e seu subsequente fascínio pelos assassinatos. Capote (2005) é estrelado por Philip Seymour Hoffman, que ganhou o Oscar de Melhor Ator por sua interpretação de Truman Capote, Clifton Collins Jr. como Perry Smith e Catherine Keener como Harper Lee. [40] O filme foi aclamado pela crítica [41] e foi nomeado para Melhor Filme, Melhor Ator (Hoffman), Melhor Atriz Coadjuvante (Keener), Melhor Diretor (Bennett Miller) e Melhor Roteiro Adaptado (Dan Futterman). [42]

J. T. Hunter & romance # 8217s In Colder Blood (2016) discute o possível envolvimento de Hickock e Smith & # 8217s nos assassinatos da família Walker. Oni Press publicou Ande Parks and Chris Samnee & # 8216s história em quadrinhos Capote em Kansas (2005). [43] O livro de Capote & # 8217 foi adaptado para a minissérie de televisão em duas partes À sangue frio (1996), estrelado por Anthony Edwards como Dick Hickock, Eric Roberts como Perry Smith e Sam Neill como Alvin Dewey. [44] [45]


Manhattan Rare Book Company

& ldquoE assim aconteceu que nas horas do dia daquela quarta-feira de manhã, Alvin Dewey, tomando café da manhã no café de um hotel em Topeka, leu, na primeira página do Kansas City Star, uma manchete que há muito esperava: Die on Rope for Crime sangrento. A história, escrita por um repórter da Associated Press, começou: & lsquoRichard Eugene Hickock e Perry Edward Smith, parceiros no crime, morreram na forca na prisão estadual na manhã de hoje por um dos assassinatos mais sangrentos nos anais criminais do Kansas. Hickock, 33 anos, morreu primeiro, às 12h41. Smith, 36, morreu às 1:19. & rsquo & rdquo

CÓPIA DE LEITURA AVANÇADA DA PRIMEIRA EDIÇÃO da obra-prima de Capote & rsquos.

"Uma das conquistas mais notáveis ​​na reportagem de qualquer escritor, À sangue frio apareceu pela primeira vez em série no Nova iorquino, onde examinou com profundidade, precisão e drama extraordinários as vítimas e seus assassinos. Tão imenso foi o estresse do empreendimento editorial, entretanto, que Capote se viciou em tranqüilizantes e desenvolveu um apego emocional aos criminosos, cujas mortes por enforcamento ele testemunhou na penitenciária estadual do Kansas. De mais de quatro mil páginas de notas datilografadas reunidas com Harper Lee, o célebre "romance de não ficção" de Capote ganhou o Prêmio Edgar Allan Poe dos Escritores de Mistério da América e cobrou um tributo psicológico suficiente sobre seu autor para impedir muito trabalho contínuo no futuro "(Biografia Nacional Americana).



Nova York: Random House, [1965]. Octavo, sobrecapa de primeiro estado original como invólucros encadernados sobre papel vinho, conforme emitida. Um pouco esfregando nas extremidades uma das cópias mais bonitas que já vimos da frágil cópia de leitura avançada.


Quem é Truman Capote?

Truman Capote é um famoso escritor americano, mais conhecido por seu romance, Café da manhã na Tiffany's, e seu livro verdadeiro crime, À sangue frio, que muitos acreditam ter anunciado o movimento criativo de não ficção, cujos seguidores modernos incluem Susan Orlean e Jon Krakauer. Truman Capote nasceu em 1924 e morreu em 1984, deixando para trás uma obra impressionante e prolífica, e uma reputação infame como uma socialite de Nova York extravagantemente gay e espirituosa.

Quando criança, Truman Capote morou com sua tia no Alabama. Seu melhor amigo era Harper Lee, autor da obra clássica, Matar a esperança. Alguns especulam que o livro foi realmente escrito por Capote, mas os rumores nunca foram comprovados. During his teenage years, Capote moved to New York to live with his mother and her husband. Soon after graduating from high school, he got a job at the prestigious magazine, O Nova-iorquino.

Truman Capote began writing short stories, which were published in numerous literary journals. Seu primeiro romance, Summer Crossing was stolen by his housesitter before he could publish it. Many years later, it resurfaced and was published by Random House in 2005. Truman Capote's first published novel, Other Voices, Other Rooms, was a semi-autobiographical novel about a gay teenager growing up in the South, and was an immediate success.

One of Truman Capote's most famous books was Breakfast at Tiffany's, which consisted of the title novella and three shorter stories. The title novella was made into a classic movie starring legendary actress Audrey Hepburn. The turning point in Capote's career, though, came with the publication of À sangue frio, a nonfiction narrative about the murder of a Kansas family. To write the book, Truman Capote spent four years in Kansas, talking to the townspeople, the police, and even the killers, to gather material for the story. It was serialized in O Nova-iorquino before publication when the book came out in 1966, it was an international bestseller, and made Truman Capote a household name.

