Novo

Jena Battlefield

Jena Battlefield


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

O campo de batalha de Jena na Turíngia, Alemanha, foi o local da Batalha de Jena durante as Guerras Napoleônicas. Em 14 de outubro de 1806, o exército prussiano de Frederico Guilherme III junto com as tropas da Saxônia encontrou o das tropas francesas de Napoleão em Jena, na Saxônia, sendo a Alemanha dos dias modernos.

No que hoje é conhecido como Batalha de Jena, o exército prussiano sofreu uma derrota decisiva nas mãos do imperador francês. No mesmo dia, outra divisão prussiana foi derrotada na vizinha Auerstädt.

Hoje, os visitantes podem fazer um tour pelo campo de batalha de Jena, incluindo Windknollen e Landgrafenberg, em visitas guiadas. O Museu 1806, localizado no mapa, oferece uma boa introdução à Batalha de Jena. As reconstituições da batalha também acontecem no campo de batalha de Jena no aniversário do conflito.


Por que a batalha de Jena aconteceu?

As sementes para este artigo nasceram de uma visita às “Journées de Thuringes” realizada em Jena, na Alemanha, em 14 de julho de 2006. Como parte das festividades, realizadas sob a égide da amizade franco-alemã, o museu local teve uma exposição de eventos militares relacionados à batalha de Jena, 14 de outubro de 2005, um Audio Walk especial foi criado na Cospeda para os visitantes do campo de batalha. Ambos foram resolutamente emocionais em sua abordagem. O museu produziu seis quadros mostrando a experiência civil e militar da batalha - casas saqueadas, prédios em chamas, hospitais de campanha, uniformes militares -, a caminhada em áudio foi uma reflexão poética sobre a memória, domínios da memória (como campos de batalha) e o emocional experiência de lembrar a guerra. Nenhum dos dois tentou explicar por que a batalha aconteceu. Este ensaio considera os eventos que ocasionaram o confronto.


Batalha de Jena: Napoleão e golpe duplo nocauteador # 8217s

Na noite de 5 de novembro de 1805, dois homens e uma mulher entraram secretamente na cripta da Igreja da Guarnição em Potsdam, perto de Berlim. Exatamente à meia-noite, os três deram as mãos sobre o caixão de Friedrich II, rei da Prússia & # 8212 Frederico, o Grande & # 8212 e juraram derrubar & # 8216O Monstro & # 8217 como eles e muitos outros europeus chamados Napoleão Bonaparte, imperador dos franceses. O juramento foi feito por Friedrich Wilhelm III, rei da Prússia e sua esposa, a rainha Louise von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, tão bela que um contemporâneo a descreveu como & # 8216uma aparição de um conto de fadas & # 8217 e o czar Alexandre I da Rússia.

Um mês depois de seu acordo solene, no entanto, esse juramento estava em perigo. Em 2 de dezembro de 1805, Napoleão esmagou um exército austro-russo combinado em Austerlitz, uma vitória que o deixou no controle da maior parte da Europa Ocidental. Os austríacos foram forçados a assinar o humilhante tratado de paz de Pressburg, e o exército russo de Alexandre & # 8217 teve que recuar para casa, tecnicamente ainda em guerra com a França, mas derrotado e exausto.

Mas onde estavam os prussianos? Apesar da garantia de apoio de Friedrich Wilhelm & # 8217s, o ritmo dos eventos foi rápido demais. Na época em que o ministro das Relações Exteriores do rei, Christian Graf von Haugwitz, conseguiu se encontrar com Napoleão, o imperador francês já havia destruído os exércitos austro-russos. Em vez de entregar um ultimato, Haugwitz mudou abruptamente sua postura, ofereceu seus mais calorosos parabéns e concordou em um tratado com a França. Sob seus termos, a Prússia cedeu os principados de Ansbach, Cleve, Neufchatel e Wesel à França. Em troca, a Prússia recebeu o direito de ocupar o reino de Hanover, então propriedade de Jorge III, rei da Grã-Bretanha. Quando a notícia da duplicidade de Friedrich Wilhelm e # 8217 se tornou pública, a Grã-Bretanha prontamente declarou guerra à Prússia.

Para a Prússia, o pior estava por vir. Em 17 de julho de 1806, Napoleão concluiu o Tratado da Confederação do Reno. Quinze governantes alemães, farejando o vento predominante, concordaram em se separar do Sacro Império Romano e da proteção do derrotado Imperador Francisco II da Áustria e se tornarem membros de uma Confederação do Reno sob a proteção de Napoleão & # 8217. Os 15 prometeram abrigar as tropas francesas e levantar contingentes de soldados para ajudá-los em qualquer guerra que pudessem travar.

Friedrich Wilhelm agora temia a guerra com a França e tentava evitar a pressão do crescente partido da guerra em seu governo, um de cujos líderes era a rainha Luísa. Quando Napoleão ofereceu devolver Hanover a Jorge III em troca da paz com a Grã-Bretanha, no entanto, o rei prussiano ficou furioso. Ele escreveu ao czar Alexandre em 9 de agosto, & # 8216Se Napoleão estiver tratando com Londres sobre Hanover, ele me destruirá. & # 8217 Os prussianos secretamente começaram a se preparar para a guerra com a França. Friedrich Wilhelm começou a buscar aliados. Uma enxurrada de novos tratados com a Rússia, ainda ansiosa para derrubar Napoleão, e um acordo com a Inglaterra levaram à formação de uma nova coalizão & # 8212 a quarta & # 8212 contra a França.

Extremamente confiantes na vitória, os prussianos se gabavam de que os clubes seriam tudo de que precisavam para espancar Napoleão & # 8217s francês & # 8216cobblers. & # 8217 Os berlinenses aplaudiram freneticamente quando a Rainha Louise, vestindo um uniforme de coronel vermelho e azul & # 8217s, desfilou diante do regimento de dragões que levavam seu nome. O tenente francês Jean Baptiste Antoine Marcellin de Marbot, então em Berlim como enviado ao governo prussiano, relembrou: & # 8216Os oficiais que eu conhecia não se aventuravam mais a falar comigo ou me saudar muitos franceses foram insultados pela população que os homens -armas da Guarda Nobre empurravam sua arrogância a ponto de afiar suas lâminas de espada nos degraus de pedra da casa do embaixador francês & # 8217s. & # 8217 Em 7 de outubro de 1806, Friedrich Wilhelm enviou um ultimato insultuoso a Napoleão, dando o imperador apenas duas semanas para remover todos os soldados franceses a leste do Reno e exigindo que a França desistisse de todo o território adquirido desde 1794.

Para observadores experientes, a confiança prussiana estava fora de lugar. Já em 1789, um político francês observou, & # 8216A monarquia prussiana é constituída de tal forma que não poderia lidar com a calamidade. & # 8217 O muito elogiado exército prussiano de Frederico, o Grande, repousava sobre os louros e carecia de experiência recente em combate . Em tempos de paz, havia pouca provisão para grandes unidades se exercitarem juntas. Em tempos de guerra, brigadas e divisões eram organizadas ad hoc, deixando aos comandantes pouco tempo para treinar ou conhecer suas unidades. Não havia reservas do exército de artilharia ou cavalaria, ou mais importante, qualquer organização de estado-maior digna desse nome.

A maioria desses problemas derivava do fato de que o corpo de oficiais era velho e confuso. Muitos dos oficiais de mais alta patente da Prússia foram oficiais subalternos durante a Guerra dos Sete Anos & # 8217 em 1806, de 142 generais, quatro tinham mais de 80 anos de idade, 13 tinham mais de 79 e 62 mais de 60, enquanto 25 por cento dos comandantes regimentais e de batalhão tinham mais de 60 anos.

A mobilização prussiana foi desordenada e incompleta. O jovem capitão Carl Maria von Clausewitz escreveu que o exército prussiano tinha 210.000 homens, mas destacamentos tão grandes foram retidos na Polônia e na Silésia que o número real de homens disponíveis para enfrentar Napoleão não era superior a 110.000.

