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Qual o papel dos cartunistas britânicos no início de 1800?

Qual o papel dos cartunistas britânicos no início de 1800?


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Alguém pode explicar o contexto histórico e as razões pelas quais a história em quadrinhos abaixo, preservada para o Museu Britânico, foi pintada? Qual é o seu significado? Por que Napoleão é tão pequeno? E, de maneira mais geral, que papel os cartunistas britânicos desempenharam no início de 1800 em referência a comunicar ideias à opinião pública?


Esta pintura 'O Extenguisher de Cossacos' foi desenhada por William Elmes em 1813.

Descrição da pintura: do BritishMuseum

Um cossaco barbudo sorridente caminha em direção ao espectador, lança em punho, com a mão esquerda coloca seu gorro cônico de pelo sobre um pequeno Napoleão aterrorizado. Ele diz: "Vou Apagar Seu Pequeno Mestre Boney Francês-Farthing-Rush-luz." Napoleão exclama, tentando fugir: "Morte e Fúria! - como eu queimo de Fúria - aqueles cossacos" Medonhos "Contempáveis ​​[sic] Nublaram todas as minhas esperanças." Eles estão em um platô: a cabeça do cavalo do cossaco está na extrema esquerda; tropas estão marchando na planície, onde um cossaco está galopando. Ao fundo está a cidade murada de Leipzig, apoiada por montanhas.

Motivo da pintura:

Esta pintura foi desenhada após a campanha russa. O resultado desta campanha foi a vitória russa decisiva. Nesta campanha, os russos frequentemente atacavam os franceses com a cavalaria cossaca leve, o que causou enormes danos ao exército francês. Os cossacos sob o comandante Ataman Matvei Platov (1757-1818) açoitaram os franceses durante sua retirada de Moscou em 1812, e novamente após sua derrota em Leipzig. Portanto, Leipzig é mostrado em segundo plano.

Sobre a representação da altura de Napoleão, você pode consultar o era napoleão tão curto quanto estados de conhecimento comum - pergunta no site.


Papéis desempenhados por cartunistas britânicos no século 19:

  1. Exibindo superioridade britânica como feito na revista Punch, especialmente durante a Revolta de 1857.
  2. Ridicularizar os inimigos britânicos como feito com Napoleão.
  3. Ganhar o apoio público para as expansões e guerras britânicas.
  4. Divertiu as pessoas.

A imagem original está no Museu Britânico e é uma impressão de Elmes, publicada por Tegg em 1813. A página referenciada também contém links para cartuns relacionados.

Williamsburg VA tem uma seleção de desenhos animados sobre a revolução dos Estados Unidos pela independência, incluindo uma discussão sobre o "macarrão" no Yankee Doodle.

A Biblioteca do Congresso tem um guia do professor para a história dos desenhos animados políticos americanos

A imagem não é muito clara, mas o desenho animado mais antigo de que me lembro pessoalmente é aquele que retrata a execução de Carlos I - não o que consideramos um tema tradicional de desenho animado


Descobrindo a literatura: românticos e vitorianos

Durante o período vitoriano, os papéis de homens e mulheres tornaram-se mais definidos do que em qualquer outra época da história. Nos séculos anteriores, era comum as mulheres trabalharem ao lado de maridos e irmãos nos negócios da família. Living & lsquoover the shop & rsquo tornou mais fácil para as mulheres ajudarem atendendo clientes ou mantendo contas enquanto cuidavam de suas tarefas domésticas. À medida que o século 19 avançava, os homens se deslocavam cada vez mais para seu local de trabalho e para a fábrica, loja ou escritório. Esposas, filhas e irmãs ficavam em casa o dia todo para supervisionar os deveres domésticos que eram cada vez mais executados pelos empregados. A partir da década de 1830, as mulheres começaram a adotar a crinolina, uma saia enorme em formato de sino que tornava praticamente impossível limpar uma grade ou varrer as escadas sem cair.

& lsquoSeparate spheres & rsquo

Os dois sexos agora habitavam o que os vitorianos chamavam de & lsquoseparate spheres & rsquo, só se encontrando no café da manhã e novamente no jantar.

A ideologia das esferas separadas se apoiava na definição das características & lsquonaturais & rsquo de mulheres e homens. As mulheres eram consideradas fisicamente mais fracas, mas moralmente superiores aos homens, o que significava que eram mais adequadas para a esfera doméstica. Não era apenas seu trabalho contrabalançar a mancha moral da esfera pública na qual seus maridos trabalhavam o dia todo, mas também estavam preparando a próxima geração para continuar com esse estilo de vida. O fato de as mulheres terem uma influência tão grande em casa foi usado como argumento contra dar-lhes o voto.


The Great British Pub

Reconhecido mundialmente, o grande pub britânico não é apenas um lugar para beber cerveja, vinho, cidra ou até mesmo algo um pouco mais forte. É também um centro social único, muitas vezes o foco da vida comunitária em aldeias, vilas e cidades em todo o país.

No entanto, parece que o grande pub britânico na verdade começou como um grande bar de vinhos italiano, e data de quase 2.000 anos atrás.

Foi um exército romano invasor que trouxe as estradas romanas, cidades romanas e pubs romanos conhecidos como tabernae a essas costas em 43 DC. Tal tabernae, ou lojas que vendiam vinho, foram construídas rapidamente ao longo das estradas romanas e em cidades para ajudar a matar a sede das tropas legionárias.

Era a cerveja inglesa, no entanto, a bebida nativa britânica, e parece que esses tabernae rapidamente adaptado para fornecer aos locais sua bebida favorita, com a palavra eventualmente sendo corrompida para taberna.

Essas tavernas ou cervejarias não apenas sobreviveram, mas continuaram a se adaptar a uma clientela em constante mudança, por meio de invasores anglos, saxões, jutos, e não esquecendo aqueles temíveis vikings escandinavos. Por volta de 970 DC, um rei anglo-saxão, Edgar, até tentou limitar o número de cervejarias em qualquer vila. Ele também teria sido o responsável pela introdução de uma medida de consumo de álcool conhecida como ‘a estaca’ como meio de controlar a quantidade de álcool que um indivíduo poderia consumir, daí a expressão “derrubar (alguém) uma estaca”.

Tabernas e cervejarias forneciam comida e bebida para seus hóspedes, enquanto pousadas ofereciam acomodação para viajantes cansados. Isso pode incluir mercadores, oficiais da corte ou peregrinos que viajam de e para santuários religiosos, conforme imortalizado por Geoffrey Chaucer em seu Contos de Canterbury.

As estalagens também serviam para fins militares, uma das mais antigas datando de 1189 DC é Vossa velha viagem a Jerusalém em Nottingham, e dizem que atuou como um centro de recrutamento de voluntários para acompanhar o Rei Ricardo I (O Coração de Leão) em sua cruzada pelas Terras Sagradas.

Acima: Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem, Nottingham

Alehouses, pousadas e tavernas tornaram-se coletivamente conhecidas como pubs e simplesmente como pubs durante o reinado do rei Henrique VII. Um pouco mais tarde, em 1552, foi aprovada uma lei que exigia que os estalajadeiros tivessem uma licença para administrar um pub.

Em 1577, estima-se que havia cerca de 17.000 cervejarias, 2.000 estalagens e 400 tabernas em toda a Inglaterra e País de Gales. Considerando a população da época, isso equivaleria a cerca de um bar para cada 200 pessoas. Para colocar isso em contexto, a mesma proporção hoje seria de aproximadamente um pub para cada 1.000 pessoas ... Happy Daze!

Ao longo da história, a ale e a cerveja sempre fizeram parte da dieta básica dos britânicos, o próprio processo de fermentação tornando-as uma opção muito mais segura do que beber a água da época.

Embora o café e o chá tenham sido introduzidos na Grã-Bretanha por volta de meados de 1600, seus preços proibitivos garantiram que continuassem sendo reservados aos ricos e famosos. Apenas algumas décadas depois, no entanto, as coisas mudaram drasticamente quando bebidas destiladas baratas, como o conhaque da França e o gim da Holanda, chegaram às prateleiras dos pubs. Os problemas sociais causados ​​pela 'Era do Gin' de 1720-1750 são registrados no Hogarth’s Gin Lane (foto abaixo).

Os atos do gim de 1736 e 1751 reduziram o consumo de gim a um quarto do nível anterior e devolveram alguma aparência de ordem aos pubs.