Recently, two separate movies were made based on Truman Capote's life and his experiences in Kansas working on À sangue frio: Capote, for which Phillip Seymour Hoffman won an Oscar for his performance as Capote, and Infamous, which, though critically lauded, had the misfortune of coming out second, and received dismal box office sales.


The Sordid History of Truman Capote’s BREAKFAST AT TIFFANY’S

For over half a century, Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos­&mdashboth the film and the novella on which it was based&mdashhave captivated fans across several generations. Much of the story&rsquos success, it appears, is attributed to Audrey Hepburn, the beloved star who stepped into the shoes of one Miss Holly Golightly and never looked back. The role not only redefined her career and image but helped usher in the age of, to borrow a term from Helen Gurley Brown, &ldquosex and the single girl.&rdquo Decades before The Mary Tyler Moore Show ou Sex and the City, Holly Golightly slipped on her iconic little black dress with her best diamonds and singlehandedly proved that women could have it all.

Antes Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos was adapted into a timeless film classic, the story of party girl Holly and the man infatuated with her was the brainchild of literary icon Truman Capote. Originally, he had sold the novella to Harper&rsquos Bazaar for $2,000 but the magazine later backed out, claiming a story about an independent woman with multiple male friends and a prominent nightlife was just too risqué to publish. Capote, an expert at holding grudges, vowed to never associate himself with Harper&rsquos again, and briefly alleged that Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos would never see the light of day. But just a mere few months later in October 1958, Random House published the novella and Escudeiro magazine, in its November issue, would serialize it in full.

Como Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos has continued to assert its relevance with every new era, questions surrounding its true origin persist. Was Holly Golightly a real person? Was it someone from Truman Capote&rsquos sordid past? To this day, myths continue to circulate about the &ldquoreal&rdquo Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos, including women claiming to be the inspiration for Holly, each less credible than the last. The story&rsquos real inspiration is the tale of a flamboyant young man from the Southern United States, grappling with abandonment issues and a love of the written word.

Once Upon a Time, in Monroeville, Alabama&hellip

Truman Capote was born Truman Streckfus Persons on September 30, 1924 in New Orleans, Louisiana. His parents divorced when he was 4 and he was sent to live with his mother&rsquos relatives in Monroeville, Alabama. The reason he was sent there was caused less by the divorce and more by the fact that his mother saw him as a burden. According to Sam Wasson&rsquos Fifth Avenue, A.M.: Audrey Hepburn, Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos, and the Dawn of the Modern Woman, Capote&rsquos mother, Lillie Mae Faulk, had tried to abort her pregnancy.

After her divorce, Lillie Mae finally saw her chance to abandon her past life&mdashAKA her child&mdashand &ldquomake it&rdquo in the big city. In New York City, she would introduce herself as Nina, a wannabe fabulous party girl on the hunt for a big rich man to make all her dreams come true (what those dreams actually were, however, remain perpetually unclear). But she was never gone for long: every few months, Nina would turn up again in Monroeville, crying to her son over her broken heart.

&ldquoIn a whirl of fancy fabrics, she would turn up unannounced, tickle Truman&rsquos chin, offer up an assortment of apologies, and disappear,&rdquo wrote Wasson. &ldquoAnd then, as if it had never happened before, it would happen all over again. Inevitably, Nina&rsquos latest beau would reject her for being the peasant girl she tried so hard not to be, and down the service elevator she would go, running all the way back to Truman with enormous tears ballooning from her eyes. A day or so would pass Nina would take stock of her Alabama surroundings and once again, vanish to Manhattan&rsquos highest penthouses.&rdquo

As a result, Capote spent the majority of his life indirectly dealing with his mother&rsquos abandonment. Several biographers note that his tendency to hold grudges and cut people out of his life after minor mishaps was all linked back to his mother issues and unstable childhood, as well as his quirk of exaggerating reality and making claims that he was friends with rich and famous people he had never even met, such as Greta Garbo. And while other schools of thought claim that Capote being a homosexual was also caused by his relationship with his mother, it&rsquos more likely that his adult dependency on drugs and alcohol were indirectly caused by Nina as well.

If There&rsquos Nothing Missing in Her Life, Why Do These Tears Come at Night?

As Wasson observes, Holly Golightly was a composite of multiple nonfictions. &ldquoShe took her dreams of society from Truman&rsquos own mother, her existential anxieties from Capote himself, but her personality, which seemed so intimately hers, would come from the tight-knit coterie of Manhattan divas Truman so flagrantly adored,&rdquo he wrote. &ldquoHe called them his swans.&rdquo

While there are several &ldquoswans&rdquo who are believed to have contributed to the fictional creation of Holly, including Gloria Guinness, Oona O&rsquoNeill Chaplin, Carol Marcus, and Gloria Vanderbilt, there is one in particular that is thought to have gone above and beyond in terms of inspiration: Babe Paley, the wife of William S. &ldquoBill&rdquo Paley, founder of the CBS television network.