Para agravar os problemas do exército, o rei dividiu seu exército em três comandos. O primeiro, 60.000 homens, era comandado pelo duque Carl de Brunswick, de 71 anos, sobrinho e aluno de Frederico, o Grande. O segundo, 22.000 homens, era sob o comando de Friedrich Ludwig, príncipe de Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen. O terceiro, 28.000 homens, era comandado pelo general Ernst Philipp von Rüchel. Brunswick comandou nominalmente toda a força, mas os outros comandantes se sentiram à vontade para propor seus próprios planos e o fizeram. Para acalmar os atritos entre os comandantes, o rei decidiu acompanhar o quartel-general do Duque de Brunswick, levando consigo seus próprios conselheiros militares, os Ober Kriegs Kollegium, ou Conselho do Exército. Até a rainha Luísa e suas damas achavam que poderiam ser úteis, então vieram também. Não é de admirar que Clausewitz escreveu: & # 8216O futuro me parece assustador. & # 8217

Para os prussianos, o curso de ação prudente seria permanecer na defensiva até que o exército russo, 120.000 homens, chegasse e então dominasse Napoleão com um número superior. Eles não tinham intenção de fazer isso. O plano prussiano era tomar a iniciativa, surpreender o exército francês e rechaçá-lo sobre o Reno. Em 13 de setembro de 1806, os prussianos ocuparam a vizinha Saxônia, acrescentando um corpo de saxões de 20.000 à força de Hohenlohe. Em 25 de setembro, as três forças prussianas, agora totalizando cerca de 130.000, estavam concentradas em uma linha centrada em Erfurt e se estendia por 55 milhas de Eisenbach no oeste até Jena no leste. Rüchel, com 28.000 soldados, estava em Eisenbach, Brunswick em Erfurt com 60.000 e Hohenlohe, com 42.000, em Jena. A linha, localizada 150 milhas a sudoeste de Berlim, colocou o exército prussiano em uma boa posição para proteger a capital e atacar o exército francês, centrado em Bamberg, 75 milhas ao sul. Mas os comandantes prussianos perderam vários dias realizando conselhos de guerra, tentando chegar a um consenso sobre o que fazer a seguir. Em 7 de outubro, o general Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst, chefe de gabinete de Brunswick & # 8217s, estava tão exasperado que escreveu: & # 8216O que devemos fazer, eu sei muito bem. O que faremos, só Deus sabe. & # 8217

Enquanto isso, no Château de Saint-Cloud em Paris, em um escritório no segundo andar com vista para o parque, & # 8216O Monstro & # 8217 estava estudando seus mapas. Napoleão estava totalmente informado sobre os planos prussianos & # 8217 e não tinha intenção de esperar na defensiva. Seu próprio plano era destruir os prussianos antes que os russos pudessem chegar.

Para isso, ele empregaria duas de suas clássicas manobras estratégicas. Primeiro, usando um manobra sur position centrale & # 8212 manobra na posição central & # 8212 ele inserirá o exército francês entre os exércitos prussiano e russo. Ao mesmo tempo, ele empregaria um manobra sur les derrières & # 8212 manobra nas comunicações do inimigo & # 8217s & # 8212 para interpor o exército francês entre o exército prussiano e Berlim. (Com o tempo, essa manobra se tornaria conhecida como a manobra d & # 8217Iéna ou o manobra de Saale.) Para proteger Berlim, os prussianos seriam forçados a batalhar. Napoleão destruiria os prussianos, depois voltaria para lidar com os russos.

A chave para essas manobras era sigilo e rapidez. Para esconder seu exército dos prussianos, o imperador francês usaria o rio Saale, que corria geralmente de sul a norte, como uma barreira entre seus Grande Armée e o exército prussiano. Quando os prussianos descobrissem seu exército, seria tarde demais & # 8212 os franceses já estariam atrás deles.

A velocidade seria fornecida pelas pernas de seus soldados. Para os prussianos, marchar 24 quilômetros parecia um dia difícil e de trabalho. Os soldados franceses provaram que eram capazes de marchas forçadas de 20 a 25 milhas por dia durante semanas a fio, lutando enquanto marchavam, embora essas caminhadas geralmente deixassem para trás um rastro de vagabundos e saqueadores exaustos. Além disso, quase todos os soldados de Napoleão e # 8217 eram veteranos experientes na batalha. Seus generais eram jovens, enérgicos e experientes & # 8212, incluindo o próprio Napoleão, que acabara de completar 37 anos no mês anterior. Finalmente, o Grande Armée foi totalmente integrado e liderado por um homem de tal gênio marcial que Clausewitz mais tarde se referiria a ele como o & # 8216Deus da Guerra & # 8217

Contra 130.000 prussianos e saxões, Napoleão mobilizou 167.000 soldados de alto escalão. Seu exército consistia na Guarda Imperial, 7.000, e nas seguintes formações, cada uma liderada por um maréchal de frança: o I Corpo de exército sob Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, 21.000 o III Corpo de exército sob Louis Nicholas Davout, 29.000 o IV Corpo de exército sob Jean de Dieu Soult, 29.000 o V Corpo de exército, liderado por Jean Lannes, 22.000 o VI Corpo de exército sob Michel Ney, 19.000 o VII Corpo liderado por Pierre François Charles Augereau, 20.000 e a Reserva de Cavalaria de Joachim Murat, 14.000. Além destes, havia um Corpo Auxiliar da Baviera de 6.000 sob Général de Division Príncipe Karl Philipp von Wrede.

Napoleão chegou a Bamberg em 6 de outubro. No dia seguinte, recebeu o ultimato prussiano. Naquele mesmo dia, os oficiais do exército francês leram uma proclamação de Napoleão às suas tropas reunidas: & # 8216Soldados! A ordem para o seu retorno à França já estava dada as festas triunfais que os aguardavam. Mas gritos de guerra foram ouvidos em Berlim. Somos provocados por uma audácia que exige vingança. Soldados! Nenhum de vós deseja regressar à França por outro caminho que não o da honra. Não regressaremos senão por um caminho que passa por baixo de arcos triunfais. O que! Enfrentamos o clima, os mares, os desertos, vencemos uma Europa unida contra nós, reunimos glória do Oriente ao Ocidente apenas para retornar ao nosso país como refugiados, tendo abandonado nossos aliados e ouvido que a águia francesa fugiu do exército prussiano? # 8217

No dia seguinte, os franceses lançaram sua blitzkrieg no estilo do século XIX. Selecionado por cavaleiros de Murat & # 8217s Cavalry Reserve, o Grande Armée avançado por três estradas paralelas, uma coluna em cada estrada. O V Corpo de exército deveria liderar a coluna da esquerda, seguido de uma marcha do dia & # 8217s atrás pelo VII Corpo de exército. O I Corpo de exército estava à frente da coluna central, seguido por sua vez pelo III Corpo de exército, a Reserva de Cavalaria e a Guarda Imperial. A coluna da direita era composta, em ordem, pelo IV, VI e corpos bávaros. A fachada de todo o exército tinha cerca de 38 milhas e a profundidade era quase a mesma, ou dois dias de marcha, de modo que Napoleão seria capaz de concentrar toda a sua força em 48 horas. O resultado foi uma formação flexível capaz de atacar em qualquer direção, uma formação que ficaria para a história como a bataillon carré.

Em 9 de outubro, a cavalaria Murat & # 8217s e Bernadotte & # 8217s I Corps encontraram os prussianos em Schleiz, 42 quilômetros a sudeste de Jena e, após alguma dificuldade, os levaram de volta. As baixas foram leves em ambos os lados.

A situação ficou mais séria no dia seguinte quando Lannes & # 8217 V Corps colidiram com Hohenlohe & # 8217s guarda avançada na cidade de Saalfeld, cerca de 35 quilômetros ao sul de Jena. Os prussianos eram comandados pelo príncipe general Ludwig Ferdinand, sobrinho do rei & # 8217s, que, de acordo com Clausewitz, tinha o potencial de se tornar o principal comandante prussiano de sua época. Não era pra ser. Lannes dirigiu nas linhas prussianas e capturou a cidade. Os prussianos entraram em colapso. O príncipe Ludwig liderou um ataque de cavalaria desesperado em uma tentativa de conter o avanço francês, mas foi morto pelo sargento Jean Baptiste Guindey dos 10º Hussardos franceses. A força do príncipe de 8.000 foi efetivamente destruída, perdendo um terço de sua força morta, ferida ou capturada. As perdas francesas foram leves.

O som de armas distantes em Saalfeld alarmou o quartel-general prussiano. O alto comando prussiano percebeu que Napoleão estava prestes a flanqueá-los. Brunswick começou a concentrar seu exército e deslocá-lo para o leste para enfrentar o avanço dos franceses. Ele apressadamente enviou ordens a Rüchel para se juntar ao exército principal, que se mudaria para Weimar, a meio caminho entre Erfurt e Jena, cerca de 12 milhas a oeste deste último. Hohenlohe deveria permanecer em Jena para cobrir o flanco esquerdo.

Quando recebeu suas ordens, Hohenlohe decidiu retirar-se de Jena propriamente dito e formar um acampamento defensivo no planalto Landgrafenberg, situado a oeste de Saale, acima da cidade. A essa altura, o nervosismo no alto comando prussiano já havia se comunicado às fileiras. Ao meio-dia do dia 11, enquanto os soldados de Hohenlohe & # 8217s desfilavam pelas ruas estreitas de Jena, um hussardo com uma bandagem ensanguentada em volta da cabeça veio galopando pela estrada de Weimar gritando: & # 8216Volte! Voltam! Os franceses estão sobre nós. & # 8217 Alguns amedrontados artilheiros prussianos deram a volta em suas equipes de canhão e galoparam de volta para a cidade, colidindo com as colunas de infantaria. Em um instante, todo o exército de Hohenlohe e # 8217 se dissolveu em pânico. Os oficiais prussianos levaram horas para reunir seus soldados.

