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2 de dezembro de 1944

2 de dezembro de 1944


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2 de dezembro de 1944

Frente Ocidental

Tropas dos EUA chegam a Saarlauten

Birmânia

14º Exército captura Kalwe

Diplomacia

As negociações acontecem entre De Gaulle e Stalin em Moscou

Guerra no ar

O projeto Bell XP-77 foi oficialmente cancelado. Apenas dois protótipos foram construídos, um dos quais foi destruído em um acidente em 2 de outubro de 1944.



Eventos históricos em dezembro de 1944

    8ª Sonata para Piano de Prokofjev, estreia o 10º Prêmio Troféu Heisman: Les Horvath, Estado de Ohio (QB) General De Gaulle chega a Moscou Tropas alemãs apreendem diques Betuwse 95ª Divisão de Infantaria dos EUA ocupa ponte em Saar Ordem britânica para desarmar causas greve geral na Grécia Marcha da morte húngara de judeus termina Mussert coloca plano Seyss-Inquart para pequena nazista-Europa Fusão temporária de 2 times da NFL, o Pittsburgh Steelers e o Chicago Cardinals, se dissolve no final da temporada. divisão ocupa Brandenburg Hurtgenwald A Guerra Civil Grega irrompe em uma Grécia recém-libertada, entre comunistas e monarquistas. A Guarda Interna da Grã-Bretanha ('Exército do Pai') é oficialmente suspensa em um desfile especial de despedida em Hyde Park, Londres. Alemães destroem diques do Reno, Betuwe inundou Tropas alemãs roubam todas as moedas de prata em Utrecht

Evento de Interesse

15 de dezembro Bandleader, Major Glenn Miller, perdido no Canal da Mancha


Aniversários famosos

    Pierre Arditi, ator francês de cinema e teatro Eric Bloom, vocalista / guitarrista do rock americano (Blue Öyster Cult) Tahar Ben Jelloun, escritor francês de origem marroquina Daniel Pennac, escritor francês nascido no Marrocos Michael W. Hagee, 33º Comandante dos Estados Unidos Marine Corps Cathy Lee Crosby, atriz americana (Coach, Isso é incrível), nascida em Los Angeles, Califórnia Roger Omond, jornalista Ibrahim Rugova, escritor nacionalista Kosovo e presidente de Kosovo (1992-2006), nascido em Crnce, Jugoslávia Federal Democrática (agora Kosovo) (m. 2006) Botho Strauß, autor alemão, nascido em Naumburg, Alemanha António Variações [António Joaquim Rodrigues Ribeiro], cantor e compositor português (Dar & amp Receber), nascido em Braga, Portugal (m. 1984) Chris Hillman, Cantor americano (The Byrds - Turn Turn Turn), nascido em San Diego, Califórnia Dennis Wilson, baterista e vocalista americano (Beach Boys), nascido em Hawthorne, Califórnia (falecido em 1983) François Migault, piloto de corridas de automóveis francês (24 horas de Le Mans 1976 vice-campeão 16 F1 GP), nascido em Le Mans, França (d. 2012) Anna McGarrigle, cantora e compositora canadense de música folk, nascida em Montreal, Quebec Lynford & quotHux & quot Brown, guitarrista de sessão e turnê jamaicana (Jimmy Cliff Paul Simon Toots e os Maytals), nascida em Port Antonio, Jamaica (d. 2020) Jeroen Krabbé , Ator holandês (The Fugitive), nascido em Amsterdam Jonathan King, cantor e compositor inglês (& quotEveryone's Gone To The Moon & quot) e produtor musical, nascido em Londres David & quotFritz & quot Fryer, guitarrista pop britânico e compositor (The Four Pennies - & quotJuliet & quot), nascido em Oldham, Lancashire (falecido em 2007) Jamiel Chagra, traficante de drogas americano, nascido em El Paso, Texas (falecido em 2008) Daniel Chorzempa, organista americano, nascido em Minneapolis, Minnesota George Baker [Johannes Bouwens], cantor e compositor holandês ( Paloma Blanca, Little Green Bag), nascida em Hoorn, Holanda Ki Longfellow, romancista americana (The Secret Magdalene), nascida em Staten Island, Nova York Bob O'Connor, político americano (58º prefeito de Pittsburgh), nascido em Greenfield Pittsburgh, Pensilvânia (d. 2006) Guy Darrell [John Swail], cantor britânico (I've Been Hurt), nascido em Kent, Inglaterra Tisha Sterling, atriz americana (Coogan's Bluff), nascido em Hollywood, Califórnia Brenda Lee, cantora americana (me desculpe) , nascido em Atlanta, Georgia David Ashley White, compositor e educador americano, nascido em San Antonio, Texas Lynda Day George, atriz americana (Casey-Mission Impossible), nascido em San Marcos, Texas Teri Garr, atriz americana (Sr. Mãe, Jovem Frankenstein), nascido em Lakewood, Ohio (ou 1947) Jon Garrison, tenor americano, nascido em Higginsville, Missouri Kenneth Cranham, ator escocês (Hellbound: Hellraiser II), nascido em Dunfermline, Fife, Escócia Jean Doré, político canadense (39º Prefeito de Montreal), nascido em Montreal, Quebec (falecido em 2015) Rob Tyner [Robert Derminer], cantor de hard rock americano (MC5 - Kick Out The Jams), nascido em Detroit, Michigan (falecido em 1991) Dick Dees, político holandês , nascido em Oostburg, Holanda Stan Bahnsen, arremessador de beisebol americano (NY Yankee, 1968 AL Rookie-of-year), Bor n em Council Bluffs, Iowa

Chico mendes

15 de dezembro Chico Mendes, ativista ambientalista brasileiro e seringueiro, nascido em Xapuri, Brasil (falecido em 1988)

    John Abercrombie, guitarrista de jazz americano, nascido em Portchester, Nova York (m. 2017) Yosemite Sam, personagem de desenho animado da Warner Bros. criado por Friz Freleng, (série Looney Tunes e Merrie Melodies), estreia em & quotStage Door Cartoon & quot Bernard Hill, inglês ator (Yosser Hughes-Boys from the Blackstuff, King Théoden-The Lord of the Rings), nascido em Manchester, Inglaterra Ference Bene, húngaro recorde de 12 gols de futebol (ouro olímpico 1964) Jack L [aurence] Chalker, autor de ficção científica americano (Saga of Well World) Giedrė Lukšaitė-Mrázková, cravo lituano-tcheco, organista e educador, nascido em Kaunas, Lituânia Deke [Roger] Leonard, músico de rock galês (Man), nascido em Llanelli (m. 2017) Richard Leakey , Paleoantropólogo queniano, conservacionista e político, nascido em Nairóbi, Quênia Alvin Lee, vocalista e guitarrista de rock britânico (10 anos depois), nascido em Nottingham, Inglaterra (falecido em 2013) Tim Reid, Norfolk VA, ator e comediante americano (Venus Flytrap -WKRP, casa de Frank) Zal Yanovsky , Guitarrista canadense de rock (Lovin 'Spoonful - & quotDo You Believe in Magic? & Quot), nascido em Toronto, Ontário (d. 2002) William Christie, diretor americano da Les Arts Florissants Mitchell Feigenbaum, físico matemático americano Steve Tyrell [Stephen Bilao III], cantor e produtor musical americano de jazz e standards, nascido em Palo Pinto, Texas Gernot Wolfgruber, escritor austríaco nascido em Gmünd, Baixa Áustria Robert & quotBobby & quot Colomby, baterista de rock americano (Blood Sweat & amp Tears - & quotSpinning Wheel & quot), nascido em NYC, New York Jean Fergusson, atriz inglesa, nascido em Wakefield, Reino Unido Jared Martin, ator americano (Varian-Fantastic Voyage, Dusty-Dallas), nascido em NYC, New York Michael Tilson Thomas, maestro americano (San Francisco Symphony, 1995-2020) e compositor (Shówa / Shoáh), nascido em Los Angeles, Califórnia Hwang Jang Lee, artista marcial coreano e filme ator, nascido em Aomori, Japão Zheng Xiaoyu, burocrata chinês, nascido em Fuzhou, China (m. 2007) Colin & quotBarry & quot Jenkins, baterista de rock inglês (Animals - & quotHouse of the Rising Sun & quot), nascido em Leicester, United Reino