&ldquoI was madly in love with her,&rdquo Capote told Gerald Clarke, author of the 1988 biography Capote. &ldquoI just thought she was absolutely fantastic! She was one of the two or three great obsessions of my life. She was the only person in my whole life that I liked everything about. I consider her one of the three greatest beauties in the world, the other two being Gloria Guinness and Garbo. But Babe, I think, was a most beautiful. She was in fact the most beautiful woman of the twentieth century &hellip [S]he was also the most chic woman I have ever known.&rdquo

Babe Paley&rsquos chic influence was just too grand, opulent, and commanding to not be the central inspiration for Holly Golightly. As Wasson notes, she was almost &ldquoembarrassingly rich,&rdquo owning over one million dollars worth of Harry Winston, Cartier, Tiffany&rsquos, and Van Cleef & Arpels. &ldquoShe was, in short, everything Truman&rsquos mother, and Holly Golightly, had wanted to be,&rdquo he observed. &ldquoBut Nina was dead, and Truman, though he threw himself into the swans, would never find peace. Neither, for that matter, would his beautiful Babe.&rdquo

Although on the surface Paley had everything she could have ever wanted and more, she and Bill had a relentlessly unhappy marriage. According to Capote&rsquos testimony to Clarke, Babe had twice attempted suicide, once with pills and once by attempting to slit her wrists, and both times Capote claimed to have saved her. &ldquoBabe was caught,&rdquo Wasson wrote. &ldquoTruman would fashion Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos so Holly Golightly wouldn&rsquot be.&rdquo

Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos Comes to Life

For all of his flamboyantly distinct eccentricities, Truman Capote was a precise, perfectionistic, and accomplished writer. He would openly scoff at writers who would not map out their work beforehand, as Capote preferred to map, plan, reconsider, plan, and map it all out again before he typed a single word. &ldquoWith Tiffany&rsquos, he intended to evolve his style away from the florid swirls of, say, [Other Voices, Other Rooms] and move toward a more measured, more subdued prose style,&rdquo stated Wasson. &ldquoThe page, he told those who asked, was no longer his playground it was his operating room, and like a surgeon&mdashlike Flaubert, one of his heroes&mdashhe endeavored to keep surprises to an absolute minimum.&rdquo

Enquanto Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos would later be adapted into a romantic comedy film by Paramount, that was never the story&rsquos original intention. Aside from the fact that Holly Golightly was very much ahead of her time in terms of liberating herself from patriarchal oppression, selling herself in order to gain independence, the original novella is laced with something that was deliberately left out of its film adaptation: queer subtext. Holly is unfazed by the fact that Capote&rsquos nameless narrator, whom she mysteriously calls &ldquoFred&rdquo after her brother, is gay, and the character even laments at being a &ldquobit of a dyke&rdquo herself.

Although it&rsquos never explicitly stated or discussed, given that male homosexuality was still illegal in North America, &ldquoFred&rdquo is indeed a homosexual, and Holly even refers to him as &ldquoMaude&rdquo&mdashgay slang from the 50s. &ldquo[H]e and Holly are bound to one another by their sexually unorthodox positions,&rdquo Wasson observed. &ldquoUnlike Holly and her lovers, they share an intimacy that isn&rsquot tethered to their erotic or financial needs. In other words, they can love each other freely, the way no two married people can.&rdquo In this sense, Capote&rsquos Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos was a faint precursor to Will & amp Grace. As Jamie Brickhouse from The Huffington Post wrote, &ldquoSure, [Holly&rsquos] the kind of woman straight men fall for. But she&rsquos the kind of girl gay men adore.&rdquo Or, to put it in more modern terms: straight men want to be with her, straight women and gay men want to be her.

&ldquoChallenging the sanctity of heterosexual dominion, Capote is suggesting that the gendered strictures of who makes the money (men) and who doesn&rsquot (women) might not be as enriching as the romance between a gay man and straight woman,&rdquo wrote Wasson. &ldquoThis isn&rsquot because he believed platonic relationships were somehow ideal, or because he considered straight people bores, but because in 1958, with wives across America financially dependent upon their husbands, being a married woman was a euphemism for being caught.&rdquo

As Capote himself later revealed in an interview, Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos was merely observing a trend he had noticed in New York City, one that was perhaps borne from his own mother, of young women flocking to the big city to become famous society girls, bedding famous men and having their names become mainstays in gossip columns. &ldquoThe main reason I wrote about Holly, outside of the fact that I liked her so much, was that she was such a symbol of all these girls who come to New York and spin in the sun for a moment like May flies and then disappear,&rdquo he said. &ldquoI wanted to rescue one girl from that anonymity and preserve her for prosperity.&rdquo

From the Page to the Screen

After selling the screen rights for Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos to Paramount, it became somewhat common knowledge that Capote had one and only one actress in mind to play Holly Golightly: little girl lost herself, Marilyn Monroe. Several myths surrounding the actress not getting cast have continued to circulate, with the general consensus being that Marilyn was already considered to be a high-maintenance diva and too much of a liability, so Paramount refused to even consider her. But that was never entirely true.