A era da diligência anunciava mais uma nova era para os pubs da época, à medida que as estalagens eram estabelecidas em rotas estratégicas para cima e para baixo e em todo o país. Essas estalagens forneciam comida, bebida e acomodação para passageiros e tripulantes, bem como mudanças de cavalos frescos para a continuação da viagem. Os próprios passageiros geralmente consistiam em dois grupos distintos, o mais rico que poderia se dar ao luxo de viajar dentro da carruagem e os outros que ficariam agarrados ao lado de fora para o resto da vida. Os "insiders", é claro, receberiam as mais calorosas saudações e seriam bem-vindos na sala de estar privada do estalajadeiro ou salão (salão), os estranhos, por sua vez, não iriam além do bar da pousada.

A idade da diligência, embora de vida relativamente curta, estabeleceu a precedência para as distinções de classe que continuaram nas viagens ferroviárias da década de 1840 em diante. Como as ferrovias que operavam um serviço de primeira, segunda e até terceira classe, os pubs evoluíram de maneira semelhante. Os pubs daquela época, mesmo os relativamente pequenos, normalmente eram divididos em várias salas e bares para atender a diferentes tipos e classes de clientes.

Na sociedade de "plano aberto" de hoje, tais paredes foram removidas e agora qualquer pessoa é bem-vinda no grande pub britânico. Bem-vindo, na verdade, que quase um em cada quatro britânicos vai agora encontrar sua futura esposa ou marido em um bar!

Acima: The King & # 8217s Arms, Amersham, perto de Londres. Esta pousada do século 14 agora oferece acomodação com banheiro privativo e foi apresentada no filme & # 8216Four Weddings and a Funeral & # 8217.

Nota histórica: A bebida nativa britânica de ‘ale’ foi originalmente feita sem lúpulo. A cerveja fermentada com lúpulo foi introduzida gradualmente nos séculos 14 e 15, isso ficou conhecido como cerveja. Por volta de 1550, a maioria das cervejas incluía lúpulo e a expressão cervejaria e cervejaria tornaram-se sinônimos. Hoje, cerveja é o termo geral com amargo, suave, ales, stouts e lagers simplesmente denotando diferentes tipos de cerveja.

Um agradecimento especial

Muito obrigado ao English Country Inns por patrocinar este artigo. Seu enorme diretório de pousadas históricas é perfeito para quem procura um fim de semana peculiar, especialmente com a recente inclusão de antigas pousadas de contrabandistas e salteadores com acomodação.


Olhando para a História

Entre 1800 e 1914, a indústria manufatureira cresceu continuamente em importância para se tornar dominante na economia e isso se refletiu na estrutura das relações de classe. A relação entre a agricultura e a indústria mudou, inclinando o equilíbrio econômico de poder em favor da classe manufatureira, enquanto a posição central da Grã-Bretanha no fluxo internacional de commodities e capital garantiu a importância contínua dos financistas e mercadores da cidade de Londres. [ 1] O interesse fundiário foi forçado a aceitar as mudanças nas circunstâncias. O século XIX viu o desenvolvimento de uma relação mais estreita entre os proprietários, seja na agricultura ou na indústria. A distinção entre os dois nunca foi completa, mesmo no século XVIII, quando industriais bem-sucedidos compraram propriedades e proprietários exploraram as reservas minerais sob suas terras. Embora em 1900, as classes proprietárias, industriais e comerciais tivessem se aproximado em termos econômicos, culturais e políticos, elas ainda não haviam se aglutinado em uma classe proprietária unificada. [2]

As mudanças no sistema bancário na segunda metade do século estimularam uma relação mais estreita entre os dois grupos. Em 1830, três tipos diferentes de bancos juntos formaram o sistema bancário britânico. [3] No coração do sistema financeiro de Londres estavam os bancos privados, como Hoares, Childs, Coutts e Martins, que muitas vezes se desenvolveram a partir de negócios de ourivesaria mais antigos. [4] Os bancos privados do West End tinham muitos clientes fundiários e muitas vezes estavam fortemente envolvidos no negócio de hipotecas de longo prazo da classe proprietária de terras. Em contraste, os bancos privados da própria cidade estavam preocupados principalmente com o fornecimento de crédito de curto prazo para firmas mercantis e, em muito menor grau, para negócios manufatureiros. O Banco da Inglaterra e, talvez menos importante, os bancos licenciados escoceses estavam preocupados com a gestão das finanças do governo, mas também realizavam algumas transações bancárias privadas para as casas comerciais que constituíam seus principais acionistas. O Banco não era de forma alguma um banco central que regulava o resto do sistema bancário, sua principal função era facilitar a formação dos sindicatos financeiros que compravam ações do governo.

O terceiro tipo de banco era o country bank, um banco privado localizado fora de Londres. [5] Muitas vezes surgiam como adjuntos de interesses mercantis e tinham fortes ligações bancárias com proprietários de terras e industriais locais. Embora seus negócios fossem altamente localizados, os bancos do país estavam vinculados ao sistema nacional de mobilização de capital por meio do uso de agentes e escritórios correspondentes de Londres, geralmente um ou outro banqueiro privado londrino.

As principais mudanças no sistema financeiro começaram com a revogação do & # 8216Bubble Act & # 8217 em 1825 e dos dois Companies Acts de 1856 e 1862. [6] Essas mudanças tornaram a responsabilidade limitada e as ações transferíveis mais facilmente disponíveis para as empresas e contribuíram muito para estimular o estabelecimento de bancos de ações conjuntas em Londres e nas províncias. Os bancos rurais estavam frequentemente envolvidos na formação de bancos por ações, alguns deles em Londres. Acordos de agência entre Londres e bancos rurais foram, em muitos casos, formalizados em fusões para formar grandes bancos por ações. O aperto do sistema bancário, especialmente no Bank Act de 1844 [7], permitiu que ele se envolvesse mais intimamente na mobilização de capital: a riqueza agrícola filtrada pelos bancos do país até Londres, de onde o dinheiro ia para financiar as indústrias do norte e Midlands e para financiar hipotecas de proprietários de terras. [8]

Nas décadas de 1860 e 1870, a cidade de Londres havia se tornado o centro de um sistema monetário internacional, com um grupo particularmente importante de & # 8216 bancos comerciais & # 8217 especializados no financiamento do comércio exterior e no financiamento de empréstimos de governos estrangeiros. [9] Banqueiros mercantis proeminentes como Rothschild e Baring, junto com outros como Goshen e Hambros, geralmente se baseavam nos negócios de comerciantes e banqueiros emigrados e freqüentemente continuavam com seus negócios mercantes ao lado de suas atividades bancárias. [10] Os mercadores e banqueiros mercantis da cidade formaram um grupo fortemente integrado com numerosas atividades comerciais sobrepostas: eles se uniram para consertar empréstimos e administrar as principais docas, canais e companhias de seguros e dominaram o conselho do Banco da Inglaterra. Este grupo da Cidade se unia por laços de negócios, parentesco e amizade e sua coesão era aumentada pela freqüência e informalidade nas trocas, cafeterias e outros pontos de encontro no próprio quilômetro quadrado. [11]

[1] Sobre esta questão, consulte Chapman, S.D., Merchant Enterprise na Grã-Bretanha, (Cambridge University Press), 1992.

[2] Ver, por exemplo, Rothery, Mark, & # 8216O grupo de tiro: as culturas associativas das elites rurais e urbanas no final do século XIX e início do século XX & # 8217, em Hoyle, Richard W., (ed.), Nossos pais caçadores: esportes de campo na Inglaterra após 1850, (Carnegie), 2007, pp. 96-118.

[3] Sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema bancário no século XIX, ver ibid, Collins, Michael, Bancos e finanças industriais na Grã-Bretanha 1800-1939, e Quinn, Stephen, & # 8216Money, finance and capital markets & # 8217, in ibid, Floud, Roderick e Johnson, Paul A., (eds.), A história econômica de Cambridge da Grã-Bretanha moderna, Volume 1: industrialização, 1700-1860, pp. 147-174 e Cottrell, P.L., & # 8216Domestic finance, 1860-1914 & # 8217, em ibid, Floud, Roderick e Johnson, Paul A., (eds.), A história econômica de Cambridge da Grã-Bretanha moderna, Volume 2: industrialização, maturidade econômica, 1860-1939, pp. 253-279.

[4] Hutchings, Victoria, Banqueiros Srs. Hoare: uma história da dinastia bancária Hoare, (Constable), 2005 e Temin, Peter e Voth, Hans-Joachim, & # 8216Credit rationing and crowding out durante a revolução industrial: evidências de Hoare & # 8217s Bank, 1702-1862 & # 8217, Explorações na História Econômica, Vol. 42, (2005), pp. 325-348.