Steve Carlton

22 de dezembro Steve Carlton, lançador de beisebol americano (Cy Young '72, '77, '80, '82), nascido em Miami, Flórida

    Wesley Clark, oficial militar americano, nascido em Chicago, Illinois Erhard Keller, patinador de velocidade alemão (ouro olímpico 1968, 72 500m), nascido em Günzburg, Alemanha Mike Curb, cantor americano (Mike Curb Congregation), nascido em Savannah, Georgia Oswald Gracias , Arcebispo Católico Romano de Bombaim, nascido em Bombaim Presidência Barry Chuckle [Barry Patton Elliott], artista, escritor e ator britânico (ChuckleVision, The Freddie Starr Showcase), nascido em Rotherham, Inglaterra Henry Vestine, guitarrista americano (Canned Heat), nascido em Takoma Park, Maryland (m. 1997) Kenny Everett [Maurice James Christopher Cole], DJ britânico e personalidade da TV (Kenny Everett Show), nascido em Seaforth, Lancashire, Inglaterra (m. 1995) Jairzinho, jogador de futebol brasileiro Emory Gordy Jr. , Músico e produtor musical americano, nascido em Atlanta, Georgia Sam Strahan, New Zealand Rugby Union Lock (17 caps Manawatū), nascido em Palmerston North, Nova Zelândia (d. 2019) Jane Lapotaire, atriz britânica (Spirit of the Dead), nascido em Ipswich, Suffo lk, England Mick Jones, guitarrista de rock inglês (Foreigner - & quotI Want to Know What Love Is & quot), nascido em Portsmouth, Hampshire, Inglaterra, Tracy Nelson, cantora de blues rock americana (Mother Earth), nascido em Madison, Wisconsin Johnny Isakson, político americano Kary Mullis, química americana, ganhador do Nobel Rodney Redmond, jogador de críquete da Nova Zelândia (abertura com pontuação de século em Test v Pak 1973), nascida em Whangarei, Nova Zelândia William J. Fallon, almirante da Marinha dos EUA, ex-comandante do Comando Central dos EUA Taylor Hackford, diretor americano ( Devil's Advocate, Ray), nascido em Santa Bárbara, Califórnia

Da Praia de Omaha ao Reno

O axioma militar, “Nenhum plano sobrevive ao primeiro contato com o inimigo”, aplicado aos Rangers no Dia D. A nave de desembarque líder da Força-Tarefa A (LTC Rudder) ficou desorientada e se dirigiu para Pointe et Raz de la Percée, três milhas a leste. Vendo o erro, Rudder direcionou seu comandante da flotilha de volta ao curso, mas fez com que a Força-Tarefa A pousasse trinta minutos atrasada. As três empresas do LTC Rudder avançaram pela praia repleta de conchas e rapidamente escalaram os penhascos enquanto os contratorpedeiros USS Saterlee e HMS Talybont forneceu suporte de fogo próximo. Em 45 minutos, a bateria alemã estava segura, mas as três forças da companhia tiveram que conter vários contra-ataques. Por causa do atraso de 30 minutos e das transmissões de rádio distorcidas, o LTC Schneider não recebeu nenhuma palavra de código de Pointe du Hoc. 39

39 Harrison, Ataque Cross-Channel, 322 Cornelius Ryan, O dia mais longo, 6 de junho de 1944 (Nova York: Touchstone Book, 1959), 209-210.

A Força-Tarefa B pousou em Omaha logo atrás da Able Company, 116th Infantry, e se deparou com um turbilhão de tiros de metralhadoras dos penhascos acima da praia. O fogo concentrado dizimou dois terços da Able Company e quase metade dos Rangers antes que eles pudessem se mover através da ampla praia para o abrigo do paredão. 40 Superando os obstáculos e em face do forte fogo inimigo, os Rangers alcançaram a base do penhasco a 350 metros do paredão. Usando baionetas e facas, SGT Richard Garrett e SGT Julius Belcher começaram a escalar o penhasco. Chegando ao topo, eles largaram as cordas e foram seguidos por 1LT Bill Moody e PFC Otto Stephans. Mas mesmo com a conquista do terreno elevado, a Força-Tarefa B foi rapidamente paralisada pelo intenso fogo inimigo. 41

40 Harrison, Ataque Cross-Channel, 313-314.

41 Ryan, O dia mais longo, 6 de junho de 1944, 199-200 preto, O batalhão, 90-92. Em 6 de junho de 1944, dezenove dos sessenta e oito Rangers da Companhia Charlie, 2º Batalhão de Rangers, foram mortos na Praia de Omaha.

OMAHA BEACH, França de Joseph Gary Sheahan, 1944 retrata a intensidade do fogo durante as primeiras horas do pouso. (Coleção de Arte do Exército dos EUA)

Artigo principal

Barras Laterais

Notas finais

No agitado Canal da Mancha, o LTC Schneider, um veterano de inúmeras aterrissagens anfíbias, esperou pelo sinal do leme. Não recebendo nenhum, ele ordenou a flotilha para Omaha Beach às 07h10, dez minutos depois do prazo. Schneider estava em uma posição única como o único oficial Ranger em seu comando que era um veterano de combate. Na costa ele podia ver o que estava acontecendo nas praias e teve tempo, ainda que um pouco, para avaliar a situação. Ele decidiu pousar sua força no flanco direito da Praia de Omaha, que estava recebendo fogo relativamente leve (em comparação com o resto da área). Essa decisão resultou no pouso da Força-Tarefa C praticamente intacto.

Na praia de Omaha, a 29ª Divisão de Infantaria foi paralisada. As tropas se esconderam atrás de um quebra-mar. O pesado fogo da metralhadora alemã varreu a cabeça de praia. O general de brigada Norman D. Cota, o comandante assistente da divisão do 29º, caminhou até o tenente-chefe Schneider e disse: “Temos que dar o fora desta praia. Rangers, mostrem o caminho! ” Esse foi o catalisador. Logo pequenos grupos de Rangers, infantaria e engenheiros escalaram o paredão para lançar cargas explosivas. 42

42 David W. Hogan, Jr., Operações Especiais do Exército dos EUA na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Washington DC: Center for Military History, 1992), 44 Glassman, “Guie o Caminho Rangers,” 20-24.

No sinal do LTC Schneider, os Rangers violaram as defesas de arame farpado usando torpedos de Bangalore. Momentaneamente escondidos da observação inimiga pelas nuvens de fumaça crescente das explosões e incêndios de grama, os Rangers moveram-se rapidamente pelas brechas e subiram a colina. A Dog Company, liderada pelo pelotão do primeiro-tenente Francis W. Dawson, atacou o topo da colina e eliminou um ponto forte do inimigo, permitindo que o resto do batalhão se movesse para o interior. Depois de abrir caminho através do cinturão de campos minados alemães, o batalhão começou a atacar as formidáveis ​​defesas ao redor de Vierville. 43

43 Glassman, “Guie o Caminho Rangers,” 21 Major Hugo W. Heffelfinger, Quartel-General, 5º Batalhão de Rangers, “Relatórios de Ação contra o Inimigo do 5º Batalhão de Rangers, 6 de junho de 1944,” Arquivos ARSOF, John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Museum, Fort Bragg, NC.

1LT “Ace” Parker liderou a Able Company, 5º Rangers, ao ponto de encontro previamente combinado, o Chateau de Vaumicel, a sudoeste de Vierville. Quando a unidade parou, Parker tinha apenas 23 homens, menos da metade de sua empresa. Implacável, 1LT Parker continuou com sua missão - o alívio dos Rangers em Point du Hoc. Por conta própria, a pequena força finalmente alcançou os homens de Rudder às 22 horas, com 20 prisioneiros alemães capturados durante tiroteios ao longo do caminho. 44 No entanto, o resto da força de Schneider não o seguiu imediatamente.

44 preto, O batalhão, 137-138 Major Hugo W. Heffelfinger, Quartel-General, 5º Batalhão de Rangers, “5º Batalhão de Rangers Action Against Enemy Reports, 6 de junho de 1944,” ARSOF Archives, John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Museum, Fort Bragg, NC (doravante citado como 5º Batalhão de Rangers AAR e data) Moen e Heinen, Reflexões de coragem no Dia D e nos dias que se seguiram, 93.