Quando chegou a Napoleão a notícia desses movimentos prussianos, ele deu ordens para empurrar todo o exército francês para a esquerda, aproximadamente na linha do Saale. No momento em que esses movimentos fossem concluídos, o exército estaria distribuído em uma frente de 30 milhas de Kahla, cerca de 10 milhas ao sul de Jena, a Naumburg, cerca de 20 milhas ao norte de Jena. O exército francês estava agora a leste e ao norte dos prussianos & # 8212 e mais perto de Berlim.

Por volta do meio-dia de 12 de outubro, o alto comando prussiano recebeu a notícia da chegada dos franceses a Naumburg, levando-o a algo próximo ao pânico. Um conselho de guerra foi ordenado imediatamente e, logo no dia seguinte, os líderes prussianos se reuniram para decidir o que fazer.

Enquanto isso, ao amanhecer de 13 de outubro, enquanto os líderes prussianos ainda se reuniam para a reunião, Lannes & # 8217 V Corpo de exército sondava seu caminho através de uma névoa espessa ao longo da estrada para Jena. Os franceses ocuparam Jena, e Lannes, acompanhado por um punhado de infantaria, ganhou o planalto Landgrafenberg acima da cidade. Quando a névoa se dissipou, Lannes, observando do Windknolle & # 8212 uma colina ocupada por vários moinhos de vento & # 8212 viu todos os 40.000 prussianos Hohenlohe & # 8217s estendendo-se diante dele no planalto de Jena. Em poucos minutos, os ajudantes de campo da Lannes e # 8217 estavam esporeando seus cavalos na estrada para o quartel-general de Napoleão.

Enfin le voile est déchiré (Por fim, o véu é rasgado), & # 8217 observou Napoleão. No início da tarde, ele estava a caminho de Jena Soult & # 8217s IV Corps, Ney & # 8217s VI Corps, Augereau & # 8217s VII Corps e a Guarda Imperial estavam avançando para Jena por marchas forçadas e Davout & # 8217s III Corps e Bernadotte & # 8217s I Corps foram alertados para marchar ao som dos canhões se ouvissem os tiros de canhão em Jena.

Nesse ínterim, os prussianos tiveram sua reunião. Em vez de enfrentar os franceses na batalha, eles decidiram que o exército principal de Brunswick & # 8217 se retiraria em direção a Leipzig, 50 milhas a noroeste & # 8212 e 90 milhas ao sul de Berlim & # 8212 para impedir o avanço francês. Hohenlohe defenderia a linha do Saale até que Brunswick e Rüchel estivessem em segurança longe.

Ao cair da noite, no entanto, o chefe do exército principal de Brunswick & # 8217s alcançou Auerstädt, diretamente do outro lado do Saale de Naumburg. O restante de sua força foi estendido de volta a Weimar, a 23 milhas de distância, onde o exército de Rüchel e # 8217 ainda estava esperando que as estradas fossem liberadas, vítima de atroz trabalho de estado-maior prussiano. Enquanto isso, no Landgrafenberg estavam Lannes & # 8217s V Corps e a Guarda Imperial, enquanto Soult & # 8217s IV Corps, Ney & # 8217s VI Corps e Augereau & # 8217s VII Corps estavam por perto. Bernadotte & # 8217s I Corps ficava ao sul de Naumburg.

Naquela noite, Napoleão, segurando uma lamparina, dirigiu pessoalmente seus artilheiros enquanto eles lutavam para mover as peças de artilharia pelos desfiladeiros íngremes e estreitos em direção a Landgrafenberg, onde os soldados franceses estavam embalados como sardinhas. Jean-Roche Coignet, granadeiro da Guarda Imperial, relembrou: & # 8216Fomos obrigados a tatear o caminho ao longo da beira do precipício, nenhum de nós conseguia ver o outro. Era necessário guardar silêncio absoluto, pois o inimigo estava perto de nós. & # 8217

Hohenlohe acreditava que os franceses constituíam apenas uma guarda avançada, protegendo o flanco do principal exército francês enquanto este passava para o leste. Consequentemente, ele colocou apenas 8.000 homens à sua frente, ancorados pelas aldeias de Cospeda à sua esquerda e Closewitz à sua direita.

Às 6 horas da manhã de 14 de outubro, o ataque francês avançou em meio a uma densa névoa matinal. O primeiro ato de Napoleão foi garantir espaço suficiente no planalto para permitir que seu exército compactado se posicionasse. Para atingir esse objetivo, Lannes & # 8217 V Corps marcharam para atacar Closewitz, meia milha à frente em meio ao nevoeiro. Quando o espaço se abriu no platô, Augereau & # 8217s VII Corps balançou na Lannes & # 8217s à esquerda e atacou Cospeda, enquanto Soult & # 8217s IV Corps desdobrou-se para apoiar Lannes & # 8217s à direita. A Guarda Imperial permaneceu na reserva.

O avanço de Lannes e # 8217 em Closewitz se perdeu na névoa pesada, mas eventualmente ele capturou a aldeia, enquanto Augereau tomava Cospeda. Enquanto isso, Soult subiu na Lannes & # 8217 à direita. O peso de três corpos franceses lentamente forçou os prussianos de volta ao planalto. Por volta das 9h, começou a ocorrer a Hohenlohe que ele estava enfrentando algo mais do que uma guarda avançada francesa, e ele enviou mensagens urgentes para Rüchel em Weimar implorando por ajuda. Por volta das 10h, a névoa havia se dissipado. Os prussianos foram forçados a recuar cerca de três quilômetros até uma segunda linha de aldeias, Vierzehnheiligen à esquerda prussiana e Isserstadt à direita. Lá, eles repeliram ataques repetidos, e o avanço francês foi interrompido. & # 8216O sol apareceu & # 8217 lembrou Coignet & # 8216e iluminou o belo planalto. Então poderíamos ver à nossa frente. À nossa direita, vimos uma bela carruagem puxada por cavalos brancos, nos disseram que era a Rainha da Prússia, que estava tentando escapar. & # 8217

Por volta das 11h, o VI Corpo de exército de Ney e # 8217 estava em cena e Napoleão lançou outro ataque em grande escala. Augereau capturou Isserstadt, Ney conquistou Vierzehnheiligen e Soult virou a esquerda prussiana. Por volta da 13h, Hohenlohe havia comprometido todas as suas reservas, cada um de seus soldados estava em combate. A chegada de Rüchel e # 8217 era desesperadamente aguardada enquanto mais e mais tropas francesas invadiam o planalto. Naquela hora, Napoleão ordenou um avanço através de toda a linha, e os exaustos prussianos entraram em colapso. Napoleão desencadeou a cavalaria de reserva Murat & # 8217s e o colapso se transformou em uma derrota. Por volta das 15h, os prussianos estavam saindo do campo para oeste com a cavalaria francesa em sua perseguição. A perseguição parou a cerca de três quilômetros do campo de batalha no vilarejo de Capellendorf enquanto os franceses se chocavam com Rüchel vindo de Weimar. Com uma surpreendente falta de apreço pela situação, Rüchel, descrito por Clausewitz como um homem que era & # 8216energético, mas sem intelecto, & # 8217 conduziu seus 15.000 homens através dos soldados em fuga loucamente de Hohenlohe & # 8217 e tentou atacar os franceses. Por volta das 16h00, os homens de Rüchel & # 8217s se juntaram às massas derrotadas de Hohenlohe & # 8217s, e a Batalha de Jena acabou.

Cerca de 50.000 prussianos em pânico estavam fugindo. Os franceses perderam cerca de 6.500 dos 54.000 homens que realmente foram contratados. As perdas prussianas são desconhecidas, mas foram estimadas em cerca de 25.000.

Napoleão voltou ao seu quartel-general acreditando que acabara de esmagar o principal exército prussiano. Ele estava errado. Em Naumburg, 18 milhas ao norte do campo de batalha de Jena, Louis Nicholas Davout de 36 anos de idade & # 8212 careca e míope, mas determinado a perseverar & # 8212, travou uma batalha com Brunswick.