While the real-life similarities between Holly and Marilyn practically write themselves (&ldquoI&rsquove never had a home,&rdquo Monroe once told Capote, &ldquonot a real one with all my own furniture&rdquo), Martin Jurow&mdashproducer of the Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos film&mdashwas merely unconvinced that Monroe was a strong enough actress for the role. &ldquoHolly had to be sharp and tough, and as anyone who saw Marilyn could sense, she was about as tough as a tulip,&rdquo Wasson wrote. &ldquoIt was difficult to imagine a personality like that living like Holly, all on her own in the big city.&rdquo And, of course, there were very practical matters of film production to take into account. For all that we&rsquove come to love and appreciate about Marilyn now, she did have a reputation for chronic lateness and an almost pathological inability to remember dialogue, sometimes requiring upwards of 50 takes for a single line. &ldquoIt&rsquos not that she was mean,&rdquo remembered Billy Wilder, director of O Pecado Mora Ao Lado. &ldquoIt&rsquos just that she had no sense of time, nor conscience that that three hundred people had been waiting hours for her.&rdquo

After much convincing and deliberations over script objections, Audrey Hepburn would eventually become the star to fill the shoes of Holly Golightly on the screen. While director Blake Edwards would recall that Hepburn was hopelessly insecure on the Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos set and in need of constant reassurance that she wasn&rsquot out of her league (an insecurity believed to be poked at most by her sometimes chaotic marriage to Mel Ferrer), Holly would become the most iconic performance of Hepburn&rsquos career. While the actress would later testify that Holly was her most difficult role since she was an introvert playing an extrovert, the film&rsquos timeless quality would ultimately be attributed to what Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos, both the novella and its film adaptation, did for the liberation of women during second-wave feminism.

&ldquoThe woman in me really likes Audrey Hepburn because she is successful at what she&rsquos doing, she&rsquos sort of in charge of herself, and is a realist beyond being so cute and attractive,&rdquo said film critic Judith Crist in 2009. &ldquoThat appeal&mdasha woman&rsquos appeal&mdashcomes from the very basic idea of the gamine, and not just the gamine&rsquos physical being, but the idea of her cleverness. Marilyn didn&rsquot have that, but Audrey did. As a gamine, shrewdness was available to her. So she&rsquos a call girl, but we let her have it. There&rsquos even something very appealing about it. We won&rsquot admit it, but don&rsquot we, really, all secretly admire her for it? Because she gets away with it? Because she&rsquos so imperious, and at the same time is slightly, shall we say, immoral?&rdquo

As for Truman Capote&rsquos opinion on the final product of the film? Aside from one drunken incident in which Patricia Snell, Blake Edwards&rsquos first wife, recalled that Capote told her he was &ldquothrilled&rdquo with the result of her husband&rsquos work, he spent the rest of his life trashing the Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos film adaptation. In an interview years later, when asked what he thought was wrong with the film version, he replied, &ldquoOh god, just everything.&rdquo He referred to it as the &ldquomost miscast film&rdquo he&rsquod ever seen and that it made him want to throw up, particularly the one element that just about everyone can agree did not age well about the Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos film: Mickey Rooney as Mr. Yunioshi. Capote also called Edwards a &ldquolousy director&rdquo and badmouthed George Axelrod&rsquos script, claiming that they had offered him the job of writing the script but he had turned it down. Always one for inventive fictions, Capote was never offered that job, as Paramount wanted someone who wouldn&rsquot fight their changes.

Will the Real Holly Golightly Please Stand Up?

After the first publication of Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos in 1958, flocks of women all over New York City began to announce that they were the real-life inspiration for Holly Golightly, beginning what Capote referred to as &ldquoThe Holly Golightly Sweepstakes.&rdquo In 1959, bookstore owner Bonnie Golightly sued the author for $800,000 of libel and invasion of privacy charges, claiming that she also lived in a Manhattan brownstone, loved cats, and was an avid folk singer in her spare time.

In a bizarre attempt to rectify things, author James Michener wrote a letter to Random House in Capote&rsquos defense, claiming that he knew Bonnie&rsquos claims were false since the author personally told him the inspiration for the character came from a &ldquowonderful young girl from Montana.&rdquo However, the letter never made it to the publisher, as once Capote caught wind of it, he demanded that Michener burn it, in fear that this woman would sue, too. Michener claimed to have met the Montana woman, someone with &ldquomaximum beauty and a rowdy sense of humor.&rdquo Ultimately, neither woman ended up taking a case to court: Bonnie was ridiculed into backing out of her lawsuit, and the Montana woman supposedly rode out her 15 minutes of fame.