Ainda vinculado ao 116º Regimento de Infantaria (29ª Divisão de Infantaria), o Coronel Charles D. W. Canham, o comandante do regimento, ordenou que a Força Tarefa C Rangers ajudasse sua unidade exaurida na defesa de Vierville e protegesse a cabeça de ponte contra um contra-ataque inimigo. Esta missão atrasou seu movimento para Pointe du Hoc. Assim que essa missão foi cumprida, a força de Schneider lutou a oeste para finalmente libertar o contingente maltratado de Leme em 8 de junho (D + 2). 45

45 Hogan, Operações Especiais do Exército dos EUA na Segunda Guerra Mundial, 44 Glassman, “Guie o Caminho Rangers,” 20-24 preto, Rangers na Segunda Guerra Mundial, 218 Preto, O batalhão, 146-151.

Rescaldo da Normandia

Depois de se juntar à Força-Tarefa A em 8 de junho de 1944, o 5º Rangers desfrutou de uma breve trégua. Na Península de Cherbourg, os Aliados foram inundados pelo súbito influxo de prisioneiros alemães. O Primeiro Provost Marshal do Exército montou campos temporários de prisioneiros de guerra, variando em tamanho de 500 a 10.000 homens. O 5º Batalhão de Rangers foi encarregado de proteger os campos de prisioneiros de guerra em Valognes e Foucarville. “Os prisioneiros foram conduzidos à praia em grupos de cerca de cem e carregados em navios para a Inglaterra ou os EUA”, relembrou o sargento Victor “Baseplate” Miller, Easy Company. O dever de guarda 47 foi intercalado com substitutos de treinamento e servindo como uma força de reação, no caso de forças alemãs contornadas nas ilhas Jersey e Guernsey tentarem invadir a costa. 48 O LTC Schneider deixou o batalhão em julho de 1944 para uma missão nos Estados Unidos e o Major Richard P. Sullivan, o oficial executivo do batalhão desde a ativação, assumiu o comando. 49 Após a missão de segurança dos prisioneiros de guerra, o 5º Rangers foi comprometido com operações ofensivas na Península da Bretanha.

47 Victor J. Miller, Minha vida com os Rangers (edição online, http://www.5thrangercoy.com/history/miller_story.html, acessado em 21 de dezembro de 2008, cópia em USASOC History Office Classified Files, Fort Bragg, NC), 17 (doravante citado como Miller, Minha vida com os Rangers e o número da página).

48 Glassman, “Mostre o caminho, Rangers,”28 Miller, Minha vida com os Rangers, 17.

Manuscrito Mischke, 13, Hogan, Operações Especiais do Exército dos EUA na Segunda Guerra Mundial, 44-45 Miller, Minha vida com os Rangers, 17.

Os 5º Rangers e elementos da 116ª Infantaria substituem a Força Ranger A em Pointe du Hoc em D + 2 (8 de junho de 1944). A seta identifica o leme LTC. Logo depois que esta foto foi tirada, todo o elemento deixou Pointe du Hoc para continuar seu ataque ao oeste. (Instituto de História Militar)

Padre Lacy

“A embarcação de desembarque continuava sendo atingida e o capelão Lacy estava na beira da água, retirando crianças feridas das ondas e administrando a última cerimônia com balas batendo em toda parte ', relembrou o major Richard P. Sullivan. “Eu estava perto do quebra-mar, organizando os caras, e enviei um Ranger dizendo ao capelão para subir aqui e se proteger.” “O capelão Lacy enviou de volta a mensagem: 'Diga ao major que estou fazendo meu trabalho e ele deve continuar fazendo o dele.'” 46 Por seus inúmeros atos de heroísmo no Dia D 1LT (Capelão) Joseph R. Lacy foi premiado com o Cruz de serviço distinto.

46 Tom Long, “Richard P. Sullivan, condecorado por bravura no ataque do Dia D em 81: [City Edition].”Boston Globe, 5 de agosto de 1999, http://www.proquest.com/ (acessado em 20 de abril de 2009) Colin Nickerson, Globe Staff. “Um dia escaldante para toda a vida, os veteranos da Nova Inglaterra contam a coragem, o terror e o triunfo do Dia D: [City Edition].”Boston Globe), 29 de maio de 1994, http://www.proquest.com/ (acessado em 20 de abril de 2009).

O LTC James E. Rudder parabeniza o Capelão Joseph Lacy depois de apresentá-lo com a Cruz de Serviços Distintos por suas ações no Dia D. (Foto cortesia do Major General (R) John C. Raaen, Jr.)

A campanha da Bretanha

À medida que as forças aliadas avançavam para o interior a partir da cabeça de ponte da invasão, as forças inimigas se reagruparam e se retiraram para posições defensivas secundárias. O impulso principal dos Aliados foi para o leste, com um impulso secundário para o sudoeste, ao longo da costa francesa e da Península da Bretanha. Os alemães fortificaram e guarneceram vários dos principais portos da Bretanha. O maior deles era Brest, com uma população civil de 80.000 habitantes. O porto era o segundo maior do país. Desde a rendição francesa em 1940, Brest havia se tornado a principal base de submarinos alemães. General der Fallschirmtruppe (pára-quedista geral) Hermann B. Ramcke e 40-50.000 alemães defenderam a cidade. A fortaleza medieval do porto, com seus fossos e paredes, foi aumentada com campos minados, trincheiras e casamatas. Mais de cem canhões e peças de artilharia antiaérea protegeram as defesas. 50

50 preto, Rangers na Segunda Guerra Mundial, 223 Preto, O batalhão, 165. A inteligência aliada estimou 20.000 defensores, mas os marinheiros e as tropas de construção nas bases e o corte de tropas diversas pelo avanço aliado aumentaram a defesa para quase 50.000. Os defensores incluíam o 2º Fallshirmjäger (Pára-quedas) Divisão, as 266ª e 343ª Divisões de Infantaria e alguns contingentes de tropas SS.

Os exércitos aliados saíram rapidamente da cabeça de praia do Dia D para a França. Em dezembro de 1944, a maior parte da França foi libertada. (Detalhe) O 2º e o 5º Batalhões de Rangers se mudaram para a Península da Bretanha para operações em torno de Brest. Ambas as unidades tomariam fortalezas críticas para proteger a cidade portuária.

À medida que os Aliados avançavam para o leste em direção à Alemanha, eles lutaram contra três inimigos: os alemães, o clima e a falta de suprimentos. Mais portos tiveram que ser abertos para aumentar o fluxo de suprimentos da Inglaterra. 51 Uma das duas docas flutuantes experimentais “Mulberry” na praia de Omaha foi destruída por uma tempestade de verão. Os Aliados não podiam mais contar com o apoio vindo das praias da invasão, especialmente com o outono tempestuoso e o inverno se aproximando. Os exércitos aliados precisavam de milhares de toneladas de suprimentos diariamente para sustentar o avanço para a Alemanha. Proteger as cidades portuárias de Cherbourg, Le Havre e Brest tornou-se fundamental para o esforço dos Aliados. 52 Na Bretanha, tanto o 2º como o 5º batalhão de Rangers serviram como “brigadas de incêndio” para atacar os pontos críticos.

51 Dwight D. Eisenhower, Cruzada na europa (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1948), 279-280 Hugh M. Cole, The Lorraine Campaign (Washington, DC: Centro do Exército dos EUA para História Militar, 1993), 3-4 Richard Stewart, editor, História Militar Americana, volume II (Washington, DC: Centro do Exército dos EUA para História Militar, 2005), 151-152 Stephen E. Ambrose, Soldados Cidadãos: O Exército dos EUA das Praias da Normandia ao Bulge e à Rendição da Alemanha, 7 de junho de 1944 a 7 de maio de 1945 (Nova York: Touchstone, 1997), 89 Geoffrey Perret, Há uma guerra a ser vencida: o Exército dos Estados Unidos na Segunda Guerra Mundial (New York: Ballantine Books, 1991), 329. O 21º Grupo de Exércitos do Marechal de Campo Bernard L. Montgomery estava se movendo em um impulso ao norte para capturar os portos ao longo do Canal da Mancha, especialmente o grande porto belga de Antuérpia. Ao sul, os americanos tentaram limpar os portos do canal na península da Bretanha. Esta foi uma tarefa difícil, considerando que a península tinha 320 quilômetros de comprimento e 160 quilômetros de largura.