[5] Dawes, M. e Ward-Perkins, C.N., Bancos da Inglaterra e País de Gales: bancos privados provinciais e banqueiros, 1688-1953, (Chartered Institute of Bankers), 2000, Brunt, Liam, & # 8216Rediscovering Risk: Country Banks as Venture Capital Firms in the First Industrial Revolution & # 8217, Journal of Economic History, Vol. 66, (2006), pp. 74-102, Caunce, Stephen, & # 8216Banks, Communities and manufacturing in West Yorkshire textiles, c.1800 & # 82111830 & # 8217, in Wilson, John Francis e Popp, Andrew, (eds.) , Clusters industriais e redes regionais de negócios na Inglaterra, 1750-1970, (Ashgate), 2003, pp. 112-129, Cottrell, P.L., & # 8216Britannia & # 8217s sovereign: Banks in the finance of British shipbuilding and shipping, c. 1830-1894 & # 8217, em Akveld, L. M., Loomeijer, Frits R. e Hahn-Pedersen, Morten, (eds.), Financiamento do setor marítimo: procedimentos da quinta conferência sobre a história do Mar do Norte, (Fiskeriog Søfartsmuseet), 2002, pp. 191-254.

[6] Alborn, Timothy L., Criação de empresas: política de ações na Inglaterra vitoriana, (Routledge), 1998, pp. 87-143 examina o desenvolvimento de ações conjuntas e bancos de depósito a partir de 1826.

[7] Horsefield, J.K., & # 8216The Origins of the Bank Charter Act, 1844 & # 8217, Economica, Vol. 11, (1944), pp. 180-189. Veja também, Torrens, Robert, Os Princípios e Operação Prática de Sir Robert Peel & # 8217s Act de 1844, (Longmans), 1857.

[8] Ackrill, Margaret e Hannah, Leslie, Barclays: o negócio bancário, 1690-1996, (Cambridge University Press), 2001.

[9] Kynaston, David, (ed.), O Banco da Inglaterra: dinheiro, poder e influência 1694-1994, (Oxford University Press), 1995 e Cottrell, P.L., & # 8216 The Bank of England in transit, 1836-1860 & # 8217, em Bosbach, Franz and Pohl, Hans, (eds.), Das Kreditwesen in der Neuzei, Sistema Bancário na História Moderna, (K.G. Saur), 1997.

[10] Veja, por exemplo, Burk, Kathleen, Morgan Grenfell, 1838-1988: a biografia de um banco mercantil, (Oxford University Press), 1989.


Um cartunista da Guerra Civil criou a imagem moderna do Papai Noel como propaganda da União

Você poderia chamá-lo de o rosto que lançou mil cartas de Natal. Publicado em 3 de janeiro de 1863, na revista ilustrada Harper & # 8217s semanalmente, duas imagens consolidaram a obsessão da nação & # 8217 por um elfo velho e alegre. O primeiro desenho mostra o Papai Noel distribuindo presentes em um acampamento do Exército da União. Para que nenhum leitor questione a lealdade do Papai Noel na Guerra Civil, ele usa uma jaqueta estampada com estrelas e calças coloridas em listras. Em suas mãos, ele segura um boneco de brinquedo com uma corda em volta do pescoço, suas características como as do presidente da Confederação, Jefferson Davis.

Uma segunda ilustração mostra o Papai Noel em seu trenó, depois descendo por uma chaminé, tudo na periferia. No centro, divididos em círculos separados, estão uma mulher orando de joelhos e um soldado encostado a uma árvore. & # 8220Nesses dois desenhos, o Natal se tornou um feriado da União e Papai Noel uma divindade local da União, & # 8221 escreve Adam Gopnik em uma edição de 1997 da Nova iorquino. & # 8220Deu Natal ao Norte & # 8212 deu à União uma aura de sentimento doméstico e até sentimentalismo. & # 8221

O artista responsável por este golpe? Um imigrante bávaro chamado Thomas Nast, cartunista político extraordinário e a pessoa que & # 8220 fez tanto quanto qualquer outro homem para preservar a União e pôr fim à guerra & # 8221, de acordo com o general Ulysses Grant. Mas, como tantos inventores, Nast se beneficiou do trabalho de seus colegas visionários ao criar a figura rotunda e resplandecente do Papai Noel. Ele era um homem com os talentos certos no lugar certo na hora perfeita.

Antes do início de 1800, o Natal era um feriado religioso puro e simples. Várias forças em conjunto transformaram-no no f & # 234te comercial que celebramos hoje. A riqueza gerada pela Revolução Industrial criou uma classe média que podia comprar presentes, e fábricas significavam bens produzidos em massa. Exemplos do feriado começaram a aparecer na literatura popular, desde Clement Clarke Moore & # 8217s 1823 poema & # 8220A Visit from St. Nicholas & # 8221 (mais comumente conhecido por seu primeiro verso & # 8220Tfoi a noite antes do Natal & # 8221) para Charles Dickens & livro # 8217 Conto de Natal, publicado em 1843. Em meados de 1800, o Natal começou a se parecer muito mais com o que é hoje. & # 8220De uma época de desgraça caracterizada pela bebida, da inversão dos papéis sociais em que os trabalhadores zombavam de seus superiores sociais e de um poderoso senso de julgamento de Deus, o feriado se transformou em um momento privado dedicado ao coração e em casa, e particularmente para as crianças, & # 8221 escreve Fiona Halloran em Thomas Nast: o pai dos desenhos animados políticos modernos.

Isso era verdade tanto nos Estados Unidos quanto na Inglaterra, mesmo com a guerra civil em curso. As crianças receberam presentes caseiros devido à escassez de materiais, soldados da União e Confederados trocaram cafés e jornais na linha de frente e alguns fizeram o possível para decorar o acampamento. & # 8220Para torná-lo o mais parecido com o Natal possível, uma pequena árvore foi presa na frente de nossa barraca, enfeitada com tachinhas duras e carne de porco, em vez de bolos e laranjas, etc, & # 8221 escreveu New Jersey Union soldado Alfred Bellard.

A segunda das ilustrações de Natal de Nast de janeiro de 1863. (Thomas Nast)

Foi a este mundo que o talentoso artista Thomas Nast chegou na década de 1850. Fazendo seus primeiros esboços quando adolescente, ele se tornou um ilustrador da equipe Harper & # 8217s semanalmente, uma das revistas mais populares da época, em 1862. Como nota Halloran, Harper & # 8217s Weekly não era apenas para assuntos sérios: & # 8220Fornecia notícias políticas e comentários sobre eventos nacionais e internacionais, mas também oferecia aos leitores ficção sentimental, humor e notícias culturais. & # 8221 Que melhor lugar para Nast trazer sua imagem meticulosamente detalhada de Papai Noel para a vida? E assim, a partir dos desenhos de janeiro de 1863, Nast começou a imortalizar a figura mítica do Papai Noel.

Além de reaproveitar a imagem do poema de Moore & # 8212reindeer puxando um trenó, saco cheio de presentes & # 8212Nast também encontrou inspiração em seus arredores. Ele baseou a face barbada e a barriga redonda do Papai Noel parcialmente em si mesmo e usou sua esposa e filhos para outros personagens, diz Ryan Hyman, curador do Museu Histórico Macculloch Hall. Localizado na cidade natal de Morristown, New Jersey, Nast & # 8217, o museu guarda uma grande coleção de suas obras. & # 8220As fotos externas que mostram telhados e torres de igrejas estavam todas aqui em Morristown, & # 8221 Hyman acrescenta.

Embora variassem de ano para ano, os desenhos do Papai Noel de Nast e # 8217 apareceram em Harper & # 8217s semanalmente até 1886, totalizando 33 ilustrações. Sem surpresa, os desenhos da Guerra Civil muitas vezes caíram solidamente no reino da propaganda Nast apoiou firmemente a abolição, os direitos civis e os republicanos. Mas mesmo depois do fim da guerra, Nast continuou a usar o Papai Noel para fazer certas declarações políticas diretas.

O retrato do "Feliz Velho Papai Noel" é famoso hoje por cimentar a imagem do Papai Noel, mas na verdade era outra forma de propaganda. (& # 8220Nast sempre foi pró-militar, & # 8221 Hyman diz. & # 8220Os militares estavam dispostos a receber um aumento e ele sabia o quanto trabalhavam e como ajudaram a moldar o país. & # 8221

Mesmo que as pessoas saibam que Nast nos deu o burro para os democratas e o elefante para os republicanos, e que ele enfrentou políticos corruptos de Nova York, poucos podem perceber o papel que ele desempenhou na criação do Natal. Hyman e seus colegas esperam poder mudar isso, em parte por meio de sua vitrine anual de Natal do trabalho da Nast & # 8217s. & # 8220Ele criou a imagem moderna do Papai Noel, & # 8221 Hyman diz & # 8212embora não tendamos a pensar em propaganda da Guerra Civil quando estamos abrindo os presentes hoje.