Later, Capote claimed that the inspiration for Holly Golightly came from a German refugee, a young girl of just 17 years who arrived in New York City at the beginning of World War II. &ldquoVery few people were aware of this, however, because she spoke English without any trace of an accent,&rdquo he said. &ldquoShe had an apartment in the brownstone where I lived and we became great friends.&rdquo He claimed that Holly&rsquos friendship with gangster Sally Tomato was fictionalized, but based on true events that happened to the real Holly. Gerald Clarke said that Capote told him a similar story. &ldquoBut in the version I heard she was Swiss. He even gave me her name. I could never find any of his friends who remembered her.&rdquo Clarke was also well aware of women who continued to claim they were the real Holly Golightly even decades later, all of them alleging they were friends with Capote at one time or another. &ldquoThere were lots of women like that in those days,&rdquo he said, &ldquoand my guess is that Holly owed something to any number of them.&rdquo

Perhaps it&rsquos Holly&rsquos effervescent quality and her attempt to feel everything at once and nothing at all that continues to propel her forward in time. &ldquo[I]n her reckless love of individuality, whether she knows it or not, Holly rustles with the fervor of the next generation,&rdquo Wasson stated. Everything grows older with time, but it&rsquos the mark of an outstanding literary achievement to create a character and a story that continues to awake and inspire each new generation that discovers them. Since Truman Capote liked making up stories so much, it&rsquos most likely that his precious Holly was always meant to be an enigma: of his imagination, and of our hearts.


Manhattan Rare Book Company

&ldquoAnd so it happened that in the daylight hours of that Wednesday morning, Alvin Dewey, breakfasting in the coffee shop of a Topeka hotel, read, on the first page of the Kansas City Star, a headline he had long awaited: Die on Rope for Bloody Crime. The story, written by an Associated Press reporter, began: &lsquoRichard Eugene Hickock and Perry Edward Smith, partners in crime, died on the gallows at the state prison early today for one of the bloodiest murders in Kansas criminal annals. Hickock, 33 years old, died first, at 12:41 A.M. Smith, 36, died at 1:19. &rsquo&rdquo

FIRST EDITION of Capote's masterpiece, SIGNED BY CAPOTE on half-title.

"One of the more distinguished achievements in reportage by any writer, In Cold Blood first appeared serially in the New Yorker, where it examined with extraordinary depth, precision, and drama the victims and their killers. So immense was the stress of the editorial undertaking, however, that Capote became addicted to tranquilizers and developed an emotional attachment to the criminals, whose deaths by hanging he witnessed at the Kansas state penitentiary. From more than four thousand pages of typewritten notes gathered with Harper Lee, Capote's celebrated 'non-fiction novel' won the Mystery Writers of America Edgar Allan Poe Award and exacted enough of a psychological toll upon its author to preclude much sustained work in the future" (American National Biography).

New York: Random House, [1965]. Octavo, original maroon cloth, original dust jacket. Book fine, dust jacket with a little bit of toning to spine, otherwise fine.


From the Archives: Truman Capote Dies Wrote ‘In Cold Blood’

Truman Capote and Joanne Carson in the 1970s in Palm Srings. The photo has an inscription for their friend Roddy McDowall.

Author Truman Capote, the impish intellectual who became almost as famous for his acerbic wit on television as for the journalistic-style novels that were his hallmark, died Saturday in Bel-Air. He would have been 60 years old Sept. 30.

Capote, who wrote “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” and “In Cold Blood,” died about noon at the home of his close friend, Joanne Carson, who was divorced from talk show host Johnny Carson in 1972. A tough, high-strung little man who had battled lifelong addictions to drugs and alcohol, he had grown frail in recent years and had been in and out of hospitals.

He is considered one of the most lyrical, and undoubtedly most flamboyant, American writers of the 20th Century.

In an open attempt to secure his place in the literary world, Capote claimed that “In Cold Blood,” a 1964 novel about a multiple murder in Kansas, pioneered a new literary form—the nonfiction novel. Although the book was universally acclaimed, critics have continued to argue the value of the nonfiction novel.

He had no doubt of its value, though. “There are three or four writers left in my generation in this race and I have this feeling that I am going to win it,” he told an interviewer in 1980.

“He was in terrific spirits Friday night,” Carson said in a telephone interview. “We went swimming and we were making plans for his 60th birthday party. Then this morning, he said he was tired and wanted to take a nap.”

She found him unconscious when she tried to wake him shortly after noon, she said, and she called paramedics. She said he had been recently diagnosed as having phlebitis. Police said an autopsy will determine the cause.

He had spent Friday night planning a large black-tie dinner for his 60th birthday and working on a novel called “Answered Prayers” that he has been writing since the 1950s, Carson said. Parts of it were published in Esquire magazine in the 1970s. He had long told friends that this book was to be his last before he died.

“He brought what he had written last night in to me in a spiral notebook and asked me to read it,” Carson said. “He always said this would be the last book he would ever write. It was by far his most difficult. He was letting his barriers down in this book and writing from his heart and soul.