52 preto, O batalhão, 165.

Os 5º Rangers formaram duas forças-tarefa para sua missão em Brest. Uma força-tarefa, consistindo das Companhias Able, Charlie e Easy, liderada pelo novo batalhão XO, MAJ Hugo W. Heffelfinger, substituiu elementos da 2ª Divisão de Infantaria a noroeste de Brest. A Easy Company foi posteriormente reposicionada em uma lacuna entre a 8ª e a 29ª Divisões de Infantaria perto de Gousneou para conduzir patrulhas. Em 1o de setembro, o resto do batalhão foi colocado na 29ª Divisão para “endireitar as linhas” da divisão, eliminando bolsões de resistência alemã em preparação para o ataque a Brest. 53

53 5º Batalhão de Rangers AAR, 29 de agosto de 1944 Glassman, “Mostre o caminho, Rangers,” 31-32.

O ataque a Brest começou em 3 de setembro, quando o 5º Rangers assaltou o Forte Toulbrouch, um dos muitos fortes que cercam o porto. Os combates foram tão intensos que a reserva do batalhão teve que ser comprometida para impedir um contra-ataque e o Quartel-General da Companhia foi reorganizado em uma empresa de rifles e colocado na reserva. 54 No dia seguinte, o 5º Rangers atacou novamente com artilharia coordenada e apoio aéreo. A Baker Company da CPT Bernard M. Pepper atacou apenas 20 jardas atrás de oito caças P-47 metralhando as posições alemãs. “Foi incrível ver a fumaça, a sujeira e os Rangers correndo para lá e desaparecendo de vista. Os alemães, antes que pudessem se recuperar, encontraram os Rangers em cima deles e. . . o forte foi capturado ”, disse SGT Arden Mischke. 55 Os sessenta homens da Baker Company capturaram Fort Toulbrouch e mais de 300 prisioneiros 6 minutos após o ataque final. 56 Em 5 de setembro, todo o 5º Batalhão atacou o Fort de Mengant apoiado por um pelotão da Able Company, o 644º Batalhão de Destruidores de Tanques. Após uma luta intensa, a Fox Company tomou o forte com uma carga de baioneta. 57

54 5º Batalhão de Rangers AAR, 3 de setembro de 1944 Glassman, “Mostre o caminho, Rangers,”33 James F. Greene, Jr., Companhia E, 5º Batalhão de Rangers,“ Recollections of Brest, ”encontrado em http://users.skynet.be/jeeper/page123.html.

56 Glassman, “Mostre o caminho, Rangers,”34 5º Batalhão de Rangers AAR, 3 de setembro de 1944 Preto, Rangers na Segunda Guerra Mundial, 231.

57 5º Batalhão de Rangers AAR, 5 de setembro de 1944 Glassman, “Mostre o caminho, Rangers,”34-35 Manuscrito Mischke, 17 preto, Rangers na Segunda Guerra Mundial, 231-232.

Retirados da linha para um merecido descanso de um dia, os Rangers “ficaram surpresos ao ver dois soldados alemães embriagados descendo a estrada em nossa direção carregando uma mala. Quando os persuadimos, descobrimos que a mala estava cheia de dinheiro francês. Eles nos disseram que haviam roubado sua loja de suprimentos (Post Exchange para nós) ”, disse SGT Arden Mischke. Os alemães foram dispensados ​​de seu dinheiro e deixados para ficar sóbrios em um campo de prisioneiros de guerra. 58 O incidente forneceu um breve interlúdio humorístico da dura luta.

A luta pesada continuou enquanto o 5º Rangers foi transferido para a Península Le Conquet, a oeste de Brest. Os alemães, prevendo um ataque aliado, melhoraram suas defesas. “Não sabíamos o que esperar enquanto caminhávamos para a cidade. Uma vez lá dentro, foi disparado de prédio em prédio, esperando ser atingido a qualquer minuto. Por fim, havíamos concluído nossa tarefa de protegê-lo [Le Conquet]. Naquele momento houve uma grande confusão e nós estávamos. . . pronto para repelir o que quer que estivesse por vir. Vejam só, aqui vieram as [Forças] francesas livres marchando com estandartes, e a população agora veio e os aplaudiu ”, disse o sargento“ Baseplate ”Miller. 59 Os franceses livres “libertaram” Le Conquet às custas de quatro Rangers feridos. 60 Apesar de alguns disparos de metralhadora de uma cidade vizinha, os franceses continuaram sua celebração noite adentro.

59 Miller, Minha vida com os Rangers, 21 manuscrito Mischke, 19 Glassman, “Mostre o caminho, Rangers,”36 5º Batalhão de Rangers AAR, 9 de setembro de 1944.

60 preto, Rangers na Segunda Guerra Mundial, 234-235.

Os Rangers moveram-se ao longo da costa reduzindo as fortificações alemãs. No Fort du Portzic, o 5º Rangers desenvolveu uma nova técnica para superar as casamatas. Na escuridão de 17 de setembro, o tenente James F. Greene Jr. liderou uma patrulha de onze homens da Easy Company para eliminar uma casamata que havia resistido à artilharia, bombardeios e repetidos ataques terrestres. “Carregamos duas cargas de demonstração de 40 libras e uma carga de 50 libras, incluindo 20 galões de uma mistura de gasolina e óleo pesado. Aproximamo-nos da caixa de comprimidos com cautela, colocamos as cargas em torno dela e começamos a despejar nossa mistura nas aberturas de ventilação, então todos nos protegemos. . . uma enorme explosão se seguiu às 22h10 [horas]. A casamata estourou em chamas brilhantes, iluminando a área ao redor, enquanto assistíamos com grande admiração ... funcionou! ”, relembrou Greene. A patrulha não sofreu baixas. 61 No dia seguinte, quando a guarnição de Brest se rendeu às 1200 horas, o 5º Rangers tornou-se a 12ª reserva do Grupo do Exército dos EUA. 62

61 James F. Greene, Jr., Companhia E, 5º Batalhão de Rangers, transcrição da entrevista de história oral pelo Dr. David Hogan, 8 de março de 1984, Carlisle, PA James F. Greene, Jr., Companhia E, 5º Batalhão de Rangers, “Recordações of Brest, ”encontrado em http://users.skynet.be/jeeper/page123.html Glassman,“Mostre o caminho, Rangers,”37-38 5º Batalhão de Rangers AAR, 17 de setembro de 1944 Miller, Minha vida com os Rangers, Manuscrito 22 Mischke, 24-25 Capitão Edward S. Luther, "After Action Report Company E, 5th Ranger Infantry Battalion, 21 September 1944," Veteran's History Project Questionnaire, Box 3, File 6628, the Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, PA.

62 5º Batalhão de Rangers AAR, 18 de setembro de 1944.

Representação artística da patrulha de onze homens da Easy Company, do tenente Greene, sob o manto da escuridão, colocando trocas de demolição e despejando uma mistura de gasolina e óleo pesado nas aberturas de ventilação. Quando detonada, a casamata explodiu, iluminando a área. A patrulha não sofreu baixas. (Ilustração de Mariano Santillan)

As unidades convencionais lutaram pelo resto da campanha na Bretanha. Os dois batalhões de Rangers foram retirados da linha e tiveram permissão para se recuperar. O 5º Rangers sofreu uma taxa de 30% de baixas (137), com 24 mortos em ação durante seus dezenove dias de combates ao redor de Brest. 63 A campanha da Bretanha recebeu pouca atenção. Os exércitos aliados estavam correndo pela França e Bélgica e a Operação MARKET-GARDEN do marechal de campo Bernard L. Montgomery, a invasão terrestre e aerotransportada na Holanda, estava começando. Depois de Brest, o 5º Batalhão de Rangers foi anexado ao Terceiro Exército dos EUA do Tenente General George S. Patton para atravessar a França para a Alemanha.