Às 3 horas da manhã de 14 de outubro, Davout recebeu ordens de Napoleão, escritas às 22 horas. em 13 de outubro em seu acampamento no planalto acima de Jena. O imperador escreveu que identificou um exército prussiano implantado a cerca de 2 1/2 milhas de distância e se estendendo das alturas de Jena até sua frente até Weimar. Ele pretendia atacar pela manhã. Ele ordenou a Davout que marchasse pela passagem de Saale pela vila de Auerstädt, depois girasse para o sul e caísse na retaguarda dos prussianos. A mensagem acrescentou: & # 8216Se o Marechal Bernadotte estiver com você, vocês poderão marchar juntos, mas o Imperador espera que ele esteja na posição que lhe foi indicada, ou seja, em Dornburg. & # 8217

Davout emitiu ordens para que o III Corpo de exército avançasse e depois foi ver Bernadotte, cujo I Corpo de exército marchara para Naumburg na noite anterior. Davout deu a Bernadotte uma cópia das ordens do imperador & # 8217s e o convidou a se juntar a ele no avanço em Auerstädt. Bernadotte, no entanto, não desejava ser associado a Davout. Ele escolheu presumir que o imperador desejava que ele fosse para Dornburg, localizado na margem leste do Saale, a meio caminho entre Naumburg e Jena, e marchou com seu I Corpo de exército para o sul, onde ele deixaria de apoiar Napoleão ou Davout. Após a batalha, Napoleão preparou uma acusação de corte marcial para Bernadotte, mas o astuto Gascão escapou com uma severa bronca.

Assim foi no início do dia 14, quando o III Corpo de exército se moveu através da pesada névoa matinal através do Saale para Auerstädt, Davout & # 8217s 28.000 homens se viram atacados por 52.000 prussianos, sem esperança de apoio. No início da luta, os franceses conseguiram capturar a vila de Hassenhausen, e Davout implantou suas três divisões nas proximidades, apesar das repetidas cargas da cavalaria prussiana liderada pelo tenente-general Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher de 63 anos. Às 8h30, a infantaria estável de Davout e # 8217 havia derrotado a cavalaria de Blücher e # 8217, mas a infantaria prussiana estava chegando em força. Ao longo do dia, os franceses bloquearam repetidamente os ataques prussianos, principalmente porque os prussianos atacaram aos poucos, com cada divisão avançando isolada e sendo derrotada em detalhes. Às 11 da manhã, quando os prussianos haviam esgotado seus esforços, Davout ordenou um avanço francês e os prussianos entraram em colapso.

Brunswick foi mortalmente ferido durante a batalha, cabendo a Friedrich Wilhelm dar a ordem de abandonar o campo. Quando tudo acabou, Davout tinha infligido 10.000 baixas e feito 3.000 prisioneiros, mas suas próprias baixas totalizaram 7.000 & # 8212, muito pesadas em relação à sua força. Apenas a falta de cavalaria francesa para a perseguição impediu outra derrota prussiana. Nas semanas seguintes, uma implacável perseguição francesa conquistou sobreviventes inimigos e blefou as fortalezas prussianas à rendição. Em 10 de novembro, apenas um mês depois de Jena-Auerstädt, o poder prussiano não existia mais. Em apenas 33 dias, o Grande Armée matou 20.000 prussianos e fez 140.000 prisioneiros, junto com 800 peças de artilharia e 250 cores e estandartes. Mas a guerra não acabou. O Monstro precisaria de mais duas campanhas para forçar Friedrich Wilhelm, a Rainha Louise e Alexandre I à mesa de conferência.

Ainda assim, cada uma das duas conquistas francesas em 14 de outubro trazia sua marca distinta. & # 8216Em Jena, Napoleão venceu uma batalha que não podia perder & # 8217 escreveu o historiador François-Guy Hourtoulle. & # 8216Em Auerstädt, Davout venceu uma batalha que não poderia vencer. & # 8217

Em 24 de outubro, o Grande Armée começou a desfilar por Berlim, liderado pelos soldados do Davout & # 8217s III Corps, a quem Napoleão deu a honra de ser o primeiro a entrar na cidade. & # 8216Era um belo dia de outono & # 8217 relembrou o intendente Charles Parquin, um cavaleiro dos 20 ° Chasseurs franceses. & # 8216A cidade era linda, mas parecia deprimente. Todas as lojas estavam fechadas e ninguém estava nas vitrines. Nas ruas havia poucas pessoas e nenhuma carruagem. O único som a ser ouvido era o estrondo de nossas armas e carroças. & # 8217

O tenente Marcelino de Marbot também cavalgou pela cidade. & # 8216Meu primeiro sentimento ao retornar a Berlim, & # 8217 ele escreveu, & # 8216… foi um sentimento de simpatia por uma população patriótica, assim abatida pela derrota, invasão e perda de parentes e amigos. A entrada da ‘Nobre Guarda & # 8217 no entanto, desarmada e prisioneiros despertou em mim sentimentos muito diferentes. Os jovens oficiais que haviam afiado seus sabres nos degraus da embaixada francesa eram agora bastante humildes. Eles imploraram para ser conduzidos, não através de Berlim, sem se importar em ser exibidos na vista dos habitantes que haviam sido testemunhas de sua velha arrogância. Por isso mesmo, o imperador deu instruções às tropas que os guardavam para marcharem pela rua em que ficava a embaixada da França. & # 8217

Em 26 de outubro, Napoleão visitou o túmulo de Frederico, o Grande. & # 8216Ele caminhou um tanto apressado no início & # 8217 escreveu uma testemunha & # 8216 mas ao se aproximar da igreja, ele moderou seu passo, que se tornou ainda mais lento e mais medido à medida que se aproximava dos restos mortais do grande rei a quem veio prestar homenagem. A porta do monumento foi aberta e ele parou na entrada em uma atitude séria e meditativa. Seus olhares pareciam penetrar na escuridão que reinava em torno dessas augustas cinzas, e ele permaneceu ali quase dez minutos, imóvel e silencioso, como se estivesse absorto em pensamentos profundos. & # 8217

James W. Shosenberg, membro do Société française d & # 8217histoire napoléonienne e um membro da Sociedade Napoleônica Internacional, escreve de Oshawa, Canadá. Para mais leituras, ele sugere: Napoleão & # 8217s Conquista da Prússia, 1806, por F. Loraine Petre ou Notas sobre a Prússia durante a grande catástrofe de 1806, de Carl von Clausewitz.

Este artigo foi publicado originalmente na edição de outubro de 2006 da História Militar revista. Para mais artigos excelentes, certifique-se de se inscrever em História Militar revista hoje!


Análise das batalhas

O maior crédito pela destruição do exército prussiano deve ir para Davout. Sem dúvida, a batalha principal foi travada em Auerstedt, não em Jena. Se Davout tivesse sido invadido em 14 de outubro, os prussianos poderiam ter escapado para se juntar aos russos, tornando a vitória final francesa sobre a coalizão mais difícil. Considerando outra alternativa, se os prussianos tivessem derrotado Davout em Auerstedt, eles poderiam ter se concentrado contra Napoleão em Jena e entregado a Napoleão sua primeira grande derrota. Na verdade, era isso que Napoleão mais temia. É por isso que, quando Napoleão ouviu falar da extensão da vitória de Davout em Auerstedt, ele se recusou a acreditar. Depois de dois dias fazendo beicinho, Napoleão finalmente aceitou os fatos e escreveu a Davout uma carta de parabéns, mas afirmou que era para os generais e homens subordinados de Davout. Mesmo nas serpentinas de batalha dos regimentos franceses que lutaram em ambas as batalhas, Napoleão tinha Jena, não Auerstedt, brasonado.

Napoleão havia julgado mal onde estava o principal exército prussiano e, portanto, deu toda a sua atenção à ação em Jena e nada à de Auerstedt. Quando partiu da falsa suposição de que o principal exército prussiano estava diante dele, a imaginação de Napoleão o dominou. No final da tarde, ele se convenceu de que tinha 60.000 ou mais prussianos antes de si, quando na verdade tinha menos da metade desse número. Napoleão também se beneficiou em Jena com as ações de bons subordinados, principalmente o marechal Jean Lannes. Mas ele também tinha um inimigo prestativo. Os prussianos foram longe para se derrotar, tanto em Jena quanto em Auerstedt. Eles haviam superestimado grosseiramente a força e a eficácia de seu próprio exército. Eles haviam avançado sem esperar pelos russos, estendido suas forças para o oeste e se tornado vulneráveis ​​a um contra-ataque francês. Eles não tinham um comando central efetivo, os exércitos de Brunswick e Hohenlohe estavam separados e havia pouca coordenação entre os dois.


História do campo de batalha

As forças especiais são uma das melhores expansões de videogame que já joguei e, obviamente, o campo de batalha 2 tem um lugar especial em meu coração.

BF2 o melhor jogo de todos os tempos. construiu uma comunidade & # x27s que ainda existem hoje, ainda tem uma base de jogadores bastante saudável, talvez mais jogadores por dia do que todos os jogos de campo de batalha mais recentes ?, Se BF6 for 10% tão bom quanto BF2, teremos algo especial, mas temo que será seja apenas mais um jogo de campo de batalha diluído

mostre a este canal um pouco de amor se você se lembra dos bons e velhos tempos :) https://www.twitch.tv/allidoisspectate não meu canal, apenas um ótimo lugar para assistir o bom e velho BF2 ao vivo.