Vida familiar

A vida familiar das pessoas era separada por duas distinções: papéis para homens versus papéis para mulheres e classe social. Em geral, os homens eram o ganha-pão, gerando renda para a família, enquanto as mães cuidavam da casa. Esse papel se tornou mais proeminente com mais riqueza, já que com isso veio mais propriedade para administrar. O casamento também estava intimamente ligado à classe social, as mulheres raramente se casavam em escalões sociais mais baixos. Também trouxe implicações sociais pesadas para o legado da família e para a reputação de seus pares.

Papel de Mulheres e Homens

As mulheres tiveram que assumir vários papéis na casa durante os séculos XVII e XVIII. Eles eram responsáveis ​​por administrar a casa e, por famílias mais ricas, administrar os empregados. As mulheres, ou mães, também eram responsáveis ​​por criar e educar seus filhos. Além disso, eram responsáveis ​​por cozinhar e alimentar a família. Isso exigia que as mulheres fossem bem educadas nos usos medicinais e culinários de ervas e plantas, bordado, leitura e escrita. Em geral, as mulheres tinham poucos direitos e sofreram a opressão nas mãos do patriarcado. FONTE? O trabalho doméstico era particularmente cansativo devido à falta de métodos modernos de limpeza. Esperava-se que as mulheres cuidassem do jardim, cozinhassem para a família, cuidassem dos filhos e cuidassem para que as necessidades de seus maridos fossem atendidas. A mãe da família costumava ter muitos filhos, porque muitos filhos não conseguiam sobreviver na primeira infância. Normalmente, a maioria das mães tinha até oito filhos, na esperança de que alguns sobrevivessem e pudessem trabalhar para a família. As altas taxas de mortalidade infantil foram um grande problema durante esse tempo. A esperança média de vida na Inglaterra era de cerca de 39-40 anos. Presumia-se que se um homem ou uma mulher chegasse aos 30 anos, provavelmente viveriam apenas mais 20 anos. As taxas de mortalidade infantil e infantil durante o final do século XVII e o século XVIII tiveram um sério impacto na expectativa média de vida. Um total de 12-13% das crianças morreriam durante o primeiro ano de suas vidas, devido a complicações como doenças, acidentes físicos e traumas de nascimento. Os homens geralmente eram responsáveis ​​por todas as finanças da casa e faziam a maior parte do trabalho para sustentar financeiramente a família. Era comum um homem ser bem educado e trabalhar fora de casa. O patriarca tomava decisões em nome da família, por exemplo, se sua esposa poderia trabalhar fora de casa e se os filhos poderiam frequentar a escola. Ele era o dono de todas as propriedades e valores monetários da casa e as mulheres raramente falavam ou se divorciavam de seus maridos. As crianças foram ensinadas a obedecer ao patriarca. O início da metade do século 18 foi uma época tumultuada para os direitos das mulheres. Embora as mulheres pudessem trabalhar, elas não desfrutavam de quase todos os luxos e direitos dos homens. As mulheres não podiam votar, possuir terras enquanto casadas, ir para a universidade, ganhar salários iguais, entrar em muitas profissões e até mesmo relatar casos graves de violência doméstica. As mulheres que eram muito argumentativas ou radicais podiam lidar com penas públicas cruéis e humilhantes.
Cerimônia de casamento do século 18

Casado
Devido à importância da terra, as filhas representavam um grande problema para as famílias de proprietários. Além das viúvas, poucas mulheres possuíam terras, e muitas filhas certamente não receberam nenhum & # 8211, portanto, não carregaram uma propriedade com elas no casamento. Além disso, era importante para as famílias manter o status social, o que significava que uma filha nunca se casou com alguém de posição inferior. Mães e pais gastaram muito tempo procurando o melhor cônjuge possível para seu filho, a fim de beneficiar a família. Como resultado, as famílias normalmente davam um dote para a filha, que consistia em uma grande soma de dinheiro. Essas negociações de casamento foram algumas das tensões mais exigentes para a mãe e o pai, devido à herança e ao legado da família em jogo. Então surgiu outro problema: a ideia de individualismo, razão e sensibilidade romântica começou a crescer rapidamente no início do século, levando as filhas a quererem escolher seus próprios maridos. Para as famílias pobres, não havia tanta coisa em jogo no casamento, aliviando assim a pressão. Era impossível transferir a pobreza um para o outro ou perder qualquer tipo de status social como resultado de um casamento, então homens e mulheres eram livres para escolher quem quisessem.

Vida em família depois do casamento
Muitas questões e preocupações foram levantadas durante o processo de casamentos arranjados. A sociedade inglesa tinha sido estritamente patriarcal & # 8211 onde as mulheres deveriam estar sob os cuidados do homem por toda a vida. O conceito de uma família nuclear estritamente controlada por homens começou a se espalhar quando a influência puritana se intensificou no século XVII. FONTE? Isso diminuiu gradualmente no século 18, como observam L EHMBERG E Heyck em O Povo das Ilhas Britânicas: 1688 & # 8211 1870, & # 8220 A razoabilidade e tolerância defendidas no pensamento do final do século XVII e início do século XVIII mitigou parte da severa intensidade da família de estilo puritano e levou a relações mais companheiras entre maridos e esposas, bem como a uma preocupação mais afetuosa dos pais por seus filhos & # 8221 (56). Embora essa nova abstração de & # 8220 companheirismo & # 8221 começasse a crescer, ainda havia muitas famílias cuja primeira prioridade era a mobilidade social. Muitos dos ricos ignoravam seus filhos porque suas imensas fortunas permitiam. Nas famílias mais pobres, era imprevisível como a estrutura e a atitude dentro da casa podiam ser perigosas, quentes ou totalmente indiferentes. Outro problema para as famílias pobres, conforme mencionado anteriormente, era o aumento da taxa de mortalidade infantil. No entanto, isso foi principalmente compensado por altas taxas de parto, que muitas vezes compensaram essa faceta. Na maior parte, essas famílias, variando de ricos a pobres, possuíam algum tipo de animal. A classe alta tinha uma coleção de animais que variava de cães a cavalos, com o caso estranho de alguns terem macacos de estimação. A classe média tinha principalmente gatos e pássaros, além de cachorros que podiam servir de proteção para o lar. As famílias mais pobres tinham principalmente animais que podiam fornecer comida para as famílias, como vacas, porcos e gansos.

Divórcio e separação
O divórcio era realizado através do Parlamento e era um processo longo e extremamente caro, reservado principalmente para a burguesia. Entre 1700 e 1749, apenas 13 casos de divórcio foram relatados. Uma mulher não podia pedir o divórcio independentemente e a infidelidade do marido também não era motivo para tal. Essas separações poderiam ser feitas em acordo privado ou em tribunal público eclesiástico.

Classe média baixa
A vida de uma família média no final do século 17 na Inglaterra era simples, muito trabalhosa. Muitos moravam em casas de um ou dois cômodos que frequentemente estavam lotadas de famílias numerosas, bem como inquilinos que compartilhavam seu espaço de moradia. As mulheres normalmente davam à luz de oito a dez filhos; no entanto, devido às altas taxas de mortalidade, apenas criaram cinco ou seis filhos. The children of average or poor families began working very early on in life, sometimes even as early as age seven. They worked mostly on farms as shepherds, cowherds, or apprentices and often left home to do so. Daughters of these families remained home, often aiding the matriarch of the household until they found a husband and started a family of their own. The oldest son of each family would stay as home as well, in order to inherit the farm. The concept of inheritance was often a source of tension for many families. The average and poor families of the late 17th century England did not yet have the luxury of piped water, which created a rarity in bathing. Because of the unhygienic lifestyle, lice and vermin were very common with these families.

Upper Class
Wealthy families of the late 17th century England enjoyed many more luxuries than the average and poor families. As opposed to the rural properties of the average families, the wealthy lived in beautiful suburbs or villages. Houses were beginning to be designed to display and boast the wealth of the families that lived in them. For the first time, the wealthy were enjoying the luxury of piped water into their homes. These homes contained families with an average of ten or more people. The women of these households were responsible for keeping everything running smoothly. They were in charge of the servants and ran the estate if the husband was not around. They were so involved in their husbands businesses that “often when a merchant wrote his will he left his business to his wife- because she would be able to run it” (Lambert p. #?) .

17th Century Family Portrait

Similarities Between Families in Both Classes
Despite the difference in economic status, there were many similarities between wealthy and average or poor families. In both families marriages were more of a business deal than a relationship. Love was not a factor in a marriage in 17th century England. A woman typically married in her early twenties. Arranged marriages occurred primarily for resources such as money and land. It was expected that a man would beat his wife and not seen as an issue. Children did not have close relationships with their parents or siblings either. High infant mortality rate was a common issue and the reason why many women had a high number of childbirths but a lower number of children.

18th Century Family Farm

Labor
In agricultural families, men, for the most part, took care of the majority of the household income. Households were first and foremost a patriarch they controlled every aspect of the house. Women were to act as subordinates. Men did the most tiring labor in the field such as clearing, plowing, sowing seed, harvesting, and threshing. This was also with the help of their sons and hired laborers. Women were helped by their daughters or servants in everything from knitting to cleaning to tending to the animals to teaching the children. They were to take care of most of the internal tending in the household as it was commonly seen as women’s chores.
In shopkeeping families, the men and women both worked in the shop. In artisanal families, the wife was still responsible for housecleaning but she sometimes oversaw the workers. There was a large pressure on women to work due to the “economics realities” of the 18th century– as some women worked in became prostitutes, actresses, coal miners and jail keepers . Source??


Georgian Britain

Throughout the Georgian period the political rights of ordinary men and women were extremely limited. Only those men with substantial property or wealth were entitled to vote – this amounted to around 200,000 individuals, which was only a tiny fraction of the population. Many Members of Parliament were elected to represent ‘rotten boroughs’ – these were boroughs in which just a handful of voters enjoyed totally disproportionate representation in Parliament. Many large towns such as Manchester, on the other hand, which were expanding quickly as a result of migration and industrialisation, had no representation at Westminster at all until the passing of the first Reform Act in 1832.

Bribery and debauchery at a Whig electioneering banquet, in Hogarth's An Election Entertainment, 1755

This image depicts the violence, gluttony and bribery of an election banquet among supporters of the Whig party.

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Held by© Trustees of the British Museum

Although the majority of the British population had no right to vote, the influence of public opinion was extremely strong. The will of the people was expressed in many different ways. The leading political factions of the period – the Whigs and the Tories – were endlessly bullied and ridiculed in print, for example, and, like today, reputations could rise and fall quickly according to public opinion. Most politicians were satirised mercilessly in cartoons by leading artists such as James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, and there was a huge market for political pamphlets, books, ballads and newspapers.

Caricature satirising the 'long-winded speech' of Whig politician Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1788

Sheridan was renowned for his length and well-delivered speeches.

A satirical cartoon showing the wealth made from colonial rule in India, 1788

Here Gillray demonstrates his skill in satire as he lampoons Warren Hastings, the governor of Bengal, whose extrication of finances from Indian rulers in order to enrich the British Government later led to his impeachment by parliament for corruption.

Political opinion was also expressed in a more direct manner. Rioting was a familiar feature of daily life in both towns and the countryside, and many people came to fear the power of the &lsquomob&rsquo. Crowd action was particularly strong in London, where people regularly threw stones at the carriages of leading politicians or booed unpopular ministers. Crowds sometimes forced householders to light their windows in celebration of political or military victories, and massive mobs formed around their political heroes. In 1780, after the government had passed legislation giving more political rights to Catholics, thousands of people rioted for a week in London in protest. Catholics were attacked, and Catholic property smashed up. All of London&rsquos major prisons were burnt to the ground, and the Bank of England came under attack. King George III was forced to call in the Army in order to restore order, and over 200 people were killed in the ensuing violence. The incident became known as the Gordon Riots.

Newspaper report of the Gordon riots, 1780

The Gordon Riots of June 1780 are considered by some historians to be the closest Britain has ever come to a full-blown revolution.


Fashion icon: George bryan “Beau” brummell (1778-1840)

Brummell wore an immaculate suit of pantaloons, blue dress coat, starched cravat, and polished hessian boots (Figs. 1-2). This was not an innovation it was simply the English country dress that was on the ascendancy throughout western menswear. However, Brummell took this style and “best distilled it, fusing the wearer and the dress in his person” (Davidson 201). He elevated the style with painstaking perfection. In an era in which fit was paramount, his was impeccable. The instep strap on pantaloons is attributed to Brummell as a mechanism to maintain a taut line (Byrde 94). Neckwear was his chief vanity his exactitude about the quality of his cravat became the stuff of fashion legend. It is said he was the first to starch the cravat, achieving a crispness that resulted in a splendid knot (Davidson 202). A famous anecdote recalls a visitor finding Brummell and his valet next to a pile of crumpled cravats. When the visitor inquired about them, the valet responded, “Those, sir, are our failures” (Laver 160).

Importantly, while great effort was required to maintain Brummell’s style, it was meant to appear as if it had not. Unlike some of the ostentatious dandies of later eras, Brummell’s emphasis was on restraint and simple elegance. He eschewed flippant fineries, rejecting showy, colorful fashions. His was a dandyism of austere refinement, one in which the man shines through the clothes (Byrde 94-95 Cicolini). Davidson wrote:

“Brummell epitomized a new standard of elegance and ideal of perfection in male dress without being a flamboyant dresser. He helped to strengthen the reputation of the English as standard setters for fashionable male dress…the studied epitome of the unstudied riding-dress style seen as English taste.” (202)

Fig. 1 - John Cook after an unknown minaturist (British, Active 1843-44). Beau Brummell, ca. 1800. Stipple and engraving (9 1/4 x 5 3/4 in). London: National Portrait Gallery, NPG D1124. Given by Henry Witte Martin, 1861. Source: Wikimedia

Fig. 2 - Robert Dighton (British, 1752-1814). Beau Brummell, 1805. Watercolor 32.5 x 23.5 cm. Source: Bonhams Auctions

Brummell is still considered a true fashion icon and the foundation of dandy theory and philosophy. Jules Amédée Barbey d’Aurevilly wrote Du Dandysme et de Georges Brummell in 1845, which raised dandyism to the level of a philosophical and intellectual pursuit, a trend that continued throughout the nineteenth century. Brummell has been recreated in plays and Hollywood films, and modern menswear brands still invoke his name to represent quality and refinement (David). Beyond fashion, Brummell represented many of the larger shifts of the era and foreshadowed trends to come:

“Beau Brummell captured in the turn of his cuff and the knot of his cravat the studied irony and languor that defined his age…[his posturing] aptly crystallized the uncertainty of a period that witnessed the decline of aristocracy and the early rise of democratic politics…in many ways he anticipated the modern era-a world of social mobility in which taste was privileged above birth and wealth. Elevated as a style icon, he presaged the contemporary dominance of fashion and celebrity.” (Cicolini)


The Anti-Slavery Society

An anti-slavery meeting in Exeter Hall, London © In 1823 some of the leading members of the African Institution, including, Clarkson, Wilberforce, and Zachary Macaulay, organised a new body, the Anti-Slavery Society. Modest in its ambitions, at least by later standards, the Anti-Slavery Society called for the adoption of measures to improve slave conditions in the West Indies, together with a plan for gradual emancipation leading ultimately to complete freedom.

Like the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, the Anti-Slavery Society was a national organisation with its own network of local and regional auxiliaries. And like earlier organisations, its leaders endorsed mass petitioning. In fact, between 1828 and 1830 Parliament was deluged by over 5000 petitions calling for the gradual abolition (and mitigation) of slavery. But progress in the Commons was slow and halting. Finally, in 1831 some of the Anti-Slavery Society's younger and more radical elements organised the Agency Committee (which formally separated from the parent body in 1832). Revivalist in tone, the Agency Committee took abolition out into the country. More controversially, it also committed itself to the unconditional and immediate abolition of slavery.

For obvious reasons, the Agency Committee was ideally placed to exploit the struggle over the reform of Parliament and to win over voters newly enfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832. Its efforts paid off. The first reformed Parliament was clearly sympathetic to abolition perhaps just as important the Cabinet was ready to accept emancipation. In May 1833 Lord Stanley presented a plan to Parliament which finally passed into law on August 29. In essence, the new legislation called for the gradual abolition of slavery. Everyone over the age of six on August 1, 1834, when the law went into effect, was required to serve an apprenticeship of four years in the case of domestics and six years in the case of field hands (apprenticeship was later abolished by Parliament in 1838). By way of compensation the West Indian planters received £20 million.