63 5º Batalhão de Rangers AAR, 18 de setembro de 1944 Manuscrito de Mischke, 25.

Uma patrulha da Easy Company, 5th Rangers, sai usando cavalos capturados e uma bicicleta perto de Grandcamp, França. Não foi um golpe publicitário. Eles voltaram com 53 prisioneiros alemães. (Arquivos Nacionais)

Reorganização e um novo ano

O batalhão começou o Ano Novo operando sob uma nova mesa de organização, tendo se reorganizado com efeito à meia-noite de 31 de dezembro de 1944. A antiga Companhia A foi dissolvida com o pessoal sendo transferido para outras companhias com o batalhão, e a antiga Companhia D foi redesignada como Empresa "A." O Destacamento da Sede foi redesignado como Empresa Sede.

Em 1º de janeiro de 1945, o posto de comando avançado do batalhão estava localizado em Ribeauville, França, e a retaguarda do batalhão em Ste Croix Aux Mines. Em 6 de janeiro, o 3º pelotão da Companhia C recebeu bombardeios tão pesados ​​que foi forçado a evacuar suas posições em Orbey, França, e voltar para novas posições. Não houve baixas graves. Em 8 de janeiro, o posto de comando avançado do batalhão mudou-se de Ribeauville para Lapoutroie, e em 11 de janeiro mudou-se de lá para Ste Croix Aux Mines, visto que a 3ª Divisão havia entrado em um desdobramento puramente defensivo e estabelecido uma defesa de grande profundidade. A empresa A estava trabalhando com o 254th Inf. Regt., 63rd Inf. Div., Que estava ligada à 3ª Divisão de Infantaria. Em 16 de janeiro, a Companhia "C", menos dois pelotões, foram integrados ao 290º Batalhão de Combate de Engenheiros, que também apoiava a 3ª Divisão de Infantaria. Durante o período de 1 a 22 de janeiro, a 3ª Divisão foi desdobrada em posições defensivas no perímetro norte do "Bolso Colmar" em uma linha das vizinhanças a oeste de Orbey até Kayserberg, Ostheim e Guemar. As companhias do 99º Batalhão de Morteiro Químico apoiaram a divisão e unidades anexas, disparando contra patrulhas inimigas, posições inimigas conhecidas, tanques, ninhos de metralhadoras, transportes motorizados e concentrações de tropas inimigas.

Em 19 de janeiro de 1945, a ordem de campo da 3ª Divisão de Infantaria foi recebida, delineando o plano de ataque para eliminar a cabeça de ponte da ALSACE (Colmar Pocket), convergindo para a antiga fortaleza de Neuf-Brisach. A empresa A deveria apoiar o 15º Inf. Regt. com um pelotão apoiando o 254º Inf. Regt. A empresa B deveria apoiar o 30º Inf. Regt., E a Companhia C, o 7º Regimento de Infantaria.

A 3ª Divisão de Infantaria iniciou o seu ataque às 21h30 de 22 de janeiro, avançando furtivamente e os morteiros do 99º dispararam muito pouco na primeira noite e no dia seguinte. No entanto, nas primeiras horas da noite de 23 de janeiro, a 3ª Divisão, depois de cruzar com sucesso o rio L'Ill, encontrou um forte contra-ataque alemão e foi jogada de volta para o outro lado do rio. Nossos observadores avançados e seus operadores de rádio foram forçados a nadar até a segurança do rio. Durante a noite, os morteiros forneceram tiros defensivos para a infantaria. Durante o dia 23 de janeiro, a Companhia C colocou fogo de assédio na cidade de Houssen e disparou contra a armadura inimiga no Chateau De Schoppenwihr, que o 7º Inf. Regt. estava atacando.

Durante o dia 24 de janeiro, a Empresa B manteve uma cortina de fumaça no lado leste do rio L'Ill para permitir que os engenheiros instalassem pontes para uso de blindagem a fim de permitir que a 3ª Divisão retomasse seu ataque através do rio. A Empresa C, no mesmo dia, disparou contra veículos inimigos na cidade de Rosenkranz e contra tanques inimigos na cidade de Houssen. Este disparo foi em apoio ao 7º Inf. Regt. Durante o dia, Chateau De Schoppenwihr caiu aos pés das tropas e a Companhia C colocou um corredor de fumaça para habilitar o 7º Inf. Regt. to move heavy vehicles across open terrain and into the chateau. The mission was very successful and the vehicles loaded with personnel and supplies moved in without being fired upon.

On 26 January, Company A placed white phosphorus on the town of Holtzwihr. The mission was fired under enemy shelling from mortars and tanks. The 1st platoon was finally forced to move back due to enemy automatic weapons fire coming from in front of their positions. During an enemy counterattack, 2nd Lt. Harry R. Freyer, Company A, assisted in repelling an enemy counterattack by organizing a small group of scattered infantrymen and moving them forward with two other small groups of men organized by the 15th Inf. Regimental Commander. During this same counterattack, one platoon of Company B had to move back due to enemy shelling. Company C provided fire for the 7th Inf. Regt. advance into and through Houssen. On 28 January, Company A fired on enemy troops in the town of Bischwihr and Company B fired on enemy troops and tanks west of Bischwihr and troop concentrations between the Colmar Canal and Bischwihr.


Roundtable of veterans (and football fans)

Nastinchka • Every Day Should Be Saturday

/>What Army-Navy means />

On the home front, football was a respite from the grim news from overseas, and the service academies were the shining stars. As the Dec. 2 Army vs. Navy game approached, the two were the best in the land by a wide margin. For the Cadets, that marked a dramatic change from the recent past.

Through the 1930s, the fortunes of the West Point program had stumbled, then fallen precipitously. A 1-7-1 record in 1940 prompted United Press to describe the Cadets as "a national calamity," and military officials seriously considered mothballing the football team.

Instead, West Point administrators opted to ditch a three-decade-old rule barring a civilian from leading the football team and hired Earl "Red" Blaik – one of the brightest rising stars in the college football coaching pantheon.

Spartan and abstemious by nature (his most profane epithet was "Geez, Katy"), Blaik's soft-spoken manner belied a fiercely competitive spirit. His insistence on fundamentals and timing prompted one player to refer to him as "that metronomic drill devil."

The 44-year-old Ohioan had been a three-sport standout at West Point and later served as an assistant on the staff of Colonel Lawrence "Biff" Jones. It didn't take Blaik long to earn a reputation as one of the sharpest minds in football, and soon after, Dartmouth claimed him as its head coach.

In seven years at Hanover, he led the Indians to a 45-16-4 record that included a 22-game unbeaten streak from 1938-1940. During Blaik's tenure, Dartmouth won its first game ever against Yale, then repeated the feat three more times. In 1941, his alma mater summoned him back to revive the flailing fortunes of the Cadets.

Blaik took on the task of rebuilding the Army football program with one caveat: a suspension of the rule that limited the weight of players to 181 pounds or fewer. Blaik felt this was an insurmountable handicap to the team, given the increasing size of the sport's linemen.

The timing of his arrival at West Point was also fortuitous as it coincided with the onset of World War II. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in Dec. 1941, many college programs were drastically weakened as young men enlisted in the war effort. The academies subsequently saw an influx in talent as programs shuttered and their stars sought out military options.

Two of Navy's standout players in 1944, tackle Don Whitmire and running back Bob Jenkins, had starred on Alabama's powerful squads before the Crimson Tide dropped football in 1943.

Under those conditions, Blaik's quest to remake the Army football team didn't take long. He led a squad of Cadets that had eked out a single win the year before to a five-win campaign in 1941 that earned him coach of the year honors. As the quality of his players improved, so did the win-loss record, and by the time of the 1944 season, Army was once again a formidable foe.

Led by the powerful running attack of Felix "Doc" Blanchard and Glen Davis – known to the public as Mr. Inside and Mr. Outside – Army pounded its way through the opposition in 1944. By the time December arrived, the unbeaten Cadets outscored their prior opponents 481-28, and only half of the eight teams they had faced were able to eke out a single touchdown. The closest margin of victory had been 20 points.

In fact, heading into the the 1944 rivalry, the Midshipmen's 13-0 defeat of the Cadets in 1943 had been Army's most recent loss.