O BF2 estava muito à frente de seu tempo. Foi definitivamente o pico em jogos de PC, clãs, comunidades, etc. Foi fantástico.

Fico triste por não ser capaz de experimentar aquele momento e sentimento pela primeira vez novamente.

I got my copy from a new game that opened in my home town but I bought preowned PC copy that was missing the code book, and because it was their first day I managed to blag the manager to give me a brand new copy for the same price when I brought the shit one back. Still the best blag of my life lol

I think BF2 had the best commander and squad gameplay.

Special Forces, man the grappling hooks and tactile nature of that DLC was fantastic.

Modern combat was my first battlefield

I had so many good times on Special Forces. Finding hiding spots with the zip line! Christ man do much nostalgia.

I always dream about a proper Battlefield game being similar to Battlefield 2 but I don't think it will ever happen, ever.

Everyone just seems to make run and gun high intensity combat where there's never time to breath. There's no tactics or anything.

I remember on BF2 youɽ get your squad together and covertly go around the edge of the map and take out one of the flanking flags on Strike of Karkand. Protecting your squad leader as you done it too, and prey prey didn't walk into a tank or something on the way in!


Jena Battlefield - History

Nossos editores irão revisar o que você enviou e determinar se o artigo deve ser revisado.

Jena, city, Thuringia Terra (estado), centro-leste da Alemanha. It lies on the Saale River, east of Weimar. First mentioned in the 9th century as Jani, it was chartered in 1230 and belonged to the margraves of Meissen from the mid-14th century. The house of Wettin, which held the margraviate and (after 1423) the electorate of Saxony, was divided in 1485, and Jena fell to the dukes of the Ernestine branch. From 1672 to 1690 it was the centre of the duchy of Saxe-Jena, and it remained a ducal residence until 1918. Napoleon won a notable victory over the Prussian army on the heights north of Jena in 1806 (Vejo Battle of Jena).

A rail junction, Jena is a major centre for optical and precision instruments and glass products. The city has a significant pharmaceutical industry and several biotechnology and microelectronics firms.

The city’s Friedrich-Schiller University was founded by the elector John Frederick the Magnanimous in 1548 as an academy and was raised to university status in 1577. It flourished under the duke Charles Augustus, patron of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, from 1787 to 1806, when the philosophers Johann Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and Friedrich von Schelling and the writers August von Schlegel and Friedrich Schiller were on its teaching staff. It was long in the forefront of German universities in the liberal acceptance of new ideas. The evolutionist Ernst Haeckel was prominent at the university in the mid-19th century, and Karl Marx received a doctor’s degree in absentia in 1841. A prominent landmark in Jena is the university’s tower (400 feet [122 metres]).

Jena suffered severe damage in World War II, but it has been restored. Notable structures are the old university buildings, the 14th-century town hall, and St. Michael’s Church (1438–1528). Numerous towers remain from the medieval fortifications. University buildings (1906–08) occupy the site of the old ducal palace where Goethe wrote his novel Hermann und Dorothea. The city is also home to the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry, Chemical Ecology, and Economics. There are botanical gardens, a planetarium, and civic and university museums. Pop. (2003 est.) 102,634.


Ten Biggest Battles of the 19th Century

Although the Franco-Prussian war has many of the century’s largest battles, it was relatively short in duration containing a small number of large battles, most fought on the frontier – as a contest it was over within three months, although the siege of Paris continued into the following year. The American Civil War, by comparison, had more soldiers (about 3m), but lasted much longer (4 years) and consisted of a large number smaller battles (nearly 400). The largest battle of that conflict was the Seven Days which had 195,000 combatants – about the same as Waterloo, but neither make it onto the list above. Neither do two other decisive battles of the 19 th century – Austerlitz (1805) and Gettysburg (1863) both of which had about 170,000 combatants although Gettysburg lasted much longer, 3 days, whilst Napoleon needed just 8 hours to annihilate Kutuzov at Austerlitz.

The Battle of Nanjing, China (1864)

The 3 rd battle of Nanjing was the decisive engagement of the Taiping Rebellion, which raged across southern China from 1850 to 1864, the latter stages occurring at the same time as American Civil War. About 1,000,000 government troops, loyal to the ruling Qing dynasty, fought about 500,000 well-armed Taiping rebels.

The Qing (“ch-ing”), known in western histories as the Manchu, had ruled China since the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644 and were originally from Manchuria, being of a separate ethnic group to the majority Han. Qing power reached its zenith in the early 18 th century, particularly under the 61 year reign of the Kangxi Emperor and formed the basis of what is now the territorial area of modern China. During the early and mid 19 th century a combination of natural disasters, economic stagnation and disastrous wars against more technologically advanced foreign powers, such as the British who annexed Hong Kong, had substantially eroded Qing authority.

The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom grew from a quasi-religious, millenarian cult founded by Hong Xiuquan (“hung hsiu-chuan”) in Guangxi province during the 1840’s. Hong had been an applicant for the Imperial Civil Service the previous decade who had locally been exposed to the preaching of Christian missionaries, and possessed a Chinese translation of the bible. Although he paid little attention to Christianity at the time, when in 1836 he failed the entrance examinations for the 4 th time (not so strange, the pass rate was less than 5%) the failure brought on a period of intense depression which culminated in a nervous breakdown during which he claimed to have experienced a spiritual revelation during a series of dreams. He interpreted this experience as a divine summons to rid China of “demon worship” and came to believe that he was a re-incarnation of the younger brother of Jesus Christ and began preaching among the local community of the Hakka ethnic group, of which we was a member. He laid out a quasi-Christian philosophy that included common ownership of property, equality for women (but also strict separation of the sexes) and the destruction of Buddhist and Confucian symbols and images. By 1840, the sect had as many as 40,000 followers and attracted the attention of the Qing authorities who attempted to violently supress it, leading eventually to civil war.

The revolt proper began in Guangxi province in 1850 when a 10,000 strong Taiping force attacked and captured the town of Jintian (present day Guiping). The Qing government, already heavily committed in the 2 nd Opium War against the British, failed to quell the revolt and by 1853 and the rebels had occupied Nanjing and declared it their capital, changing its name to Tianjing (“heavenly capital”). The Heavenly Kingdom expanded its control over more of south east China and attempted to enlist the support of European powers, but were rebuffed. In 1860 they attempted to take the city of Shanghai, but were repulsed by Qing forces, by now trained and advised by a small number European officers, and a slow painful fightback by the government began.

By 1864, most of the rebel area had been re-occupied and the Qing, by now with the support of western powers, prepared to re-take Nanjing. By June, Nanjing had been surrounded and was preparing for siege when Hong suddenly died, most likely of food poisoning. With a force of 500,000 Qing troops against of maybe 400,000 in the city a bitter struggle erupted in the outer suburbs as government troops took the city gates and bridges one-by-one, eventually capturing the city on the 19 th of July, and carrying out a massacre of the inhabitants in which as many 100,000 may have been killed. The fall of Nanjing effectively destroyed the Taiping army and, although sporadic resistance and interlinked rebellions in neighbouring provinces continued for several years afterwards, the Heavenly Kingdom collapsed with the fall of the city.

The Taiping rebellion may well have been the largest and bloodiest civil war in all human history, although the Napoleonic wars in Europe were a larger scale conflict. Both sides engaged in the destruction of urban commercial centres and rural agricultural production, including the massacre of inhabitants, as an economic warfare tactic as many as 600 major towns and cities were destroyed in this way. It has been estimated that as many as 20-30m people died during the conflict – to put that in context, it is more than the total Soviet Union war dead, civilian and military, during the whole of the second world war.

Always an avowedly peasant and working class movement, the Taiping were referenced in later Chinese history by both nationalist leader Sun Yat Sen and communist Mao Tse Tung as examples of the power of ordinary Chinese to stand up to a decaying and corrupt imperial system. Although victorious in the rebellion, the Qing dynasty was gone within 50 years the last emperor, Pu Yi, was overthrown in 1912 and China became a republic after 2,000 years of rule by the Emperors.

Siege of Paris (1870)

At the outset of the Franco-Prussian war in July 1870, France was led by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte III (nephew of Napoleon I). Although elected as president of the Second Republic in 1848, he seized power in a bloodless coup-d’état in 1851 and crowned himself Emperor, initiating the short lived Second Empire. He had already fought a successful war in Italy to aid the Italian nationalists in ejecting the Austrian army from northern Italy and speeding Italian Unification as well his attempt to install Maximillian Hapsburg as Emperor of Mexico he was also the prime mover in the coalition that fought Russia in the Crimean war.

Prussia was then a monarchy under William I, but real power lay in the hands of his formidable Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. Territorially enlarged from wars with Austria and Denmark, and rapidly industrialising – Prussia was the “Tiger” economy of 19th century Europe, riding a wave of German nationalism as head of the North German Confederation – a growing and ever present threat to the pre-eminence of France in European power politics.