“He was my protector and my best friend,” Carson said, crying. “What am I going to do without him?”

Just how much of the curious, jet-setting homosexual novelist will be revealed in the book is unknown. Capote’s friend and literary representative, Alan U. Schwartz, said his last writings will be reviewed to determine if they are sufficiently complete to publish what was expected to be the most controversial of his often-controversial writings.

“His last book was not entirely autobiographical, but it did deal with a male character that was a kind of male Holly-Go-Lightly,” he said, referring to the call girl character in “Breakfast at Tiffany’s.”

“Truman was kind of whimsical and mischievous and he had a curious kind of asexuality. I think he saw himself as a modern-day Peter Pan,” Schwartz said.

Born Truman Streckfus Persons in New Orleans on Sept. 30, 1924, to a former Miss Alabama, Capote was raised by a series of aunts and grandmothers in the rural South. He made up stories to help deal with his loneliness and his separation from his parents.

Determined since the age of 10 to be a writer, he attended Trinity School and St. John’s Academy in New York and public schools in Greenwich, Conn. His mother later married a well-to-do businessman named Capote and the adopted boy chose to take the name. His mother ultimately died of an apparent drug overdose.

By the age of 17, when he took a job at New Yorker magazine, Capote was known for his mannerisms and eccentric style of dress.

Capote’s literary career began in 1944 with the publication of a short story, “Miriam.” His first novel, “Other Voices, Other Rooms,” was published in 1948. But the literary value of the novel was lost in the sensation created by a jacket photo of the 23-year-old Capote, showing him reclining on a sofa and looking, one critic said, “as if he were dreamily contemplating some outrage against conventional morality.”

Capote later claimed that the photo was selected by accident, but readers at the time suspected that Capote may have identified with the book’s protagonist and that “Other Voices, Other Rooms” was a confession of sexual deviation, critics said.

The resulting publicity helped to make the book a best-seller and Capote well known.

Lest the public forget that Capote enjoyed the unusual, he posed again in the same manner -- this time as a middle-aged legend -- for his “Music for Chameleons,” published in 1980. That was his last book.

In the years that followed “Other Voices, Other Rooms,” he wrote the best-selling “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” and “In Cold Blood,” his most famous work.

In that book, published in 1965, Capote was hailed by some literary critics for his masterful investigative reporting on the lives of two killers condemned to death for slaying four members of the Herbert Clutter family near Garden City, Kan.

Capote himself hailed the book as the first “nonfiction novel.”

But others criticized Capote, questioning the propriety of earning millions on a book based on the deaths of four family members. They also criticized Capote’s continual promotion of the book, to which Capote retorted: “A boy has to hustle his book.”

The work originally appeared in The New Yorker, boosting the magazine’s sales.

Toast of High Society

After the book was published Capote became the toast of New York and threw an elaborate masked ball at the Plaza hotel.

“When I wrote ‘In Cold Blood,’ many were critical,” Capote said later. “I spent six years on that book wandering the plains of Kansas and nearly went mad, but I saw it through. (Fellow author Norman) Mailer called it ‘a failure of the imagination,’ and now I see that the only prizes Norman wins are for some small service to him.”

Capote never concealed his dislike for Mailer, once saying that Mailer was not a very good novelist. He added: “Norman is a very, very good literary critic, even though he has some foolish ideas. . . . ”

But he cultivated famous enemies, just as he cultivated famous friends.

Speaking in his patented high-pitched whine, Capote delighted in skewering his arch foes in his frequent television appearances and in his writing.

Novelist Gore Vidal, once a close friend, sued him for libel in 1976 after he was quoted as saying that Robert F. Kennedy had had Vidal thrown out of the White House in a drunken stupor. That lawsuit was just recently settled — “amicably,” Schwartz said.

“Quite a lot of people disliked him,” said Saint Subber, a Broadway producer who did theatrical versions of Capote’s “The Grass Harp” and “House of Flowers.” “I knew him over 40 years. To me, he was a Roman candle. He was always celebrating life.”

Capote often grabbed more headlines than his books did. He frequented New York’s Studio 54 in its heyday and was ofter seen in the company of such social luminaries as Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Lee Radziwill, C.Z. and Winston Guest and Klaus and Martha (Sonny) von Bulow.

Controversy was not the only thing that dogged Capote’s later years.

He had bouts with alcohol and once went into great detail about it before a college audience in Maryland.

Incoherent in Interview

He said he often mixed alcohol with medication. “I put them together like some sort of cocktail,” he said in a July, 1978, television interview with Stanley Siegel in New York. The host stopped the interview when Capote began rambling incoherently about his drinking and drug problems.

In August, 1983, Capote pleaded guilty to a charge of drunk driving on New York’s Long Island. Capote was scolded by the judge for appearing in court in blue shorts that came to the middle of his thighs, a white shirt and a sports jacket.