Navy was a popular preseason pick to win the title in 1944 despite being led by first-year coach Cmdr. Oscar E. Hagberg, who had just returned from a Pacific submarine command. The hopes of the highly touted Middie team to produce an undefeated season in 1944 went awry from the get go.

Navy lost the season opener to a surprisingly stout North Carolina Navy Pre-Flight squad. The Cloudbusters boasted future NFL star Otto Graham and were led in part by a promising young coaching prospect named Paul W. Bryant often referred to by his nickname "Bear." (The team would go on to a 6-2-1 record against a slate made up of almost entirely of military training units). The only other loss on the Midshipmen's schedule was a 17-15 defeat at the hands of Georgia Tech in Atlanta.

The barometer of Army and Navy's dominance over the rest of college football was another highly regarded team that year: Notre Dame. The Midshipmen managed to best the Fighting Irish 32-13 the first week of November, but the Cadets completely destroyed the squad from South Bend 59-0 a week later in Yankee Stadium. It remains the worst loss in Notre Dame history.

By that point, the 1944 Army vs. Navy matchup was being touted as the "game of the century" in newspaper accounts, and no less than Grantland Rice predicted it would be "one of the best and most important football games ever played." The big question was Onde it would be played.

At the start of the war, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had decreed that the service academies' annual rivalry game would alternate between the two campuses for the duration of the conflict. In 1944 it was slated to be played at Navy's home field, Thompson Stadium in Annapolis, Maryland, which had a maximum capacity of just under 19,000.

As interest in the game grew, government officials began to consider moving it to a larger venue in order to accommodate more spectators, as well as link it to a new war bonds push. For more than a week in mid-November, the press speculated on the possible new site for the game, with Philadelphia and New York City listed as possibilities.

On Nov. 17, it was announced the game would be held at Baltimore's Municipal Stadium, a venue with a capacity of more than three times that of Thompson Stadium that had last hosted the Army vs. Navy game in 1924. Tickets to the game were were then made available to anyone purchasing war bonds through the Maryland State War Finance Committee. These sold out within 24 hours, raising more than $58.6 million for the war effort.

On Dec. 2, 1944, a sold-out crowd of 66,659 gathered in Municipal Stadium on a frigid but clear Saturday afternoon to see the much-anticipated contest. The cold temperatures were exacerbated by a brisk wind that blew through the stadium the entire game. The Navy contingent arrived on boats sailed across Chesapeake Bay, and the Army party was carried on troopships escorted by Navy destroyers.

Blaik's pregame speech to his Army team consisted of reading a telegram sent from General Robert Eichelberger, who had been superintendent of West Point two years prior but was then serving in the South Pacific. It concluded, "Win for all the soldiers scattered throughout the world."


A estranha história sobre como Wyoming foi bombardeado durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial é um pedaço pouco conhecido da história

Se você é um aficionado por história, deve ter ouvido falar sobre a época em que os japoneses bombardearam o Wyoming durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Se esta história não lhe parece familiar, continue a ler, porque é um conto selvagem de guerra que raramente chega aos livros de história.

O objetivo da missão era causar pânico e medo nos Estados Unidos, mas um apagão da mídia fez com que essas aterrissagens e explosões não fossem divulgadas. Na verdade, os japoneses só souberam do desembarque no Wyoming!

Houve seis vítimas causadas por um dos balões quando ele foi descoberto em uma floresta do Oregon e explodiu. Depois disso, o público foi alertado para ficar longe dos objetos, mas as histórias ainda eram escassas.

Você sabia sobre o bombardeio de Thermopolis? Se você adora aprender contos estranhos do Estado do Cowboy, reserve um tempo para ler 11 coisas insanas que aconteceram em Wyoming que você não encontrará nos livros de história.


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In the opening pages the tenor of the book is described. This narrative is specifically aimed at the operational aspects of this critical battle. The stakes were extremely high on both sides and the fighting frenzy and determination of the men in this battle is equally high. While there is a little anecdotal history included the overwhelming coverage is operational in nature.

Hundreds of battle situations are discussed and a key aspect of the discussion will be how each officer perceived the situation and how he coped with it. By the end of the campaign these collective episodes will clearly show the differences in experience and temperament of these commanders and men and how it impacted the war effort. Mistakes and poor judgment is given equal time as proper or even brilliant decisions.
Maj General Ridgway was a tiger, always the attacker. Maj General Jones was less experienced, unsure of himself at times while Maj General Hasbrouck was more experienced than Jones but more cautious than Ridgway. The performance of German officers are also included. By including these profiles of so many men, the reader will have a better understanding of the harsh scope of this campaign.

There are literally hundreds of battle sites covered in this offensive and when village after village and road crossing after road crossing etc. takes three or four times longer to capture than estimated, the reader will see that despite the fact that the Germans initially had the advantage were advancing too slowly in the opening week, allowing the Allies to meet more of their milestones by moving reserves into blocking positions to stop the German advance.

The coverage begins in August 1944 when Bradley's 1st Army deploys into the Ardennes and lasts to the first week of February when Bradley finally pushes into Germany for the last time. It will be shown the over confidence of the Americans and the gamble of manning a thin defense in the Ardennes will contribute to the successful launch by the Germans. The steps taken by the Germans to surprise the Americans will also be covered. During the critical month, starting from mid December the battle action is broken into three phases: The first week will show the Germans advancing, pushing back the unprepared Americans. The second week sees the German advance slowly ground to a halt east of the Meuse River and finally the American counter offensive, supported by General Horrock's 30th Corps, slowly pushes the Germans back to their homeland which consumes the rest of the book.

Once the campaign begins, chapters are broken into daily events with the battlefield delineated by German Army sector then by the American divisions defending that army sector. With the 5th Pz Army making the biggest gains, that coverage begins each chapter, followed by 6th SS Pz Army in the north and with 7th Army rounding out coverage in the southern battle zone. While battle coverage is fairly comprehensive, covering the entire eighty mile front and with all the involved divisions, special attention is given to key areas like Bastogne, St Vith, the twin villages of Krinelt-Rotherath, Dom Butgenbach as well as the important Manhay-Soy-Hotton line. Contributions made by officers and men of all ranks and on both sides are also given deliberate attention and analysis.
As previous mentioned the coverage is operational in nature and covers the strategic, tactical and logistic aspects of the fighting. It also means the ground terrain, rivers, road conditions and weather also play an important role in the tactics and are amply covered as well.

There are also 14 black and white, general purpose maps to help the reader follow the story. Several maps are dual page while the remainder are single page. While I liked the color maps in the author's earlier book, I was somewhat disappointed with these. They are helpful but have lower resolution and are harder to study without the benefit of color. Besides the maps, there is a creditable Bibliography, a basic chart showing the timetable of reserves entering the Ardennes as well as an exhaustive Index. This helpful Index which is formatted in the same likeness as Thunder at Prokhorovka and is divided into three sections: People, Military Units and Places. It conveniently shows the breadth of this book with its coverage of hundreds of officers and men, military units and the many locations in the battle zone. It should be helpful in your search for specific topics.

Though not perfect considering the maps and having no Notes, there is still much to appreciate in this book like the extensive battle coverage, the key profiles and the analysis. In addition to the commentary and analysis of actual events, the author also describes several "what if" scenarios showing that if Hitler's flawed strategy had been changed before the launch with different deployments and mission objectives then it was likely the advance could have achieved greater success, perhaps even temporarily achieving the "Small Solution". Another issue pointed out was how the Americans might have had a better strategy by not holding on to Bastogne and allowing the Germans to outrun their vulnerable lines of communications as they raced toward the Meuse. Also discussed is the scenario of cutting the German salient along Skyline Drive instead of the Bastogne-Houffalize Road, which the author believes was possible under the right scenario, allowing a greater roundup of POWs and an easier entry into Germany. Another key issue describes how if Peiper had adhered to proper tactical protocols of securing his rear instead of rushing off far ahead of his line, his Combat Group would have probably avoided their early isolation and demise by allowing the 12th SS Pz Div. and or Das Reich to closely follow to protect their rear and flank areas.

The frequent moving about from topic to topic in the author's first book has been modestly reduced in this book but with 700 pages of material this book is still a handful and the reader should have a keen interest in the campaign and be prepared for the challenge.

With 700 oversize pages devoted to the operation, the author has gone to great lengths to cover not only the key battle sites and action of the campaign but also the officers and men that fought these battles. An important and fascinating aspect to this campaign involves the timelines each side tried to achieve while trying at the same time disrupting its enemy's. Each side establishes a timeline that must be met if victory was to be achieve and as the story develops, these timelines are frequently discussed along with the battle action with special attention paid to when a milestone is missed. When enough of these milestones are missed, the ramifications to the individual division, its respective army and finally to the overall campaign are discussed and clarified.

This second book shows improvement over the author's first book and I hope further improvement will be made on his next book and I believe the positives outweigh the negatives and that fellow enthusiasts will also like or at least appreciate this rendition of the campaign.


Comentários

Sharon Wilders wrote 10 years ago.
One little blip of a mosque, and an almost complete erasure
of the part that al Husseini, the Muslim Brotherhood, played
in the part of the Final Solution. His giving Bosnians to
form two SS Mountain Divisions that wiped out 90% of the
Jews in their area. If you omit history no one will remember
it or learn from it. That is why/how the Muslim Brotherhood
is making a comeback in so many of our nations. We wiped out
the Nazis - but we did not wipe out the Muslim Brotherhood
and their history is very bad.


Today in World War II History—December 7, 1939 & 1944

80 Years Ago—December 7, 1939: In Soviet-Finnish war, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Italy declare neutrality.

Lou Gehrig is elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame at 36, he is the youngest player honored to that date.

The number three gun of the destroyer USS Ward and her crew, credited with firing the first shot at Pearl Harbor (US Navy photo)

75 Years Ago—Dec. 7, 1944: At Ormoc Bay on Leyte, destroyer USS ala is damaged by a kamikaze exactly three years earlier, USS ala fired the first shots during the attack on Pearl Harbor—she is scuttled by destroyer USS O’Brien under the command of William Outerbridge, who had commanded the ala on Dec. 7, 1941. (Read more: “Remember Pearl Harbor—The US Navy’s Role at Pearl Harbor” ).

Nazi women’s leader Gertrud Scholtz-Klink asks all German women over 18 to volunteer to serve in the armed services to release men to the front.

USS Ward on fire after being struck by a Japanese kamikaze in Ormoc Bay, Philippines, 7 Dec 1944, three years to the day after she fired the first US shot of the Pacific War (US Navy photo 80-G-270773)

2 Responses to “Today in World War II History—December 7, 1939 & 1944”

This story of the Destroyer USS Ward triggered my interest as to where I was on this date of December 7, 1944, upon reviewing out Ships Deck Log, of the LST 45, I recall it distinctly, as if it were “yesterday” we were at Leyte Gulf, beached at Tarraguna, almost directly across the island from Ormoc Bay there was grove of trees off of our now and we were unloading Army cargo, it was 1220, “flash red” was sounded for emergency general quarters. At 1231 our anti-aircraft guns commenced firing on an unidentified plane approaching overhead the plane became identified as a friendly F40 Corsair, guns stopped firing immediately – 57 rounds 20mm, and 5 rounds 40mm expended. Thankfully, we didn’t hit it. Three days later, on the 10th we had moved to nearby Taytay Point bay with several other ships when at 1905 a Japanese Kamikaze plane came alongside our port side, we fired at it, setting it on fire, as it crossed our stern and dove into a Liberty Ship, two minutes later at 1907 a second Kamikaze plane came over and we, along with other ships, commenced firing at it as it dove into the second Liberty Ship which was unloading gasoline, setting it on fire, that ship, a few weeks earlier, had been hit in the bow and left a hole the size that a “train could go through”. The next day all hands (that were left) abanded ship and she sunk. I had not realized that the first incident was on December 7th until I read our ships log, promped by your story. Thank you for these great daily postings. Whenever you post them, I always wonder “where was I on that date?”.

My goodness, Donald. What you lived through! Thank you again for your service – I can never thank you enough.


Black Soldiers of the Ardennes

Reprinted with permission from Lieutenant Colonel Richard F. Machamer, Jr., Editor-in-Chief Soldiers Magazine, Fort Belvoir, Virginia.

The service of Black soldiers in U.S. military conflicts has been distinguished. They earned proud reputations in frontier battles to open the American West they fought alongside Gen. "Blackjack" Pershing in Mexico contributed their skills and lives in the Spanish-American War, and charged up San Juan Hill. But less is generally known about their valiant service during World War II.

The Black soldier of World War II was, for the most part, the faceless supporter of America's war effort, at least initially. He was the supplyman, the ammunition handler and the engineer. Only occasionally was he an artilleryman, infantryman or tanker.

Those Black combat units that existed were mostly corps troops sent to add firepower at the toughest point in the fight. As corps artillery units and non-divisional tank and tank destroyer battalions, they were attached, not assigned, and thus were not identified as participants in hundreds of battles except in their own unit histories.

This article spotlights the actions of Black soldiers during one short period in one major battle - the "Battle of the Bulge."

The winter in Europe in 1944 was the meanest in 38 years. The ground throughout the Ardennes was covered with a thick blanket of snow which was maintained by constant sub-freezing temperatures.

The Ardennes counter-offensive, the "Battle of the Bulge," started at dawn December 16, 1944. It was a counter-offensive launched at the weakest sector of the Allied front, a quiet area manned by units resting and refitting with new men who had yet to see combat.

The offensive by 29 German divisions and brigades, in its first 17 days, destroyed one American infantry division, badly crippled two others, cut one armored combat command to pieces, and caused 41,315 American casualties. Total casualties in the 42 days the battle raged topped 80,000.

The personnel situation at this time, throughout the theater, was grim. The week before the Ardennes counter-offensive, the European Theater of Operation estimated an overall shortage of 23,000 riflemen by the end of the month. The 106th Infantry Division, an untried division that was to bear the brunt of the initial attack in the Ardennes, had already had its combat training practically negated by having to provide 60 percent of its enlisted strength as individual replacements for other units prior to and after D-Day.

From the beginning of World War II to 1945, the strength of Black troops in the Army grew from less than 4,000, primarily in the four regiments of the "U.S. Army Colored Troops" (the 9th and 10th Cavalry and 24th and 25th Infantry), to almost 700,000 in all types of units, even some integrated ones.

Official integration of U.S. Armed Forces didn't take place until July 26, 1948 when President Truman issued Executive Order No. 9981. However, Black soldiers had served in platoons and sometimes squads or less in otherwise white companies beginning with the Ardennes.

The attack began the morning of December 16, 1944 in the VIII Corps sector with the 106th and 28th Divisions taking the brunt of the attack. During the daylight hours, the direction and size of the German attack was only vaguely perceived. VIII Corps was deployed over such an extended front that it was impossible to provide a defense in depth. The defensive plan was to defend in place all along the front as long as possible and to deny the enemy use of the Ardennes road net. The Corps reserve was an armored combat command and four engineer battalions.

There were nine Black Field Artillery Battalions in VIII Corps. Four of the seven Corps Artillery units supporting the 106th Division (the 333rd, 559th, 578th and 740th) were Black.

The 333rd Field Artillery Group, which had been in support of the 105th Infantry Division at the beginning of the battle, was attached to the newly arrived 101st Airborne Division and ordered to move to the vicinity of Bastogne on December 19. This was a unit with a Black Headquarters and Headquarters Battery which was used interchangeably with white units as the need arose. When they received orders, the group moved to Bastogne with one white (the 771st) and two Black battalions (the 969th and 333rd Field Artillery Battallions).

The 333rd Field Artillery Battalion moved to Bastogne at less than full strength. It had fought so far forward in support of the 106th Division that, after the evening of the 16th, the entire battalions had only five guns. This Battalion sustained heavier losses defending Bastogne than any other VIII Corps Artillery unit. It lost six officers, 222 enlisted men, nine guns, 34 trucks and 12 weapon carriers.

The other Black unit in the 333d Group, the 969th, entered the defense of Bastogne by chance. It had been assigned to support the 28th Division and had been ordered to move west. When the enemy broke into the open, the battalion was already moving out of the Bastogne sector.

On December 21, under heavy fire, it moved a half mile west of Bastogne where it manned the guns another unit had abandoned along with the remaining elements of the 333rd Battalion.

The 969th was later recommended by Maj. Gen. Maxwell Taylor, commander of the 101st, for the Distinguished Unit Citation for its actions around Bastogne. The February 7, 1945 citation was the first award of a distinguished Unit Citation to a Black combat unit in World War II.

Another Black battalion that took part In the Battle of the Bulge was the 578th Field Artillery which was attacked at Heckhuscheid. The men armed themselves with small arms then fought as infantry with the 424th Infantry Regiment whom they were supporting. On December 20, the battalion reverted to control of its artillery group and picked up a white howitzer battery and anti-aircraft platoon. On December 22, the battalion was attached to III Corps. Despite the long road marches required by these orders, the battalion fired 3,455 eight-inch rounds during the next few weeks.

There were three Black Tank Destroyer Battalions in the Ardennes the 630th, 701st and 502d. Gunners of the 630th formed a roadblock in Sibret and fought as infantrymen to delay a company of the 5th German Parachute Division on December 20. Elements of the 701st fought with B Company, 35th Tank Battalion west of Lutrebois on the 30th and ambushed a German Panzer Company that was attacking Alpha Company. A platoon of the 502nd provided the majority of the firepower remaining in the 28th Division's reserve when the division commander combined it with survivors of the 110th infantry and 28th Division stragglers. On the morning of December 22d the unit beat off the first attack by lead elements of the German 5th Parachute Division.

After the Americans realized, on December 17, that a major attack was in progress, more than 60,000 men and 11,000 vehicles were on the move to reinforce the First Army. Over the next eight days, three times that number were diverted to meet the Germans in the Ardennes. Among the units diverted was the 761st Tank Battalion, the first Black tank battalion to see World War II action.

The 761st was initially assigned to the 26th Division of XII Corps in the Third Army and spent 183 consecutive days in action after being committed in Morville-les-Vic in November 1944. The unit ended its commitment when it met the Russians at the Enns River in Austria, March 29, 1945. Ten 761st tanks were part of the honor guard when the German forces surrendered.

The 761st fought mainly in platoon or company sized elements attached to various infantry regiments or divisions. Piecemeal employment was not unusual for separate tank battalions. It was attached at various times to the 26th, 71st, and 87th Infantry Divisions, the 17th Airborne Division and the 17th Armored Group. The battalion was committed with the 345th lnfantry around Bastogne and had successful operations at such places as Bonerue, Recogne, and Tillet. During operations in the Ardennes, when trucks could not reach elements of the unit, the light tanks of Company D towed ammunition trailers from ammunition dumps to supply the medium tanks.

The 761st motto, "Come Out Fighting," exemplified the spirit and the attitude of Blacks in World War II. It was an opportunity to show what Black soldiers could do.

Captain John Long, commander, Company B, 761st, called "the Black Patton" by the white infantrymen he supported, personified this spirit with his statement: "Not for God and Country but for me and my people. This was my motivation pure and simple when I entered the Army."

Mary Motley, in her book "The Invisible Soldier," quoted Eddie Donald, a member of the unit. He said, "The Ardennes was one of our roughest fights. The 761st had just punched a hole through the Siegfried Line. It had taken . days of Steady fighting and then Patton's 4th Armored Division started pouring through that hole Into Germany. As the 4th entered, the General and the 761st was diverted north along with other Patton tankers. The 761st was given as its objective a town called Tillet. It took one week to drive the Germans out of this town . I mention Tillet because every group that had been assigned to it had taken a severe beating. Of all the tankers with Patton it was the 761st that was given Tillet. We took the town."

While the 761st and the rest of Patton's Army were coming north to provide relief, the VIII Corps was in dire straits. The 106th Infantry and the 28th Infantry Divisions had been at the spear point of the attack and the entire VIII Corps was reeling. Confusion reigned.

By dusk, December 17, the German advances at the expense of the 28th Division were formidable.

VIII Corps had a last combat hope - the rear echelon soldier, headquarters, supply and technical service troops, and those men who show up during every battle, the lost, the separated, the stragglers. Although poorly armed and hastily organized, they could, if effectively used, make the difference between effective reserves and none, between a line holding and being broken through.

Maj. Gen. Troy H. Middleton, VIII Corps Commander, was called upon to use all of these black and white reserves. Their total effect in the fight to delay the German forces ripping through the VII Corps center was extremely important.

During the fight for Sibret, the German 5th Parachute Division broke into the town and occupied the police station. Maj. Gen. Norman D. Cota, commander of the 28th Division, went through the streets rounding up all the troops he could find for a counter-attack. When the building could not be taken by unsupported riflemen, he maneuvered a battery of the 771st Field Artillery (a Black unit) into position to fire on the building. This action caused the German Panzer Corps to retract the earlier report that Sibret had been taken and told of heavy fighting in the "strongly garrisoned village." When German tanks moved in on the American artillery battery, Cota ordered his small force to retire south of Vauxlez-Rosieres where he set up his division command post.

His command's residue had one more battle to fight. The night of December 21 some 200 survivors of the 110th Infantry fight at Wiltz reached the 28th Division Command Post. Cota also had an engineer light pontooc company retained as riflemen, a few howitzers sited as single pieces around the outpost position at Vaux-lez-Rosieres on the Bastogne-Neufchateau Road, and a platoon of SP 76mm tank destroyers from the 602d Tank Destroyer Battalion (a Black unit).

This conglomeration of soldiers covering key points was probably a continuation of the "every soldier an infantryman" requirement which began in the 106th Infantry sector at the time of the initial breakthrough. Policy or not, the idea continued throughout the war.

The integration of Black and white troops happened out of necessity and did not occur only with combat troops under fire. During the siege of Bastogne when many units had lost their service personnel and equipment, Technician 4 Beoman Williams of the 333rd Field Artillery Group headquarters set up an improvised kitchen and fed over a thousand men daily. Among the first ambulances to reach the besieged troops at Bastogne were those of the 590th Ambulance Company (Black). Necessity had broken barriers that were thought to be unbreakable.

Lt. Gen. John C. H. ("Court House") Lee had proposed the use of physically fit Black soldiers from his communication zone (COMMZ) units to help solve the shortage of riflemen.

On December 26, 1944 Lee sent out a letter that basically said he would offer colored privates and PFC's who had had infantry training the opportunity to join units at the fronts.

The letter said the plan was to assign these replacements without regard to race or color. It expressed the Supreme Commander's and Lee's confidence that the offer would be accepted and the troops would carry on in keeping with the glorious record of "our colored troops in our former wars.".

However, the plan represented a major break from policy. Before It could be carried out, a number of changes occurred. The proposal to mix Black soldiers into otherwise white units without quota on an individual basis caused some apprehension.

Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, when reminded that segregation was official War Department policy, personally rewrote the letter and dropped the reference to the assignment plan.

By February 4, 4,562 Black troops had volunteered for infantry duty. Many were noncommissioned officers who took a reduction in rank to volunteer. By March 1, 1945, the first 2,253 men were ready. Although the Battle of the Bulge was over, these soldiers were divided into 12 platoons for the 12th Army Group, who assigned them as the fourth platoon in a company of each regiment, and 12 platoons for the 6th Army Group where they fought for the remainder of the war.

A month after the employment of these platoons, the division commander of the 104th Infantry said: "Their combat record has been outstanding. They have without exception proven themselves to be good soldiers."

The Black soldier was a vital factor in winning the Battle of the Bulge and World War II.

(NOTE: When the article was published in Soldiers magazine (February, 1981), the author, Major Gerald K Johnson was assigned to the Office of the Project Manager, Saudi Arabian National Guard Modernization Program)


Assista o vídeo: michael wittmann. tank ace. # 31 (Setembro 2022).


Comentários:

  1. Jankia

    De bom grado eu aceito. Um tema interessante, vou participar. Eu sei que juntos podemos chegar a uma resposta certa.

  2. Enkoodabaoo

    Nele algo está. Obrigado pela informação, agora não vou admitir esse erro.

  3. Lailoken

    Eu confirmo. Acontece. Podemos nos comunicar sobre este tema.



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