When war broke out in 1870, the French appeared the stronger side – the two armies where evenly matched in size (900,000 French v 1.2m Prussians, Wurttenburgers and Bavarians), but the French had the interior lines and a much shorter route to the frontier. In addition, the French army was 50% regular troops, whilst the bulk of German force was conscript. In weapons the French had a clear advantage – the German Dreyse rifle that had decimated the Austrians at Sadowa was now outclassed by the French Chassepot – the best in the world also the French possessed the Mitrailleuse, an early form of machine gun. The Prussians for their part had the steel barrelled breech loading Krupp six-pounder artillery piece that fired contact detonating shells, whilst the French still used bronze cast muzzle loaders. The greatest advantage the Prussians had however was their leaders – they had the only professional general staff in Europe – the speed and efficiency of their mobilisation plus their adaptable tactics where to prove the decisive factor from day one.

Only partly mobilised and badly organised, the French Army of the Rhine was divided into two wings – one under Marshall McMahon and accompanied by Louis Napoleon the other, commanded by Marshall Bazaine and under huge political pressure, attacked first and crossed the border to occupy the manufacturing town of Saarbrucken. Rapidly outnumbered by the speedy Prussian mobilisation, the French fell back fighting a series of rear-guard actions as the Prussians, many deployed by rail, started to pour across the border. The fast moving Prussian columns surrounded them and used their superior artillery to destroy most of the French army at the catastrophic defeats of Metz and Sedan in September 1870, after just 3 months of war, with Louis Napoleon himself among the captured. Von Moltke is reputed to have said to a captured French officer after Sedan “If my army had your rifles, I would have won this war in three weeks, and if your army had my generals then you would have won in two weeks!”

What was left of the French army fell back into the defences of Paris. Completely cut off from outside supplies and able to communicate only by hot air balloon or carrier pigeon, the French held out from Sept until January of the following year, by which time much of Paris had been damaged by artillery bombardment and food was running out. The city was surrounded by 240,000 regulars of the pan German force and its defences contained 200,000 French regulars, plus another 200,000 militia and sailors 640,000 in total. French defeat brought about German re-unification plus the loss of Alsace – Lorraine and a huge indemnity (5 billion francs) the re-building of Berlin was paid for largely with the French indemnity. The most important consequence however was the proclamation of the 19th century German Empire – the Second Reich – in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.

Dresden and Leipzig (1813)

The four day battle fought near Leipzig, Germany in October 1813 was also known as the Battle of the Nations, and was far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, and the largest pitched battle of the whole century. It was the decisive engagement of the Sixth Coalition war, fought by the allied powers to finish off Napoleon after his defeat in Russia. Just two weeks after Napoleon’s return from Russia a coalition formed consisting of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, Sicily and Sardinia to capitalise on his defeat and finish him off. Napoleon, who still had a few allies (Kingdom of Italy, Duchy of Warsaw, Naples, Denmark-Norway, Switzerland, Confederation of the Rhine) was able to put 900,000 troops into the field against about 1 million allied troops, although this number swelled as the war went on and Napoleon’s allies began to defect – the allies swelled to 1.2m, whilst Napoleon’s army reduced to 400,000.

The war was fought on three fronts. In Dec 1813, Swedish troops attacked the Danes in Holstein and fought the battles of Bornhoved (Swedish victory) and Sehested (Danish victory). By the terms of a separate treaty after the war in 1814, Denmark was forced to cede Norway, which had been previously ruled by Sweden during the 17 th century. The Norwegians however rejected this and declared independence and this led to a Swedish invasion of Norway which restored rule from Stockholm and left Norway part of Sweden until 1905 when it regained its independence.

Meanwhile, in Iberia, A force of British and Portuguese regulars with Spanish partisans led by Arthur Wellesley had been tasked with completing the ejection of the French, begun in 1808. Allied victories at Burga and Vitoria where 100,000 allied troops (50% British, 25% each Spanish and Portuguese) defeated 65,000 French were followed by the Spanish capture of Pancorbo the following month. Despite a French fightback at the battles of Maya and Roncesvalles, by October 1813 the allies were across the Bidasoa river and into France proper.

The main action however took place in Germany. Napoleon invaded Prussia with a force of 400,000 in April 1813 and defeated the allies at Lutzen and Bautzen, inflicting heavy casualties a brief armistice was declared in June with the combined casualties from April having now reaching 250,000. When fighting resumed in August, Napoleon with 135,000 defeated 214,000 Austrians, Russians and Prussians at the two day battle of Dresden but weakened by his losses and lacking cavalry he withdrew 190,000 of his force to Leipzig in Saxony, where he was finally cornered by 430,000 Russian, Austrian, Prussian and Swedish troops (although 50% of the allied force was Russian). The resultant four day battle completely destroyed Napoleon’s force and he was compelled to flee. The following year, 1814, the allies invaded France and finally forced Napoleon to abdicate on 6 th April 1814 – to be exiled to the Italian island of Elba, whilst the Bourbon monarchy was restored in France.

Sadowa, Czech Republic (1866)

Known also the Battle of Konnigratz, it was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian war. Fought less than 12 months after the end of the Civil War in America, it had more than twice the number of combatants as that war’s largest battle – The Seven Days, Virginia (1863) which had 190,000. Austria’s defeat is regarded as an important milestone in the development of Prussian and, ultimately, German nationalism. The conflict marked the end of Austrian ambitions to be the leader of the huge collection of German speaking states that the medieval German empire (the First Reich) had collapsed into after the devastation of the Thirty Years War in the 17th century. The emerging power of Prussia, now rapidly industrialising and, with possession of the coal fields of Silesia, taken from the Austrians a century earlier, now became the clear leader among the German states. Fought in a single day near the village of Sadowa in Bohemia 221,000 Prussians, armed with rapid firing, breech loading Dreyse rifles beat 206,000 Austrians and Saxons still armed with muzzle loading musket-rifles the Austrians suffering 44,000 casualties, against only 9,000 Prussian. The aftermath of the battle led directly to the formation of North German Confederation and fostered the idea of “little-Germany” nationalism – the idea of unification of German speakers, but without Austria. It was also an important pre-cursor conflict to the Franco – Prussian war four years later.

Gravellotte, Metz, Sedan (1870)

Marshall Bazaine’s early advance into Saarland was quickly reversed as the German commander von Moltke deployed his huge force to outflank and surround them. The French rapidly withdrew across the border with the Prussians in pursuit on 4 th August von Moltke attacked part of McMahon’s army at Wissembourg in the first major battle of the war. 8,000 French troops with 12 guns fortified the small town and fought hand to hand in the streets against 60,000 Germans. The local populace, trapped in the town during the fighting were eventually so sickened by the slaughter around them, that they formerly surrendered the town to the Germans to stop the bloodshed.

Further Prussian victories at Worth and Spickeren left Bazaine’s force falling back towards the fortress of Metz and led to the two interlinked battles of Mars-Le-Tour and Gravellotte. At the second of these the French were finally able to establish an effective defensive posture and took a heavy toll of the Prussian infantry, who lost 20,000 casualties to Chassepot and Mitrailleuse fire against 12,000 of their own, almost all of those from artillery fire . Although a tactical French victory, Baziane’s army had been badly mauled and fell back to the defences of Metz to regroup and await re-enforcements from McMahon.

Von Moltke, like Grant at Fort Donaldson in 1862 or O’Connor in the western desert in 1940, realised that by quick manoeuvre he could cut off the routes into the town and turn a fortress into a prison. Quickly surrounding Metz he trapped 190,000 French troops in the fortifications of a small town designed to hold a tenth of that number.

The newly formed French Army of Chalons commanded by McMahon made two attempts to relieve Metz, the first was defeated at Beaumont-en-Argonne whilst the second occurred close to the fortress of Sedan where McMahon’s main force was deployed. Again, the battle centered on a small town, in this case Bazeilles, who’s populace where trapped in the town during the fighting and helped the army build barricades as the battle commenced with a street by street fight for the town. The fighting spread south from the town into the countryside with McMahon himself wounded – under heavy Prussian artillery fire, the French were finally driven inside the defences of Sedan, where they were rapidly surrounded and cut off from any relief. The following day, 2 nd September, 120,000 men of the army of Chalons surrendered along with their commander McMahon and their Emperor Louis Napoleon. Shortly afterwards, and facing starvation, the 190,000 troops in Metz also surrendered.

With the fall of Sedan, the bulk of France’s field army had been lost after just 3 months of war on the following day, 3 rd September the news of Louis Napoleon’s capture reached Paris and a bloodless coup-d’état ensued led by Trochu, Favre and Gambetta that overthrew Louis Napoleon and proclaimed the Third Republic, plus a determination to continue the war. Just as in 1940 after Dunkirk, the small remnant of the regular army that survived fought back with near fanatical bravery, but it was too late. Once they had fallen back to the defences of Paris, their fate was sealed. Louis Napoleon was to go into exile after the war in Britain, where he lived at Camden House, Chislehurst until his death in 1873, referring several times in his last words to Sedan.