Capote was hospitalized in April, 1983, in Montgomery, Ala., after test showed a “toxic level” of dilantin and phenobarbital in his system. Doctors said he had a “bad reaction” to the drugs, which are used to control epileptic-type seizures.

In August, 1981, he collapsed from a convulsive seizure in the lobby of his Manhattan apartment.

Through it all, Capote gamely held on. He told an interviewer in 1980:

“I’ve always seen myself as a winner, even as a kid. If I hadn’t I just might have gone down the drain a couple of times. I’ve got something inside of me -- peasant-like and stubborn — and I’m in it ‘til the end of the race.”

The 5-foot, 3-inch author had homes on New York’s Long Island and Switzerland and recently sold a home in Palm Springs, but he preferred his Manhattan apartment as his home base. Said Capote of Southern California:

“It’s like living in Forest Lawn. There is no intellectual life, only going to the studio and coming from the studio. San Francisco has a cozy drama to it, but it is one the most provincial cities in the world. It’s like a carousel one sees the same people over and over in about 10 days.”

Capote thought Paris and Moscow were boring Tokyo was “hell on earth” and Italy’s Venice was a “gradually dying museum.”

But New York was the apple of Capote’s eye. “It’s the only city I know that is a city city. It is going 24 hours a day. If you want to buy a book at 4 in the morning, you can buy a book . . . . ”

Although he claimed to dislike Los Angeles, he frequently visited Carson in Bel-Air and had his own room in her house.

Capote won numerous literary awards, including the O. Henry Award in 1946, 1948 and 1951 the Mystery Writers of America Edgar Allan Poe Award in 1966 and an Emmy Award for television adaptation in 1967.

He also wrote screenplays, collaborating with John Huston in the 1953 film, “Beat the Devil.” In 1976, he made his acting debut as an eccentric millionaire detective in Neil Simon’s “Murder by Death.”

“Music for Chameleons,” a collection of his short stories, has been adapted to a screenplay for a movie and is scheduled to begin shooting shortly.

Carson said Capote also was scheduled to appear on a television show with her next month that was to have been a pilot for a possible TV series. Carson has a program on cable television.

“He was really rather secretive about it,” Clarke said. “He wanted to live long enough to finish the book, and then he wanted to die. He told me that.”

He was working on the last chapter of the book hours before he died, Carson said. “He borrowed two pens and was writing late last night,” she said.

She read the last two lines. They are typical of the detailed, lyrical description that marked his writings:

“There were flowers everywhere, masses of winter lilac, primrose, and lavender-edged roses. Beautiful bound books lined all the walls in the living room.”

Friends said funeral arrangements are pending.

Times staff writers Mark Balthazar and Dean Murphy also contributed to this story.


Mais Lidos

"I never had any problem about being homosexual," he said. "I mean, look at me. I was always right out there. The other kids liked me for that. I was really quite popular. I was amusing and I was pretty. I didn't look like anybody else and I wasn't like anybody else."

Capote said he liked his writing "to be very clear and simple as though you were sitting by the fire on a cold night and I were telling you the story." He wrote in pencil, in lined notebooks, laboring over each successive page until he had it the way he wanted it.

When he researched "In Cold Blood," the story of a brutal murder in Kansas and the arrest, trial and execution of the two murderers, he reportedly kept his research notes on index cards, tied with ribbons and stored in Tiffany gift boxes.

His flamboyance, his contacts among the upper crust - he was frequently in the company of Jacqueline Onassis, Lee Radziwill, C.Z. Guest and Klaus and Martha (Sunny) von Bulow - and his outspokenness made him a sought after guest on television talk shows, and it was through the medium of TV that he became familiar to the people of not only America, but the entire world.

He was famous for his sardonic remarks. He wrote of actress Meryl Streep: "Her nose… reminds you of an anteater."


  • Richard Hickock and Perry Smith murdered the Clutter family in Kansas in 1959
  • Journalist Capote based his groundbreaking true crime book on them
  • He said the pair wrongly believed Mr Clutter had a safe, and hoped to burgle it
  • When they found the house empty of valuables, they killed him, his wife and kids
  • Hickock wrote his own memoir, The High Road to Hell, from Death Row
  • He implied that he had been paid to kill the family by a figure named 'Roberts'
  • But that claim doesn't square with the known facts about the case
  • However Capote attempted to buy out the manuscript to block competition
  • It was lost for decades - which some believe was done deliberately

Published: 23:19 BST, 23 March 2017 | Updated: 08:14 BST, 24 March 2017

Truman Capote's true-life tale of the 1959 murder of a Kansas family, In Cold Blood, may not be all it seems, it has emerged.

One of the murderers, Richard Hickock, wrote his own manuscript, which may have been suppressed by Capote, a new report revealed.

And even more chillingly, Hickock's account suggests that while Capote wrote the murders up as a burglary gone wrong, it was actually a paid hit, the Wall Street Journal reported.