Conteúdo

Archaeological findings suggesting human activity in Hong Kong date back over 30,000 years. Stone tools from the Old Stone Age have been excavated in Sai Kung in Wong Tei Tung. [17] The stone tools found in Sai Kung were perhaps from a stone tool making ground from perhaps the Late Neolithic Period or Early Bronze Age. [18]

Evidence of an Upper Paleolithic settlement in Hong Kong was found at Wong Tei Tung in Sham Chung beside the Three Fathoms Cove in Sai Kung Peninsula. There were 6000 artefacts found in a slope in the area and jointly confirmed by the Hong Kong Archaeological Society and Centre for Lingnan Archaeology of Zhongshan University. [19]

The Neolithic Era began approximately 7,000 years ago in Hong Kong. The settlers in this area during that time were the Che people, who also settled on the coast of Southern China. Excavations were mostly found on the western shores of Hong Kong. This location was most likely chosen to avoid strong winds from the southeast and to collect food from the nearby shores. Settlement can be found in Cheung Chau, Lantau Island and Lamma Island.

The coming of the Warring States period brought an influx of Yuet people from the north into the area. They probably might have avoided the instabilities at the north and went south. Bronze fishing, combat, and ritual tools were excavated on Lantau Island and Lamma Island. Ma Wan was the earliest settlement with direct evidence in Hong Kong. The Yuet people competed and assimilated with the indigenous Che people. [20] Hong Kong's prehistoric period ended roughly around the duration of the Qin and Han dynasties, when the territory became part of Panyu County.

The territory that now comprises Hong Kong was loosely part of China during the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC), and the area was part of the ancient kingdom of Nam Viet (203–111 BC). [21] During the Qin dynasty, the territory was governed by Panyu County until the time of the Jin dynasty. [22]

Archaeological evidence indicates that the population increased during the Han dynasty (206 BC – AD 220). In the 1950s, the tomb at Lei Cheng Uk from the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 AD) was excavated and archaeologists began to investigate the possibility that salt production flourished in Hong Kong around 2000 years ago, although conclusive evidence has not been found. Tai Po Hoi, the sea of Tai Po, was a major pearl hunting harbour in China from the Han dynasty through to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), with activities peaking during the Southern Han (917–971).

During the Jin dynasty until the early Tang dynasty, Hong Kong was governed by Bao'an County. Under the Tang dynasty, the Guangdong region flourished as an international trading centre. The Tuen Mun region in what is now Hong Kong's New Territories served as a port, naval base, salt production centre and later as a base for the exploitation of pearls. Lantau Island was also a salt production centre, where riots by salt smugglers against the government broke out. From the middle of the Tang dynasty until the Ming dynasty, Hong Kong was governed by Dongguan County.

On 10 May 1278, Child Zhao Bing, the last Song Dynasty emperor, was enthroned at Mui Wo on Lantau Island this event is commemorated by the Sung Wong Toi memorial in Kowloon. [23] [24] After his defeat at the Battle of Yamen on 19 March 1279, the child emperor committed suicide by drowning with his officials at Mount Ya (modern Yamen Town in Guangdong). [25]

During the Mongol period, Hong Kong saw its first population boom as Chinese refugees entered the area. Most of these refugees were Chinese Song dynasty loyalists fleeing the Mongol conquest of Song China. [25]

Despite the immigration and sparse development of agriculture, the area was hilly and relatively barren. People had to rely on salt, pearl and fishery trades to produce income. Some clans built walled villages to protect themselves from the threat of bandits, rival clans and wild animals. The Qing-dynasty Chinese pirate Cheung Po Tsai became a legend in Hong Kong. During the Ming dynasty, Hong Kong was administered by Xin'an County. [ citação necessária ]

During the Qing dynasty, Hong Kong remained under the governance of Xin'an County, before it was colonised by the British. As a military outpost and trading port, Hong Kong's territory gained the attention of the world. After the Great Clearance policy, ordered by the Kangxi Emperor, many Hakka people migrated from inland China to Xin'an County, which included modern Hong Kong.

Before the British government colonised the New Territories and New Kowloon in 1898, Punti, Hakka, Tanka and Hokkien people had migrated to and stayed in Hong Kong for many years. They are the indigenous inhabitants of Hong Kong. The Punti and Hokkien lived in the New Territories while the Tanka and Hakka lived both in the New Territories and Hong Kong Island. British reports on Hong Kong described the Tanka and Hoklo living in Hong Kong "since time unknown". [26] [27] The Encyclopaedia Americana described Hoklo and Tanka as living in Hong Kong "since prehistoric times". [28] [29] [30]

When the Union Flag was raised over Possession Point on 26 January 1841, the population of Hong Kong island was about 7,450, mostly Tanka fishermen and Hakka charcoal burners living in a number of coastal villages. [31] [32] In the 1850s large numbers of Chinese would emigrate from China to Hong Kong due to the Taiping Rebellion. Other events such as floods, typhoons and famine in mainland China would also play a role in establishing Hong Kong as a place to escape the mayhem.

Treaties and conventions between Britain and China related to Hong Kong
Date Treaty Outcome Notes
20 January 1841 Convention of Chuenpi Preliminary cession of Hong Kong Island to the United Kingdom Included Green Island and Ap Lei Chau.
Before the cession of Hong Kong Island, this territory was governed by Xin'an County .
29 August 1842 Treaty of Nanking Cession of Hong Kong Island, founded as a crown colony of the United Kingdom
18 October 1860 Convention of Beijing Cession of Kowloon South of Boundary Street, including Ngong Shuen Chau.
Before the cession of Kowloon Peninsula, this territory was governed by Xin'an County.
1 July 1898 Second Convention of Beijing
(Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory)
Lease of the New Territories South of the Shenzhen River in Xin'an County, including New Kowloon, Lantau and outlying islands.

By the early 19th century, the British Empire trade was heavily dependent upon the importation of tea, silk, and porcelain from China. [33] [34] While the British exported to China luxury items like clocks, watches, there remained an overwhelming imbalance in trade. China developed a strong demand for silver, which was a difficult commodity for the British to come by in large quantities. The counterbalance of trade came with exports to China of opium grown in India. By the late 19th century China grew most of the opium it used. [35] A Chinese commissioner Lin Zexu voiced to Queen Victoria the Qing state's opposition to the opium trade. The First Opium War which ensued lasted from 1839 to 1842. Britain occupied the island of Hong Kong on 25 January 1841 and used it as a military staging point. China was defeated and was forced to cede Hong Kong in the Treaty of Nanking signed on 29 August 1842. The island became a Crown Colony of the British Empire. [36]

Christian missionaries founded many schools and churches in Hong Kong. St Stephen's Anglican Church located in West Point was founded by the Church Mission Society in 1865. Ying Wa Girls' School located in Mid-levels was founded by the London Missionary Society in 1900. The Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese was founded by the London Missionary Society in 1887, and Sun Yat-sen was one of its first two graduates in 1892. The college was the forerunner of the School of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong, which was established in 1911.

Along with fellow students Yeung Hok-ling, Chan Siu-bak and Yau Lit, Sun Yat-sen started to promote the thought of overthrowing the Qing empire while he studied in the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese. The four students were known by the Qing as the Four Bandits. Sun attended To Tsai Church (道濟會堂, founded by the London Missionary Society in 1888) while he studied in this College. Sun led the Chinese Revolution of 1911, which changed China from an empire to a republic.

In April 1899, the residents of Kam Tin rebelled against the colonial government. They defended themselves in Kat Hing Wai, a walled village. After several unsuccessful attacks by the British troops, the iron gate was blasted open. The gate was then shipped to London for exhibition. Under the demand of the Tang clan in 1924, the gate was eventually returned in 1925 by the 16th governor, Sir Reginald Stubbs.

The first gas company opened in 1862. In 1890 came the first electric company. For local travel rickshaws gave way to buses, ferries, and trams. Imperial Airways set up a base in 1936. [37] Every industry went through major transformation and growth. Western-style education made advances through the efforts of Frederick Stewart. [38] This was a crucial step in separating Hong Kong from mainland China during the political turmoil associated with the falling Qing dynasty. The base of the future financial center was formed with the opening of The Hongkong and Shanghai Bank in 1865. [39]

The Third Pandemic of Bubonic Plague attacked Hong Kong in the 1894 Hong Kong plague. It provided the pretext for racial zoning with the creation of Peak Reservation Ordinance [40] and recognising the importance of the first hospital.

On the outbreak of World War I in 1914, fear of a possible attack on the colony led to an exodus of 60,000 Chinese. However, Hong Kong during World War I saw no direct military action, and Hong Kong's population continued to boom in the following decades from 530,000 in 1916 to 725,000 in 1925. Nonetheless the crisis in mainland China in the 1920s and 1930s left Hong Kong vulnerable to a strategic invasion from Imperial Japan.

During the second half of the 19th century, the British became increasingly wary of the Chinese controlled islands surrounding their newly bought port. After the Second Opium War (1898) the British negotiated a lease of the "New Territories" in which the British would receive newer outlying islands for 99 years. [42]

In 1860, at the end of the Second Opium War, the UK gained a perpetual lease over the Kowloon Peninsula, which is the mainland Chinese area just across the strait from Hong Kong Island. This agreement was part of the Convention of Beijing that ended that conflict. [ citação necessária ]

During the second half of the 19th century, the British became increasingly weary of the Chinese controlled islands surrounding their newly bought port. After the Second Opium War (1898, Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory) the British negotiated a lease of the "New Territories" in which the British would receive newer outlying islands for 99 years. [42]

On 19 December 1984, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration, in which Britain agreed to return not only the New Territories but also Kowloon and Hong Kong itself when the lease term expired. China promised to implement a "One Country, Two Systems" regime, under which for fifty years Hong Kong citizens could continue to practice capitalism and political freedoms forbidden on the mainland. [ citação necessária ]

On 1 July 1997 (23 years ago) ( 1997-07-01 ) , the lease ended, and the United Kingdom transferred control of Hong Kong and surrounding territories to the People's Republic of China. [ citação necessária ]

Hong Kong was occupied by Japan from 23 December 1941 to 15 August 1945. The period, called '3 years and 8 months' halted the economy. The British, Canadians, Indians and the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Forces resisted the Japanese invasion commanded by Sakai Takashi which started on 8 December 1941, eight hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Japan achieved air superiority on the first day of battle and the defensive forces were outnumbered. The British and the Indians retreated from the Gin Drinker's Line and consequently from Kowloon under heavy aerial bombardment and artillery barrage. Fierce fighting continued on Hong Kong Island the only reservoir was lost. Canadian Winnipeg Grenadiers fought at the crucial Wong Nai Chong Gap, which was the passage between the north and the secluded southern parts of the island.

On 25 December 1941, referred to as Black Christmas by locals, British colonial officials headed by the Governor of Hong Kong, Mark Aitchison Young, surrendered in person at the Japanese headquarters on the third floor of the Peninsula Hotel. Isogai Rensuke became the first Japanese governor of Hong Kong.

During the Japanese occupation, hyper-inflation and food rationing became the norm of daily lives. It became unlawful to own Hong Kong Dollars, which were replaced by the Japanese Military Yen, a currency without reserves issued by the Imperial Japanese Army administration. During the three and half years of occupation by the Japanese, an estimated 10,000 Hong Kong civilians were executed, while many others were tortured, raped, or mutilated. [43] Philip Snow, a prominent historian of the period, said that the Japanese cut rations for civilians to conserve food for soldiers, usually to starvation levels and deported many to famine- and disease-ridden areas of the mainland. Most of the repatriated had come to Hong Kong just a few years earlier to flee the terror of the Second Sino-Japanese War in mainland China.

By the end of the war in 1945, Hong Kong had been liberated by joint British and Chinese troops. The population of Hong Kong had shrunk to 600,000 less than half of the pre-war population of 1.6 million due to scarcity of food and emigration. The communist revolution in China in 1949 led to another population boom in Hong Kong. Thousands of refugees emigrated from mainland China to Hong Kong, and made it an important entrepôt until the United Nations ordered a trade embargo on mainland China due to the Korean War. More refugees came during the Great Leap Forward.

After the Second World War, the trend of decolonization swept across the world. Still, Britain chose to keep Hong Kong for strategic reasons. In order to consolidate its rule, constitutional changes, the Young Plan, were proposed in response to the trend of decolonization so as to meet the needs of the people. The political and institutional system made only minimal changes due to the political instability in Mainland China at that time (aforementioned) which caused an influx of mainland residents to Hong Kong.

Modern Hong Kong under British rule (1950s–1997) Edit

1950s Edit

Skills and capital brought by refugees of Mainland China, especially from Shanghai, along with a vast pool of cheap labour helped revive the economy. At the same time, many foreign firms relocated their offices from Shanghai to Hong Kong. Enjoying unprecedented growth, Hong Kong transformed from a territory of entrepôt trade to one of industry and manufacturing. The early industrial centres, where many of the workers spent the majority of their days, turned out anything that could be produced with small space from buttons, artificial flowers, umbrellas, textile, enamelware, footwear to plastics.

Large squatter camps developed throughout the territory providing homes for the massive and growing number of immigrants. The camps, however, posed a fire and health hazard, leading to disasters like the Shek Kip Mei Fire. Governor Alexander Grantham responded with a "multi-storey buildings" plan as a standard. It was the beginning of the high rise buildings. Conditions in public housing were very basic with several families sharing communal cooking facilities. Other aspects of life changed as traditional Cantonese opera gave way to big screen cinemas. The tourism industry began to formalise. North Point was known as "Little Shanghai" (小上海), since in the minds of many, it had already become the replacement for the surrendered Shanghai in China. [44]

1960s Edit

The manufacturing industry opened a new decade employing large sections of the population. The period is considered a turning point for Hong Kong's economy. The construction business was also revamped with new detailed guidelines for the first time since World War II. While Hong Kong started out with a low GDP, it used the textile industry as the foundation to boost the economy. China's cultural revolution put Hong Kong on a new political stage. Events like the 1967 riot filled the streets with home-made bombs and chaos. Bomb disposal experts from the police and the British military defused as many as 8,000 home-made bombs. One in every eight bombs was genuine. [45]

Family values and Chinese tradition were challenged as people spent more time in the factories than at home. Other features of the period included water shortages, long working hours coupled with extremely low wages. The Hong Kong Flu of 1968 infected 15% of the population. [46] Amidst all the struggle, "Made in Hong Kong" went from a label that marked cheap low-grade products to a label that marked high-quality products. [47] [ when? ]

1970s Edit

The 1970s saw the extension of government subsidised education from six years to nine years and the setup of Hong Kong's country parks system.

The opening of the mainland Chinese market and rising salaries drove many manufacturers north. Hong Kong consolidated its position as a commercial and tourism centre in Asia. High life expectancy, literacy, per-capita income and other socio-economic measures attest to Hong Kong's achievements over the last four decades of the 20th century. Higher income also led to the introduction of the first high-rise, private housing estates with Taikoo Shing. From this time, people's homes became part of Hong Kong's skyline and scenery.

In 1974, Murray McLehose founded the ICAC, the Independent Commission Against Corruption, in order to combat corruption within the police force. The corruption was so widespread that a mass police petition took place resisting prosecutions. Despite early opposition to the ICAC by the police force, Hong Kong was successful in its anti-corruption efforts, eventually becoming one of the least corrupt societies in the world.

The early 1970s saw legislation requiring equal pay and benefits for equal work by men and women, including the right for married women to be permanent employees. [48] [49] [50]

1980s Edit

In 1982, the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, hoped that the increasing openness of the PRC government and the economic reform in the mainland would allow the continuation of British rule. The resulting meeting led to the signing of Sino-British Joint Declaration and the proposal of the One country, two systems concept by Deng Xiaoping. Political news dominated the media, while real estate took a major upswing. The financial world was also rattled by panics, leading to waves of policy changes and Black Saturday. Meanwhile, Hong Kong was now recognised as one of the wealthiest representatives of the far east. At the same time, the warnings of the 1997 handover raised emigration statistics to historic highs. Many left Hong Kong for the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, and anywhere else in the world without any communist influence.

Hong Kong's Cinema enjoyed one paramount run that put it on the international map. Some of the biggest names included Jackie Chan and Chow Yun-fat. The music world also saw a new group of cantopop stars like Anita Mui and Leslie Cheung.

1990s Edit

On 4 April 1990, the Hong Kong Basic Law was officially accepted as the mini-constitution of the Hong Kong SAR after the handover. The pro-Beijing bloc welcomed the Basic Law, calling it the most democratic legal system to ever exist in the PRC. The pro-democratic bloc criticised it as not democratic enough. In July 1992, Chris Patten was appointed as the last British Governor of Hong Kong. Patten had been Chairman of the Conservative Party in the UK until he lost his parliamentary seat in the general election earlier that year. Relations with the PRC government in Beijing became increasingly strained, as Patten introduced democratic reforms that increased the number of elected members in the Legislative Council. The PRC government viewed this as a breach of the Basic Law. On 1 July 1997, Hong Kong was handed over to Communist China by the United Kingdom. The old Legislative Council, elected under Chris Patten's reforms, was replaced by the Provisional Legislative Council elected by a selection committee whose members were appointed by the PRC government. Tung Chee Hwa assumed duty as the first Chief Executive of Hong Kong, elected in December by a selection committee with members appointed by the PRC government. He immediately reappointed the entire team of policy secretaries, guaranteeing significant continuity. [51]

  1. The long-held British practice of no general elections by HK citizens remains unchanged.
  2. English is still taught in all schools. However, many schools teach in Cantonese and English.
  3. The border with the mainland continues to be patrolled as before.
  4. Hong Kong remains an individual member of various international organizations, such as the IOC, APEC and WTO.
  5. Hong Kong continues to negotiate and maintain its own aviation bilateral treaties with foreign countries and territories. Flights between Hong Kong and Communist China are treated as international flights (although commonly known as inter-territorial flights in Communist China).
  6. Hong Kong SAR passport holders have easier access to countries in Europe and North America, while mainland citizens do not. Citizens in Communist China can apply for a visa to Hong Kong only from the PRC Government. Many former colonial citizens can still use British National (Overseas) and British citizen passports after 1997. (See British nationality law and Hong Kong
  7. It continues to have more political freedoms than Communist China, including freedom of the press.
  8. Motor vehicles in Hong Kong, unlike those in Communist China, continue to drive on the left. The last country or region to ever switch from left-hand traffic to right-hand traffic was Ghana (also a former British colony) in 1974.
  9. Electrical plugs (BS 1363), TV transmissions (PAL-I) and many other technical standards from the United Kingdom are still utilised in Hong Kong. However, telephone companies ceased installing British StandardBS 6312 telephone sockets in Hong Kong. See Technical standards in colonial Hong Kong
  10. Hong Kong retains a separate international dialling code (+852) and telephone numbering plan from that of the mainland. Calls between Hong Kong and the mainland still require international dialling.
  11. The former British military drill, marching and words of command in English continues in all disciplinary services including all civil organisations. The PLA soldiers of the Chinese Garrison in Hong Kong have their own drills and Mandarin words of command.
  12. Hong Kong still uses the British date format.
  13. All statues of British monarchs like Queen Victoria and King George remain.
  14. Road names reflecting Britain's 156 years of control of the territory remain.
  1. The Chief Executive of Hong Kong is now chosen by an Election Committee of 1200 members (it was initially 400, then 800), who are mainly elected from small professional sectors and pro-Chinese business groups in Hong Kong.
  2. All public offices now fly the flags of the PRC and the Hong Kong SAR. The Union Flag now flies only outside the British Consulate-General and other British premises. 's portrait disappeared from banknotes, postage stamps and public offices. As of 2017, some pre-1997 coins and banknotes are still legal tender and are in circulation.
  3. The 'Royal' title was dropped from almost all organisations that had been granted it, with the exception of the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club.
  4. Legal references to the 'Crown' were replaced by references to the 'State', and barristers who had been appointed Queen's Counsel were now to be known as Senior Counsel.
  5. A local honours system was introduced to replace the British honors system, with the Grand Bauhinia Medal replacing the Order of the British Empire. changed, with the Queen's Official Birthday and other British-related occasions being replaced by PRC National Day and Hong Kong SAR Establishment Day.
  6. Many of the red British style pillar boxes were removed from the streets of Hong Kong and replaced by green Hongkong Post boxes in the Singapore style. A few examples remain but have been repainted.
  7. British citizens (without the right of abode) are no longer able to work in Hong Kong for one year without a visa the policy was changed on 1 April 1997.
  8. The regional anthem of Hong Kong was changed from "God Save the Queen" (national anthem of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) to "March of the Volunteers" (national anthem of Communist China).
  9. Secondary schools must teach in Cantonese unless approved by the Education Bureau. Such schools are international schools, which teach in English. [52] Secondary education will move away from the English model of five years secondary schooling plus two years of university matriculation to the Chinese model of three years of junior secondary plus another three years of senior secondary. University education extends from three years to four.

Modern Hong Kong after the handover (1997–present) Edit

The new millennium signalled a series of events. A sizeable portion of the population that was previously against the handover found itself living with the adjustments. Article 23 became a controversy, and led to marches in different parts of Hong Kong with as many as 750,000 people out of a population of approximately 6,800,000 at the time. The government also dealt with the SARS outbreak in 2003. A further health crisis, the Bird Flu Pandemic (H5N1) gained momentum from the late 90s, and led to the disposal of millions of chickens and other poultry. The slaughter put Hong Kong at the centre of global attention. At the same time, the economy tried to adjust fiscally. Within a short time, the political climate heated up and the Chief Executive position was challenged culturally, politically and managerially.

Hong Kong's skylines have continued to evolve, with three new skyscrapers dominating, each in Kowloon, Tsuen Wan and Victoria, Hong Kong. The 415 metre (1,362-feet) tall 88 storey Two International Finance Centre, completed in 2003, previously Hong Kong's tallest building, has been eclipsed by the 484 metre (1,588-feet) tall, 118 storey International Commerce Centre in West Kowloon, which was topped-out in 2010 and remains the tallest skyscraper in Hong Kong. Also worth mentioning is the 320 metre (1,051-feet) tall Nina Tower located in Tsuen Wan. Eight additional skyscrapers over 250 meters (825 feet) have also been completed during this time. [53]

Occupy Central with Love and Peace (OCLP 讓愛與和平佔領中環 or 和平佔中) was a single-purpose Hong Kong civil disobedience campaign convened by Reverend Chu Yiu-ming, Dr Benny Tai Yiu-ting, and Chan Kin-man on 27 March 2013. Its aim was to pressure the PRC Government into reforming the systems for election of the Hong Kong Chief Executive and Legislative Council so as to satisfy "international standards in relation to universal suffrage" as promised in the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration and Article 45 of the 1997 Hong Kong Basic Law. Its manifesto called for occupation of the region's central business district if such reforms were not made. Upstaged by the Hong Kong Federation of Students (HKFS) and Scholarism in September 2014, its leaders joined in the Occupy Central protests.

The number of impoverished Hongkongers hit a record high in 2016 with one in five people living below the poverty line. [54] Along with housing issues was growing sentiment over the influence of the Chinese Communist Party and Chinese culture. The anti-Hong Kong Express Rail Link movement protested at the proposed Hong Kong section of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link the link was nevertheless completed in 2018. The Hong Kong 818 incident, inhibited by the visit of Li Keqiang, caused controversy regarding civil rights violations. The Moral and National Education controversy exemplified the conflict between communist and nationalist positions of China's government with democratic sentiments expressed by Hong Kong citizens.

The 2016 Legislative council election saw the localists emerging as a new political force behind the pro-Beijing and pan-democracy camps by winning six seats in Hong Kong's geographical constituencies. However, six candidates were barred from contesting by the Electoral Affairs Commission, due to their association with the Hong Kong independence movement. Another six localist members who were elected were disqualified in the Hong Kong Legislative Council oath-taking controversy. After the 5th Hong Kong Chief Executive Election, Carrie Lam became the first female Chief Executive of Hong Kong. However, her proposal of the Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019 has led to mass demonstrations against its implementation. The bill would make it legal for China to extradite criminals from Hong Kong, potentially including political prisoners. It is feared that the bill would cause the city to open itself up to the reach of mainland Chinese law and that people from Hong Kong could become subject to a different legal system.

On the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress established the Hong Kong National Security Law which came into effect on 1 July 2020. In November 2020 the National People's Congress authorised the dismissal of any Legco members who are perceived to ask for help from foreign countries and who "refuse to recognise China’s sovereignty over Hong Kong". After multiple pro-Democracy members of Legco resigned, the Government of the United Kingdom stated that the PRC was not upholding the Sino-British treaty. [55]

On 27 January 2021, CCP general secretary Xi Jinping said that Hong Kong could only maintain its long-term stability and security by ensuring "patriots governing Hong Kong" when he heard a work report delivered by Carrie Lam. [56] On 1 March, HKMAO director Xia Baolong in the seminar of "patriots governing Hong Kong" stated that Hong Kong must establish a "democratic electoral system with Hong Kong characteristics." [57]

A "decision on improving the electoral system of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" was passed by the National People's Congress (NPC) on 11 March 2021 to rewrite the election rules in Hong Kong to ensure a system of "patriots governing Hong Kong." [58] [59] By amending the Annex I and Annex II of the Basic Law of Hong Kong, the composition of the Legislative Council (LegCo) and the Election Committee (EC).


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Comentários:

  1. Eagon

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  2. Kasey

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  3. Pachu'a

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  4. Harford

    Com que frequência uma pessoa tem que escolher entre um peito nas mãos e um guindaste pairando sobre sua cabeça. Mas, na realidade, ele escolhe entre medos. Ele tem medo de deixar tudo como é, se não serve para ele. E ele tem medo de não alcançar o que espera, mas perderá o teto.

  5. Rei

    Concedido, essa é uma frase engraçada

  6. Meztikora

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