Solferino (1859)

Louis Napoleon is remembered as the loser at Sedan, but he was no fool, he had his successes too. One of these was his assistance to the Italian independence struggle, Il Risorgimento (“the Resurgence”). Italy had long been divided into petty states that individually fell prey to many foreign powers over the centuries – Spanish, French and Austrian – and its independence movement was initially looked on favourably by France and Britain, but neither were prepared to do anything to upset the Austrians. Consequently the First Italian Independence war, fought by the leading Italian state, Piedmont to drive the Austrians from Lombardy and Venice, failed through lack of great power support.

The situation was brought home to Louis Napoleon personally in 1858, when an attempt was made on his life this shocked Napoleon into realising that the Italian situation would spiral out of control if not resolved and he determined to aid the nationalists in the hope of acquiring a useful ally in the new Italy and seriously diminishing his rival Austria in the process. Piedmont had previously been an ally for the French in the Crimean war it also had a railway line designed by Brunel.

Thus was set the scene for the Second Italian Independence war, the decisive engagement of which was the seventh largest battle of the 19 th century, fought near the villages of Solferino and San Martino, south of Lake Garda between Milan and Verona.

In 1858, Louis Napoleon concluded a secret treaty with the Comte di Cavour, prime minister of Piedmont that France would aid the Italians in ejecting the Austrians from Lombardy and Venice, whilst receiving the provinces of Nice and Savoy in return. Napoleon committed half the French army – 130,000 men, plus brought along 70,000 Sardinian troops against 240,000 Austrians.

At the outbreak of war, there were no French troops in Italy, so the French commander, McMahon organised a mass deployment by rail into Piedmont to link up with the Sardinians. The first major clash was at the battle fought for the railway junction at Magenta, near Milan in June 1859 where McMahon’s 60,000 men defeated 125,000 Austrians and shortly afterwards occupied Milan. The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I now personally took command of his army, the last European battle in which two monarchs personally led their armies against each other.

Attempting to counter – attack after their defeat at Magenta, they ran into the French at Solferino and were drawn into a confused and fast moving fight for three small towns Solferino, Cavriana and Volta Mantovana. Badly mauled, the Austrians drew off beyond the Micinio and Po rivers and, at the treaty of Villafranca in July 1859 ceded Lombardy to the Piedmontese, but not Venice. The Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed two years later, in 1861.

The battle will remain best known however, for the visit to battlefield after the conclusion by a Swiss businessman and philanthropist where he witnessed the suffering of the battle’s estimated 30,000 casualties and was moved to found an organisation to relieve their suffering who took it’s symbol from the reverse colours of the Swiss flag. The businessman was Henri Dunant and the organisation he founded was the Red Cross.

Wagram (1809)

During the Fourth Coalition war, and after Napoleon’s success against the Austrians at Ulm and Austerlitz in 1805, Austria had been left subdued, and the Emperor turned his attention to Prussia. At the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt Napoleon’s 120,000 French troops defeated 110,000 Prussians and Saxons so comprehensively that Berlin was occupied shortly afterwards and Prussia reduced to a French vassal state, which it would remain until the Sixth Coalition war in 1812. The trauma that Prussia suffered during the Napoleonic occupation acted as a spur to the modernisation of the state – later reformers such as Clausewitz , Scharnhorst and Gneisenau served in the army and were profoundly affected by it, as was the philosopher Hegel who called it “the end of history”.

Wagram was the main engagement of the Fifth Coalition War, and was fought in 1809 the coalition consisted of Austria, Great Britain, Spain, Sicily, Sardinia and Brunswick against a French led alliance with Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of the Rhine, Italy, Naples, Switzerland and Holland.

The war was fought on two fronts. In Iberia, both Spain and Portugal had been invaded a few years earlier and the small British force driven out, when Napoleon entered Madrid at the head of 80,000 troops having first fomented a coup. By 1809, however, the British had returned and with Arthur Wellesley in command set about the recovery of Portugal, after Marshall Soult had invaded again. Wellesley’s Anglo-Portuguese force defeated Soult at Grijo and Porto in May, whilst Marshall Ney with another French force was defeated by the Spanish at Puente Sanpayo. With Portugal secure, Wellesley pushed on into Spain and linked up with Spanish partisans. The costly British victory at Talvera forced Wellesley’s hasty retreat after the battle with French re-enforcements nearby, but the essential objective, that of liberating Portugal, had been achieved.

Buoyed by allied success in Iberia, and heavily subsidised by the British, the Austrians made their move by invading Napoleon’s ally, Bavaria in March 1809. The Austrians massed their army in Bohemia on the frontier of Prussia, then a French vassal, in the hope that it would foment an anti – French revolt and bring in Prussia on the allied side, but this never happened. Also, Austrian hopes of assistance from the Russians were dashed by the fact that they were technically at war with Britain, which also meant that Britain’s ally Sweden would not intervene either. Nonetheless, the speed of the Austrian advance across the Inn river caught the French by surprise and at first they fell back as a series of mistakes by the French commander Berthier allowed the Austrians to occupy the old imperial capital of Regensberg. Napoleon himself arrived in Bavaria on 17 th April to take command and launched a series of counterattacks that resulted in the French victories at the battles of Eckmuhl and Ebersberg and re-took Regensberg while the battered remains of the Austrian army fled back across the border.

Pursuing them, Napoleon crossed into Austria and, on the 13 th May occupied Vienna for the second time in four years. Despite a failed attempt to cross the Danube that resulted in the battle of Aspern-Essling (Napoleon’s first significant battle defeat), the French retained the initiative and crossed the Danube in force in June and resumed the offensive. The two armies finally met near the village of Wagram north east of Vienna where 140,000 French fought a two day battle against 160,000 Austrians resulting in a decisive French victory with high casualties on both sides (80,000 in total), mostly caused by artillery fire into the packed ranks of 300,000 troops crammed into a battlefield just a few miles across.

Napoleon imposed harsh terms on the Austrians taking provinces containing 20% of Austria’s population and leaving them bankrupt. Despite his overwhelming success, the Fifth Coalition war was to prove the high water mark for French ambitions – just three years later Napoleon embarked on his disastrous Russian campaign, followed by the cataclysm of the Sixth Coalition war in 1813/14 that climaxed with the battle of Leipzig and the eventual fall of France and Napoleon’s abdication in April 1814.


The Battle of Jena-Auerstädt: 14 Oct 1806

The Battle of Jena-Auerstädt was fought in Germany on 1806 between the French Imperial Army and the Prussian Royal Army. It is actually two separate battles separated by about twenty miles. Both the French and Prussian armies were split leading to two separate engagements one was fought by Napoleon and Davout commanded the French Corps at Auerstädt. The battle at Jena was the larger of the two as far as forces involved are concerned but the action at Auerstädt was operationally the more decisive. Combined, the Prussians suffered a devastating defeat that they could not recover from and led to the virtual surrender of the kingdom in the face of Napoleons demands at Tilsit a little over three months later. It is simpler to look at the two engagements separately and then talk about the way the twin defeats affected the Prussians and French. One of the important things about the battle is the impetus to reform given to the Prussians after their defeat. They went to war against Napoleon in 1805 with an army that was essentially unchanged in structure and doctrine from the one Frederick II had used fifty years previously during the invasion of Silesia and Seven Years War.

Relative locations of the engagements on 14 Oct 1806

I will discuss the Battle at Jena to begin with. Not only were there more forces engaged there, that was where Napoleon was in command. Some sources claim Napoleon displayed his typical brilliance at Jena, I am not so sure. The fighting at Jena began early in the morning and continued through the afternoon. The Prussians pressed attacks home but they were continually thrown back by French artillery fire. The Prussians also suffered from the effect of the fire from French skirmishers.1 The decisive moment at Jena was when several commanders of the Prussian left were killed or wounded. This led to the collapse of that flank and after that it was all over except for the crying as the saying goes. The French pressed their advantage and this led to a Prussian retreat all along their front that quickly started to look like a rout, especially once the French cavalry started attacking and pursuing the retreating Prussians.

The battle at Auerstädt some 12 Kilometers north of the main battle at Jena was a slightly different affair but the results in the end were the same. At Auerstädt, the Prussians actually had numerical superiority and could have perhaps avoided complete defeat if their senior commanders had actually worked together instead of at cross purposes. Marshall Davout commanded the French forces and he handled his troops extremely well. He was also assisted by the overall greater unity of command in the French army. Davout achieved a defensive victory and then followed it up with an offensive late in the day that caused the Prussian army to essentially rout and leave the field in a rush.