Killers: Richard Hickock (left) and Perry Smith (right) were hanged in 1965 for killing a Kansas family in 1959. It was portrayed as a burglary gone horribly wrong they left with less than $50

Author: Truman Capote released the groundbreaking true crime book In Cold Blood, based on interviews with the pair and locals, in 1966. But Hickock wrote his own, once-lost manuscript

According to Capote's 1966 book, Hickock and accomplice Perry Smith broke into the home of the Clutter family in western Kansas on November 14, 1959 to commit burglary.

They had been told that Clutter kept $10,000 in a safe, and planned to steal the money and run away to Mexico.

As In Cold Blood tells it, the pair tied up the family and but found no safe - or any valuables - anywhere.

Worried about leaving witnesses, the deeply unstable Smith then cut the throat of Herb Clutter, 48, who was tied up in the basement, before shooting him in the head with a shotgun.

'I didn't want to harm the man,' Smith told Capote from prison. 'I thought he was a very nice gentleman. Soft spoken.

'I thought so right up to the moment I cut his throat.'

The pair then walked through the house, where Herb's wife, Bonnie, 45, and their two children, 16-year-old Nancy and 15-year-old Kenyon, were tied up, and killed each with a single shotgun blast to the head.

Kenyon died in the room next to the basement. Bonnie and Nancy were both bound and murdered in their bedrooms.

They fled with a portable radio, a pair of binoculars and less than $50 in cash. They were caught the following month and hanged in 1965.

Victims: Herb Clutter (left), 48, was tied up in the basement of his home. Smith slit his throat then shot him. His wife, Bonnie Clutter (right), 45, was shot dead while tied to her bed

Children: Nancy Clutter (left), 16, was tied to her bed when she was shot. Kenyon Clutter (right), 15, was bound in the room next to his father when Smith shot him

Deadly: The shotgun and knife used to kill the Clutters and their children are seen here in 1960. Hickock suggested in his manuscript that the deaths were paid for by a man known as 'Roberts'

That's how Truman told it in his groundbreaking narrative nonfiction book, but Hickock's own memoir, written in 1962 but forgotten until now, contradict Capote's version.

The documents, which have resurfaced after a Wall Street Journal investigation, suggest that the murders were even more cold-blooded than Capote claimed.

As Hickock tells it, he gleefully shone a torch onto each victim's face to aid Smith in his murders.

On recalling how Kenyon's head was destroyed by Smith's shotgun blast, Hickock wrote: 'I would of [sic] liked to see the embalmer fill that hole.'

But there are even more disquieting hints that the killers were not bungling burglars but paid hitmen.

At one point in the 200-page handwritten manuscript, which had made its way into the hands of a lawyer who worked on the case, Hickock makes a reference to someone called 'Roberts' who appears to be paying them money.

Describing the seconds before the murders, Hickock says: 'We were running short on time.

'It was almost two o'clock and our meeting with Roberts was about an hour away. We didn't want to miss that. Five thousand bucks is a lot of dough.'

And earlier, as the pair pulled up to the Clutters' house, Hickock said he thought: 'I was going to kill a person. Maybe more than one. Eu poderia fazer isso? Maybe I'll back out.

'But I can't back out, I've taken the money. I've spent some of it. Besides, I thought, I know too much.'

Exactly who Roberts is, and what his role in the grisly murders was, is unclear.

Death house: Bodies of the Clutter clan are removed from their home by police. Hickock's claim of a paid hit contradicts some known facts about the case

Scene of the crime: Nancy was tied to this bed when she was shot in the head by Smith. It's not clear why the men, if hired as hitmen, would not turn in their employer for a plea deal

Basement: This is the basement in which Herb Clutter was murdered. Capote said the men broke in to steal a safe he supposedly had, and Smith became angry because there wasn't one

The claims also raise questions about the truthfulness of Hickock's story.

If they were being paid thousands of dollars to murder the family, a skeptic might ask, where did the money go after they left the house?

Why didn't they turn in Roberts as a plea deal when they were brought in for questioning?

And why did Hickock's former cellmate and ex-Clutter employee Floyd Wells testify that he told Hickock about the supposed safe, causing the robbery in the first place?

'I don't believe for a minute that they got paid to do it,' Michael Stone, a Columbia University psychiatrist specializing in the study of killers, told the Wall Street Journal after reading the manuscript.

Still, there is evidence to suggest that regardless of its truthfulness, the document unnerved Capote, and some believe he had it buried.

Hickock and journalist Mack Nations had tried to sell The High Road to Hell to publishers Random House in 1962.

But the publishing house turned it down, as they had already contracted Capote to write In Cold Blood.

Slaughtered: Mrs Clutter was shot dead while tied to her bed (pictured). Both men appeared to have no money when caught which doesn't fit with Hickock's claim that they were paid $5,000

Film: Capote (seen on the set of the film of 'In Cold Blood' in 1967) made his name with the book. He reportedly tried to buy out the manuscript and was worried it would affect his book


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