The Prussian army was pretty much destroyed as a fighting force after Jena-Auerstädt. The French literally had their way with Prussia over the next two months as the remnants of the Prussian army fought several small delaying actions as the bulk of the army attempted to escape to the east and safety in Russia along with the Prussian king. That destruction, wand the consequent elimination of Prussia from the Second Coalition was the greatest effect of the battle. The long-term consequence was that Prussia significantly reformed their army and was in a position less than seven years later to be instrumental in the final coalition to defeat napoleon both in the 1813 campaign and again at Waterloo at the end of the Hundred Days.

A good resource with driving guides if you happen to visit the battlefield can be found at www.Napoleon.org

One of these days, I am going to actually take the time to drive the hour and a half from my house to the battlefield and do an in-depth analysis with photos. Nevertheless, like everything else, I am hampered by time. When I do, I will be sure to post an update to the relatively broad, operational/strategic analysis presented here. My real love is the tactical side of military history anyway.

1. Cark, Christopher, Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600-1947. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press 2006. 296-298


The Battle of Jena

French troops under Napoleon smashed the outdated Prussian army led by Charles William Ferdinand at the Battle of Jena.

The Battle of Jena, also called Battle of Jena-Auerstädt, (Oct. 14, 1806), military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars, fought between 122,000 French troops and 114,000 Prussians and Saxons, at Jena and Auerstädt, in Saxony (modern Germany). In the battle, Napoleon smashed the outdated Prussian army inherited from Frederick II the Great, which resulted in the reduction of Prussia to half its former size at the Treaty of Tilsit in July 1807.

The battles began when elements of Napoleon’s main force encountered Hohenlohe’s troops near Jena. Initially only 48,000 strong, the Emperor took advantage of his carefully planned and flexible dispositions to rapidly build up a superior force of 96,000 men. The Prussians were slow to grasp the situation, and slower still to react. Before Ruchel’s 15,000 men could arrive from Weimar, Hohenlohe’s force of 38,000 was routed, with 10,000 killed or wounded and 15,000 captured. Nevertheless, it was a fierce battle, with 5,000 French losses, and Napoleon mistakenly believed that he had faced the main body of the Prussian army.

Further north at Auerstedt, both Davout and Bernadotte received orders to come to Napoleon’s aid. Davout attempted to comply via Eckartsberga, Bernadotte via Dornburg. Davout’s route south, however, was blocked by the Prussian main force of 60,500 men, including the Prussian King, the Duke of Brunswick and Field Marshals von Möllendorf and von Kalckreuth. A savage battle ensued. Although outnumbered two to one, Davout’s superbly trained and disciplined III Corps endured repeated attacks before it eventually took the offensive and put the Prussians to flight. Though within earshot of both battles, Marshal Bernadotte controversially took no steps to come to Davout’s aid, refusing to take the initiative and instead adhering to the last written set of Napoleon’s orders.

Rescaldo

French troops presenting the captured Prussian standards to Napoleon after the battle of Jena.

Napoleon initially did not believe that Davout’s single Corps had defeated the Prussian main body unaided and responded to the first report by saying “Your Marshal must be seeing double!”, a reference to Davout’s poor eyesight. As matters became clearer, however, the Emperor was unstinting in his praise. Davout was made Duke of Auerstedt. Lannes, the hero of Jena, was not so honored.

Bernadotte’s lack of action was controversial within a week of the twin battles. Bernadotte had last received positive written orders on the day before the battle in which his I Corps, along with Davout’s III Corps, were to lay astride the Prussians’ projected line of retreat. He was the only Marshal not to receive updated, written orders on the night of 13 October. In the early hours of October 14th, Davout received a courier from Berthier in which he wrote: “If the Prince of Ponte Corvo [Bernadotte] is with you, you may both march together, but the Emperor hopes that he will be in the position which had been indicated at Dornburg.” Davout thence relayed this order to Bernadotte when the next met at 0400 the same morning. Bernadotte later cited the poorly written, equivocal nature of the verbal order, as discretionary and complied with Napoleon’s wish to be at Dornburg instead of accompanying Davout. Moreover, when told of Davout’s difficulties, Bernadotte did not believe that the Prussian main force was before III Corps as Napoleon had claimed the main body was at Jena. As a consequence, he failed to aid Davout and instead fulfilled the Emperor’s orders to position I Corps in the Prussian rear on the Heights of Apolda, which, incidentally, did have the effect intended as the Prussians at Jena withdrew once they saw French troops occupy their line of retreat.

Davout and Bernadotte later became bitter enemies as the result of Bernadotte’s perceived indifference at the fate of a fellow Marshal. For his part, Napoleon later stated on St. Helena that Bernadotte’s behavior (though he was complying with Napoleon’s orders) was disgraceful and that but for his attachment to Bernadotte’s wife, Napoleon’s own former fiancée, Desiree Clary, he would have had Bernadotte shot. However, contemporary evidence indicates that far from scenes of recriminations and insults alleged by Davout and his aides-de-Camp against Bernadotte the night of the battles, Napoleon was unaware anything was amiss, insofar as I Corps had played the part assigned to it by the Emperor, until days later. Napoleon later sent a severely worded reprimand to Bernadotte but took no further action.

Artist: Charles Meynier
Title: Entrée de Napoléon à Berlin. 27 octobre 1806 (Entry of Napoleon I into Berlin, 27th October 1806)

On the Prussian side, Brunswick was mortally wounded at Auerstedt, and over the next few days, the remaining forces were unable to mount any serious resistance to Murat’s ruthless cavalry pursuit. In the Capitulation of Erfurt on 16 October, a large body of Prussian troops became prisoners with hardly a shot being fired. Bernadotte crushed Eugene Frederick Henry, Duke of Württemberg’s Prussian Reserve Army on the 17th in the Battle of Halle, partially redeeming himself in Napoleon’s eyes. In recognition of his glorious victory at Auerstadt, Napoleon gave Davout the honor of entering Berlin first. Davout led his exhausted III Corps into Berlin in triumph on 25 October. Hohenlohe’s force surrendered on 28 October after the Battle of Prenzlau, followed soon after by the Capitulation of Pasewalk. The French ran down and captured several small Prussian columns at Boldekow on 30 October, Anklam on 1 November, Wolgast on 3 November, and Wismar on 5 November.

21,000 Prussian field troops remained at large west of the Oder as November began under the command of Gebhard Blücher. French advances prevented his corps from crossing the Oder, or moving toward Stettin to seek waterborne transport to East Prussia. Bernadotte began a relentless pursuit of Blücher, with the two forces engaging in several holding actions, and was later joined by Murat and Soult in “The Pursuit of the Three Marshals.” Blücher then moved west to cross into neutral Denmark but the Danes placed their army on the border with the intent of attacking any force that tried to cross it. The Prussians then violated the neutrality of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck and fortified it with the intent of joining forces with an allied Swedish contingent there on its way home, and commandeering ships in the hopes of reaching a safe harbor. However, Blücher and Winning’s corps was surrounded and destroyed in what became the Battle of Lübeck on 6 and 7 November after Bernadotte’s I Corps, still smarting from the Emperor’s censure, stormed the fortified city gates, poured into the streets and squares breaking hasty attempts at resistance and captured Blücher’s command post (and his Chief of Staff Gerhard von Scharnhorst) as Soult’s troops blocked all escape routes. The Prussians lost 3000 killed and wounded. On the morning of 7 November, with all hope of escape extinguished, Blücher surrendered personally to Bernadotte and went into captivity with 9,000 other Prussian prisoners of war. The Siege of Magdeburg ended on 11 November with Ney’s capture of the fortress. Isolated Prussian resistance remained, but Napoleon’s primary foe was now Russia, and the Battle of Eylau and the Battle of Friedland awaited.


References [ edit | editar fonte]

Chandler was used almost exclusively for the French order of battle. Smith was used for the Prussian order of battle, except that Chandler's artillery compositions are given. Smith's Prussian strengths are used, which are lower than Chandler's.

    Jena 1806: Napoleon Destroys Prussia. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 2005. ISBN 0-275-98612-8 . Napoleon's Conquest of Prussia 1806. London: Lionel Leventhal Ltd., 1993 (1907). ISBN 1-85367-145-2
  • (French) Pigeard, Alain. Dictionnaire des batailles de Napoléon. Tallandier, Bibliothèque Napoleonienne, 2004. ISBN 1-85367-145-2 . The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill Books, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-276-9


Assista o vídeo: Battle of Jena 1806 - Napoleon Total War NTW 3 Historical Battle (Setembro 2022).


Comentários:

  1. Nikozilkree

    E você tentou fazer?

  2. Jermane

    Tenho certeza que você não está certo.

  3. Nicol

    Coisas inteligentes, fala)

  4. Gaspar

    I think this is a wonderful idea

  5. Beaumains

    Obrigado pela sua ajuda neste assunto. Eu não sabia disso.



Escreve uma mensagem

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos