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4 de abril de 1940

4 de abril de 1940


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4 de abril de 1940

Abril de 1940

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Grã Bretanha

O governo forma uma empresa para manter o comércio com os Balcãs durante a guerra



Ecos assustadores do terrível acidente de trem de Little Falls em 1940

1 de 3 Página interna do Times Union de 21 de abril de 1940, mostrando o acidente fatal de trem em Little Falls, NY, onde um New York Central Lake Shore Limited descarrilou e cruzou dois trilhos matando 30, incluindo o engenheiro, e ferindo 100 em 19 de abril de 1940. (Times Union) Mostrar mais Mostrar menos

2 de 3 Primeira página do Times Union de 21 de abril de 1940, mostrando o acidente fatal de trem em Little Falls, NY, onde um West West Central Lake Shore Limited descarrilou e cruzou dois trilhos matando 30, incluindo o engenheiro, e ferindo 100 em 19 de abril de 1940. (Times Union) Mostrar mais Mostrar menos

A Lake Shore Limited estava 21 minutos atrasada quando saiu de Albany às 22h09. em 19 de abril de 1940, varrido por granizo e neve úmida.

O engenheiro veterano Jesse Earl, 65, de Albany, um mês antes de se aposentar, estava ansioso para recuperar o tempo perdido. Ele empurrou o acelerador no motor nº 5315 até que ele se lançou através da escuridão tempestuosa a mais de 70 mph.

Quase 200 pessoas estavam a bordo do trem de 15 carros. Alguns passageiros dormiam em beliches nas nove travessas do Pullman, adormecidos pelo balanço suave enquanto o trem agitava-se através do Vale Mohawk, com destino a Chicago.

Earl tinha feito essa corrida centenas de vezes, sem incidentes, e estava ciente da necessidade de diminuir a velocidade do trem para menos de 72 km / h na curva acentuada e traiçoeira 72 milhas a oeste de Albany em Little Falls, onde a trilha ficava espremida entre um penhasco da rocha e do Canal Erie. Era conhecida como a Curva do Golfo. E foi temido.

Foi o local de um acidente de trem mortal em 1903 e a New York Central Railroad & mdash "rápido e seguro" foi seu lema & mdash impôs uma velocidade mais baixa na curva de Little Falls em resposta.

Tentando economizar minutos preciosos, Earl esperou até que estivesse a um quilômetro da curva antes de pisar no freio. O trem estava viajando a mais de 60 mph e talvez tão rápido quanto 125 mph & mdash quase o dobro da velocidade recomendada & mdash quando o motor descarrilou e a locomotiva bateu no penhasco. Ele explodiu em uma enorme bola de fogo de chamas laranja-azuladas e fumaça preta acre que foi vista e ouvida por quilômetros ao redor.

Carros e trilhos de aço se soltaram com a força traumática e se amontoaram em uma pilha retorcida de metal rasgado e triturado que enviou um guincho mecânico agudo e agudo que ecoou pelo vale. O barulho nauseante foi seguido pelos gritos abafados e lamentosos dos feridos.

O "pior desastre de trem do século" deixou 31 mortos e quase 140 feridos. Earl, o engenheiro, morreu no acidente, mas uma longa investigação concluiu que a causa era velocidade excessiva e erro humano.

Bernard J. Malone Jr. cresceu em Little Falls e se lembra de ter ouvido seu falecido pai contar histórias sobre a retirada de corpos dos destroços há 75 anos.

"Ele era um jovem advogado da cidade que atendeu a uma sirene e pediu que homens aptos corressem para a Curva do Golfo porque havia ocorrido um terrível acidente", disse Malone, um juiz da Divisão de Apelação da Suprema Corte estadual aposentado que nasceu três anos após o naufrágio. Seu pai, Bernard J. Malone Sênior, morreu em 2004.

Malone disse que seu pai falou sobre o que testemunhou após a catástrofe do trem em Little Falls, da mesma forma que falou sobre suas experiências na Segunda Guerra Mundial.

"Ele falava sobre isso apenas quando perguntado, sem muitos detalhes", disse Malone. Seu pai disse a Malone e seus irmãos quando eles estavam crescendo para ficar longe do local do acidente. "Ele disse que era muito perigoso."

Quando Malone, agora conselheiro sênior do escritório de advocacia Whiteman Osterman & amp Hanna em Albany, viu a notícia na TV do acidente mortal de terça-feira na Filadélfia & mdash que matou oito pessoas e feriu mais de 200 & mdash, ele teve uma sensação inquietante em seu estômago. Ele foi jogado de volta a uma infância moldada pelos horríveis destroços de Little Falls na Curva do Golfo.

Na terça-feira, o engenheiro Brandon Bostian, 32, de Queens, estava viajando a 106 mph & mdash mais do que o dobro do limite de velocidade de 50 mph & mdash quando entrou em uma curva acentuada e o trem descarrilou.

"Tudo que eu conseguia pensar era Little Falls e os destroços da Curva do Golfo", disse Malone. "Há algo terrivelmente errado nesta era de tecnologia avançada, quando um jovem é colocado em uma situação em que isso pode acontecer novamente."

O historiador ferroviário Richard Barrett, de Colonie, ficou igualmente preocupado com os ecos assustadores entre acidentes atribuídos à velocidade excessiva nas curvas e erro humano, que incluem o acidente fatal em Little Falls 75 anos atrás, um acidente de 2013 de um trem Metro-North Railroad com clock de 82 mph em uma curva de 30 mph que matou quatro pessoas e feriu mais de 70 no Bronx e no acidente de terça-feira na curva da Filadélfia.

"A queda de Little Falls foi uma cicatriz horrível na face do New York Central e ainda levou sete anos antes que eles gastassem o dinheiro e endireitassem a curva do Golfo", disse Barrett, um administrador da Sociedade Histórica do Sistema Central de Nova York. Ele participou da convenção da sociedade em Utica de 1 a 3 de maio e os membros visitaram o local do acidente de Little Falls, onde há uma placa comemorativa.

"Erro humano e velocidade excessiva nas curvas continuam a causar acidentes fatais de trens 75 anos depois de Little Falls", disse Barrett. "Como o engenheiro da Filadélfia não percebeu que estava fazendo o dobro do limite de velocidade na curva da Filadélfia? É assustador que tudo se resume a uma pessoa porque os humanos cometem erros. Eles adormecem. Eles cochilam. Eles zonham. Eles se distraem no celular. "

Barrett há muito é um defensor do controle positivo de trens, ou PTC, um sistema que monitora e controla a operação de um trem e pode substituir um engenheiro aplicando freios em casos de velocidade excessiva se aproximando de curvas fechadas.

"A história continua se repetindo desde 1940 e o naufrágio de Little Falls", disse Barrett. "A tecnologia existe. O PTC está atrasado. Não há razão para não usá-lo."

Barrett observou naquele mesmo trecho de trilhos no bairro de Port Richmond, na Filadélfia, em 6 de setembro de 1943, a Pennsylvania Railroad's Congressional Limited descarrilou depois que um eixo superaqueceu e quebrou, causando um acidente que matou 79 pessoas e feriu 117 outras. Foi um dos piores desastres ferroviários da história dos Estados Unidos.

"Documentários sobre os piores desastres de trem sempre mostram os acidentes do Congressional Limited e de Little Falls", disse Barrett. "Infelizmente, não aprendemos as lições da história."


4 de abril de 1940 - História

Aniversários famosos por mês:

1º de abril de 1815 - Otto von Bismarck, chanceler alemão, estadista

1 de abril de 1928 - Jane Powell, atriz / cantora

1 de abril de 1932 - Debbie Reynolds, atriz

1 de abril de 1939 - Ali MacGraw, atriz

1 de abril de 1947 - David Eisenhower, autor, neto do Pres. Dwight Eisenhower

1º de abril de 1963 - o General Hospital estreou na televisão.

2 de abril de 1513 - Ponce de Leon descobre a Flórida.

2 de abril de 1805 - Hans Christian Anderson, autor infantil

2 de abril de 1834 - Frederic Auguste Bartholdi esculpiu a estátua da liberdade

2 de abril de 1908 - Buddy Ebsen, ator

2 de abril de 1914 - Sir Alec Guinness, ator

2 de abril de 1920 - Jack Webb, ator, "Joe Friday" na série de TV "Dragnet"

2 de abril de 1939 - Marvin Gaye, cantor

2 de abril de 1955 - Dana Carvey, ator, comediante

3 de abril de 1783 - Washington Irving, autor

3 de abril de 1924 - Marlon Brando, ator

3 de abril de 1924 - Doris Day, atriz e cantora americana

3 de abril de 1926 - Virgil "Gus" Grissom, astronauta, morreu em um incêndio durante uma simulação a bordo da Apollo 1

3 de abril de 1942 - Wayne Newton, cantor e ator

3 de abril de 1944 - Tony Orlando, cantor

3 de abril de 1958 - Alec Baldwin, ator americano

3 de abril de 1961 - Eddie Murphy, ator americano, comediante

3 de abril de 1970 - Rick Schroder, ator

3 de abril de 1971 - Rua Picabo, esquiador campeão olímpico

4 de abril de 1895 - Arthur Murray, estúdio de dança famoso

4 de abril de 1906 - John Cameron Swayze, âncora de noticiários de TV

4 de abril de 1915 - Muddy Waters, cantor de blues

4 de abril de 1924 - Gil Hodges, jogador de beisebol, gerente

4 de abril de 1926 - Cloris Leachman, atriz

4 de abril de 1946 - Craig T. Nelson, ator

4 de abril de 1965 - Robert Downey Jr., ator

5 de abril de 1900 - Spencer Tracy, ator

5 de abril de 1908 - Bette Davis, atriz

5 de abril de 1916 - Gregory Peck, ator

5 de abril de 1920 - Arthur Hailey, autor

5 de abril de 1934 - Frank Gorshin, ator, comediante

5 de abril de 1937 - Colin Powell, Presidente da Junta de Chefes de Estado-Maior, Secretário de Estado

5 de abril de 1941 - Michael Moriarty, ator

5 de abril de 1949 - Judith Resnick, astronauta, morreu na explosão do ônibus espacial Challenger

6 de abril de 1483 - Rafael (Sanzio), pintor italiano, arquiteto

6 de abril de 1870 - Oskar Straus, compositor austríaco

6 de abril de 1892 - Lowell Thomas, locutor, jornalista

6 de abril de 1928 - James D. Watson, bioquímico, co-descobriu a estrutura do DNA

6 de abril de 1937 - Merle Haggard, cantor e compositor

6 de abril de 1937 - Billy Dee Williams, ator

6 de abril de 1947 - John Ratzenberger, ator

6 de abril de 1952 - Marilu Henner, atriz

6 de abril de 1976 - Candace Cameron, atriz

7 de abril de 742 - Carlos Magno, Rei dos Francos

7 de abril de 1770 - William Wordsworth, poeta, filósofo

7 de abril de 1897 - Walter Winchell, jornalista, locutor

7 de abril de 1915 - Billie Holiday, cantora de jazz

7 de abril de 1928 - James Garner, ator

7 de abril de 1933 - Wayne Rogers, ator

7 de abril de 1939 - Francis Ford Coppola, cineasta

7 de abril de 1951 - Janis Ian, cantora e compositora

7 de abril de 1954 - Jackie Chan, ator

7 de abril de 1964 - Russell Crowe, ator

8 de abril de 563 aC - Buda (Siddhartha Gautama), líder religioso, fundado no budismo

8 de abril de 1918 - Betty Ford, primeira-dama dos Estados Unidos

8 de abril de 1928 - John Gavin, ator

8 de abril de 1938 - Kofi Annan, Secretário Geral da ONU

8 de abril de 1940 - John Havlicek, jogador de basquete

8 de abril de 1963 - Julian Lennon, cantor, músico, filho de John e Cynthia Lennon

8 de abril de 1968 - Patricia Arquette, atriz vencedora do Oscar

9 de abril de 1879 - W. C. Fields, ator

9 de abril de 1883 - Frank King, cartunista, criou "Gasoline Alley"

9 de abril de 1926 - Hugh Hefner, editor da Playboy

9 de abril de 1928 - Tom Lehrer, compositor

9 de abril de 1939 - Michael Learned, atriz

9 de abril de 1954 - Dennis Quaid, ator

9 de abril de 1957 - Seve Ballesteros, jogador de golfe

10 de abril de 1794 - O Comodoro Matthew Perry abre relações navais com o Japão

10 de abril de 1847 - Joseph Pulitzer, jornalista, editor

10 de abril de 1882 - Frances Perkins, primeira mulher membro do gabinete dos EUA - Secretária do Trabalho

10 de abril de 1915 - Harry Morgan, ator

10 de abril de 1921 - Chuck Connors, ator

10 de abril de 1932 - Omar Sharif, ator

10 de abril de 1936 - John Madden, treinador de futebol, locutor esportivo

10 de abril de 1938 - Don Meredith, jogador de futebol, locutor esportivo

10 de abril de 1951 - Steven Seagal, ator

10 de abril de 1982 - Atriz, & quotGrey's Anatomy & quot, & quotThe Practice & quot.

11 de abril de 1913 - Oleg Cassini, estilista

11 de abril de 1928 - Ethel Kennedy, esposa do senador Robert F. Kennedy

11 de abril de 1932 - Joel Gray, ator

11 de abril de 1939 - Louise Lasser, atriz, "Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman"

11 de abril de 1950 - Bill Irwin, ator, coreógrafo

12 de abril de 1777 - Henry Clay, estadista, presidente da Câmara

12 de abril de 1916 - Beverly Cleary, autora infantil

12 de abril de 1919 - Ann Miller, atriz, dançarina

12 de abril de 1926 - Jane Withers, atriz

12 de abril de 1930 - Tiny Tim, ator, músico, "Tip Toe through the Tulip"

12 de abril de 1947 - Tom Clancy, autor

12 de abril de 1947 - David Letterman, personalidade da TV, comediante

12 de abril de 1949 - Scott F. Turow, autor

12 de abril de 1950 - David Cassidy, cantor, ator

12 de abril de 1956 - Andy Garcia, ator

12 de abril de 1971 - Shannen Doherty, atriz, "Beverly Hills 90210"

12 de abril de 1979 - Claire Danes, atriz

13 de abril de 1743 - Thomas Jefferson, 3º presidente dos EUA (1801-1809)

13 de abril de 1866 - Butch Cassidy, fora da lei do Velho Oeste

13 de abril de 1899 - Alfred Butts, inventou o jogo de tabuleiro "Scrabble"

13 de abril de 1923 - Don Adams, ator de TV, "Maxwell Smart" em "Get Smart"

13 de abril de 1945 - Tony Dow, ator interpretou & quotWally Cleaver & quot na sitcom de televisão & quotLeave it to Beaver & quot.

13 de abril de 1950 - Ron Perlman, ator

13 de abril de 1951 - Peabo Bryson, cantor

13 de abril de 1963 - Gary Karsparov, mestre de xadrez russo

13 de abril de 1970 - Rick Shroefder, Ator, & quotSilver Spoons & quot, & quotNYPD Blue & quot.

14 de abril de 1866 - Anne Sullivan, ensinou Helen Keller

14 de abril de 1925 - Rod Steiger, ator

14 de abril de 1935 - Loretta Lynn, cantora country western

14 de abril de 1940 - Julie Christie, atriz

14 de abril de 1941 - Pete Rose, jogador de beisebol, gerente

14 de abril de 1960 - Brad Garrett, ator, "Robert & quoton série de TV" Everybody Loves Raymond "

14 de abril de 1977 - Sarah Michelle Gellar, atriz, "Buffy the Vampire Slayer"

15 de abril de 1452 - Leonardo da Vinci, artista, escultor, inventor

15 de abril de 1741 - Charles Wilson Peale, pintor de retratos

15 de abril de 1843 - Henry James, romancista, escritor de contos, crítico

15 de abril de 1894 - Nikita Khrushchev, primeiro-ministro da União Soviética, famosa citação da Guerra Fria para os EUA: & quotNós enterraremos você & quot

15 de abril de 1924 - Henry Mancini, ator norte-americano

15 de abril de 1933 - Elizabeth Montgomery, atriz, "Samantha Stevens" na série de TV "Bewitched"

15 de abril de 1933 - Roy Clark, cantor, músico

15 de abril de 1957 - Evelyn Ashford, campeã olímpica, velocista

15 de abril de 1959 - Emma Thompson, atriz vencedora do Oscar

15 de abril de 1971 - Selena Quintanilla, cantora premiada dos EUA

15 de abril de 1982 - Seth Rogen, ator

15 de abril de 1990 - Emma Thompson, atriz francesa, filmes de Harry Potter, A Bela e a Fera

16 de abril de 1867 - Wilbur Wright, aviador pioneiro

16 de abril de 1889 - Charlie Chaplin, ator cômico, cineasta

16 de abril de 1921 - Peter Ustinov, ator

16 de abril de 1924 - Henry Mancini, compositor

16 de abril de 1929 - Edie Adams, cantora, atriz

16 de abril de 1930 - Herbie Mann, músico de jazz

16 de abril de 1935 - Bobby Vinton, cantor

16 de abril de 1939 - Dusty Springfield, estrela pop britânica

16 de abril de 1947 - Kareem Abdul Jabbar, um dos maiores jogadores da história da NBA. Nasceu Frederick Lewis Alcindor Jr.

16 de abril de 1952 - Bill Belichick, treinador principal das equipes do New England Patriots Superbowl.

16 de abril de 1955 - Ellen Barkin, atriz

16 de abril de 1971 - Selena Quintanilla, popular cantora hispânica, tragicamente assassinada no auge da carreira

17 de abril de 1837 - John Pierpont Morgan, financista, filantropo

17 de abril de 1894 - Nikita Khrushchev, líder soviético, famosa citação: "Vamos enterrar você!"

17 de abril de 1897 - Thornton Wilder, dramaturgo, romancista

17 de abril de 1918 - William Holden, ator

17 de abril de 1923 - Harry Reasoner, âncora de TV, jornalista

17 de abril de 1961 - Norman "Boomer" Esiason, Quarterback da NFL

17 de abril de 1972 - Jennifer Garner, atriz, "Sidney Bristow" na série de TV "Alias"

17 de abril de 1974 - Victoria Addams, cantora, "Posh Spice" das Spice Girls

18 de abril de 1857 - Clarence Darrow, advogado

18 de abril de 1922 - Barbara Hale, atriz

18 de abril de 1946 - Jim "Catfish" Hunter, arremessador de beisebol

18 de abril de 1946 - Hayley Mills, atriz

18 de abril de 1947 - Dorothy Lyman, atriz

18 de abril de 1953 - Rick Moranis, ator, "Honey, I Shrunk the Kids"

18 de abril de 1963 - Conan O'Brien, programa de entrevistas noturno na TV

18 de abril de 1992 - Cloe Bennet, atriz interpretada em & quotAgents of & quotS.H.I.E.L.D. & Quot

19 de abril de 1903 - Eliot Ness, advogado americano

19 de abril de 1912 - Glenn T. Seaborg, químico, descobriu o plutônio

19 de abril de 1925 - Hugh O'Brien, ator

19 de abril de 1935 - Dudley Moore, ator

19 de abril de 1962 - Al Unser Jr., piloto de automóveis

19 de abril de 1968 - Ashley Judd, atriz

19 de abril de 1979 - Kate Hudson, atriz

20 de abril de 1889 - Adolf Hitler, ditador nazista da Alemanha

20 de abril de 1908 - Lionel Hampton, líder de banda, músico

20 de abril de 1941 - Ryan O'Neal, ator

20 de abril de 1949 - Jessica Lange, atriz vencedora do Oscar

20 de abril de 1951 - Luther Vandross, cantor e compositor

20 de abril de 19770 - Shemar Moore, ator, & quotS.W.A.T. & Quot, & quotCriminal Minds & quot

20 de abril de 1973 - Carmen Electra, atriz, & quotBaywatch & quot

21 de abril de 1915 - Anthony Quinn, ator

21 de abril de 1926 - Rainha Elizabeth II, Rainha da Inglaterra

21 de abril de 1935 - Charles Grodin, ator

21 de abril de 1951 - Tony Danza, ator

21 de abril de 1958 - Andie MacDowell, atriz, modelo

21 de abril de 1961 - Don Mattingly, jogador de beisebol

22 de abril de 1908 - Eddie Albert, ator

22 de abril de 1928 - Aaron Spelling, roteirista e produtor de TV

22 de abril de 1936 - Glen Campbell, cantor

22 de abril de 1936 - Jack Nicholson, ator, diretor, produtor e escritor vencedor do Oscar

22 de abril de 1939 - Jason Miller, dramaturgo, ator

22 de abril de 1950 - Peter Frampton, cantor

23 de abril de 1564 - William Shakespeare, dramaturgo, poeta. Morreu em 23 de abril de 1616.

23 de abril de 1791 - James Buchanan, 15º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1857-1861)

23 de abril de 1928 - Shirley Temple Black, atriz infantil, diplomata

23 de abril de 1936 - Roy Orbison, cantor

23 de abril de 1940 - Lee Majors, ator, "Six Million Dollar Man"

23 de abril de 1942 - Sandra Dee, atriz

23 de abril de 1960 - Valerie Bertinelli, atriz, & quotUm dia de cada vez & quot

23 de abril de 1961 - George Lopez, ator e comediante

24 de abril de 1766 - Robert Bailey Thomas, fundador e editor do "The Farmer's Almanac"

24 de abril de 1884 - Isoroku Yamamoto, comandante naval japonês que liderou a invasão de Pearl Harbor, começando a segunda guerra mundial.

24 de abril de 1905 - Robert Penn Warren, poeta, romancista

24 de abril de 1934 - Shirley MacLaine, atriz, dançarina

24 de abril de 1942 - Barbra Streisand, atriz, diretora, cantora

24 de abril de 1955 - Michael O'Keefe, ator

24 de abril de 1982 - Kelly Clarkson, primeira vencedora de "American Idol"

25 de abril de 1874 - Guglielmo Marconi, inventor, telegrafia sem fio

25 de abril de 1906 - William J. Brennan Jr., juiz da Suprema Corte

25 de abril de 1917 - Ella Fitzgerald, cantora de jazz

25 de abril de 1932 - Meadowlark Lemon, jogador de basquete, Harlem Globetrotters

25 de abril de 1940 - Al Pacino, ator

25 de abril de 1969 - Renee Zellweger, atriz vencedora do Oscar

26 de abril de 1564 - William Shakespeare, escritor e ator inglês

26 de abril de 1785 - John James Audubon, artista, naturalista

26 de abril de 1798 - Eugene Delacroix, pintor

26 de abril de 1822 - Frederick Law Olmsted, arquiteto paisagista e designer de parques

26 de abril de 1894 - Rudolf Hess, líder nazista

26 de abril de 1900 - Charles Francis Richter, físico, sismólogo, desenvolveu a escala Richter

26 de abril de 1936 - Carol Burnett, atriz, comediante

26 de abril de 1942 - Bobby Rydell, cantor

Aoruk 26, 1965 - Kevin James, ator norte-americano, estrelou em & quotKing of Queens & quot

26 de abril de 1970 - Melania Trump, supermodelo eslovena, primeira-dama dos Estados Unidos da América

27 de abril de 1521 - Ferdinand Magelan, explorador português

27 de abril de 1822 - Ulysses S. Grant, 18º presidente dos EUA, general da Guerra Civil (1869-1877)

27 de abril de 1896 - Rogers Hornsby, jogador de beisebol

27 de abril de 1922 - Jack Klugman, ator

27 de abril de 1927 - Coretta Scott King, líder dos direitos civis, esposa de Martin Luther King Jr.

27 de abril de 1932 - Casey Kasem, personalidade do rádio

27 de abril de 1937 - Sandy Dennis, atriz

27 de abril de 1959 - Sheena Easton, cantora

28 de abril de 1758 - James Monroe, 5º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1817-1825)

28 de abril de 1878 - Lionel Barrymore, ator

28 de abril de 1937- Saddam Hussein, presidente iraquiano

28 de abril de 1941 - Ann-Margret, atriz, cantora

28 de abril de 1950 - Jay Leno, comediante de TV, "The Tonight Show with Jay Leno"

28 de abril de 1974 - Penelope Cruz - atriz vencedora do Oscar

28 de abril de 1981 - Jessica Alba, atriz, & quotSin City & quot.

29 de abril de 1727 - Jean-Georges Noverre, criador do balé moderno.

29 de abril de 1863 - William Randolph Hearst, editor de jornal, editor

29 de abril de 1899 - Duke Ellington, músico de jazz, líder de banda

29 de abril de 1901 - Imperador Hirohito, imperador do Japão durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial

29 de abril de 1915 - Donald Mills, cantor e membro dos Mills Brothers

29 de abril de 1938 - Bernie Madoff, empresário americano, investidor, corretor da bolsa, condenado por grande esquema Ponzi, enganando milhares de pessoas.

29 de abril de 1951 - Dale Earnhardt, piloto de corridas de automóveis

29 de abril de 1954 - Jerry Seinfeld, ator, comediante

29 de abril de 1958- Michelle Pfeiffer, atriz

29 de abril de 1970 - Andre Agassi, campeão de tênis

29 de abril de 1970 - Uma Thurman, atriz, & quotPulp Fiction & quot

30 de abril de 1933 - Willie Nelson, cantor country

30 de abril de 1938 - Gary Collins, ator

30 de abril de 1945 - Michael J. Smith, astronauta, morreu na explosão do ônibus espacial Challenger

30 de abril de 1948 - Perry King, ator

30 de abril de 1961 - Isaiah Thomas, jogador de basquete da NBA

30 de abril de 1975 - John Galecki, ator, interpretou o filho Rusty no filme & quotChristmas Vacation & quot, Leonard na série de TV & quotBig Bang Theory & quot

30 de abril de 1981 - Kunal Nayyar, ator indiano-inglês, interpretou & quotRaj Koothrappali & quot na série de TV & quotBig Bang Theory & quot

30 de abril de 1982 - Kirsten Dunst, atriz

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A invasão da Noruega fracassa em abril de 1940 - o que virá depois?

Se você quiser ler uma história bem escrita de Invasão da Noruega falha, sugiro isto:

e todas as suas partes, basta fazer uma pesquisa sobre Norway Fiasco. O autor, HMS Pinafore, é um escritor magnífico e suas histórias são sempre um prazer de ler, mesmo aquela sobre a crise dos mísseis cubanos que está esquentando.

Richter von Manthofen

A lição imediata aprendida seria que as invasões navais estão destinadas ao fracasso se você não tiver superiotidade naval.

Suponha que o alemão APRENDA a lição.

Isso seria uma borboleta para longe do BoB - já que era a preparação para o & quotUSM & quot, também conhecido como leão-marinho.

Em troca, isso deixaria a Luftwaffe com muito mais caças e bombardeiros e tripulações aéreas experientes.

Após a queda da França, o Reino Unido não está em condições de invadir a Alemanha - mesmo com bases na Noruega.

Claro que a Noruega seria uma ótima base para bombardeiros do Reino Unido, mas na verdade é um corredor estreito para a Alemanha e facilmente coberto pela Luftwaffe (BoB invertido).

Algumas violações do espaço aéreo sueco podem empurrar a Suécia ainda mais para o apoio (econômico) da Alemanha.

A Finlândia pode permitir que a Alemanha realize um ataque por terra ao norte da Noruega.

Se os Paras Alemães não forem usados ​​em Creta, mas (em meados de 1940) para fazer um pouso em grande escala no sul da Noruega, eles podem até ter sucesso em manter e manter a área-chave (e Skagerak é menor do que o Canal e com a Dinamarca capturada (suponha Weserübung Süd ainda consegue) os alemães não têm água para atravessar.

Portanto, a menos que o Reino Unido despeje muitas tropas na Noruega (eles podem ser retirados do Canadá e usar o francês livre), é apenas algum tempo que as forças do norte ou do sul se encontram.

Magnum

Jukra

Sharlin

HMS Warspite

Richter von Manthofen

Sharlin

De la Tour

Guerreiro ártico

DaleCoz

Uff Da, o otimista

Verdade, o que eu deveria ter enfatizado melhor era que agora o MM não precisa viajar em águas tão perigosas fora de seu próprio país ocupado!

Além disso, a Noruega poderia mobilizar mais de 200 000 homens em um período de 2 meses, embora de qualidade variável.
A questão é que a Noruega não é um país plano fácil de lutar, tem uma natureza tão severa que dá aos defensores oportunidades de ouro para emboscadas, aprisionamento e troca de terras por tempo.

Mais uma vez, se o governo norueguês não tivesse agido como bebês indefesos, eles poderiam ter mobilizado algumas forças após Altmark para mostrar que pretendiam permanecer fora da guerra, e mesmo isso seria suficiente para tornar a vida um inferno para os 8.000 homens dos alemães levou a parte sul do país com!

Von Adler

Em primeiro lugar, vamos esclarecer alguns equívocos.

Narvik foi destruído como um porto para embarque de minério de ferro em 1940. Pelos próximos quatro anos, até a Suécia encerrar os embarques de minério, o minério foi transportado por ferrovia de Kiruna sobre Luleå para Oxelösund (sul de Estocolmo), onde foi recarregado em navios e transportado por do Báltico aos portos alemães.

O controle da Noruega não dá aos britânicos acesso ao Báltico. O sul do Mar do Norte permaneceu sob controle alemão até 1945, principalmente porque é um mar de minas de primeira linha, como a maior parte do Báltico (ainda há cerca de 40-90.000 minas no Báltico e no sul do Mar do Norte de ww1 e ww2). Os britânicos usaram MTBs para mover agentes, evacuar pessoal-chave (pilotos abatidos, caças da resistência norueguesa, etc.) e transportar rolamentos de esferas de alta qualidade da Suécia durante a guerra, navegando à noite em alta velocidade.

Os suecos e finlandeses negociaram uma aliança estatal (perto de uma união, uma aliança militar e confederação política) durante a primavera de 1940, mas a resistência alemã e soviética e o revanchismo finlandês acabaram com isso (a Suécia queria que a aliança fosse neutra e essa postura ser aceito tanto pelos alemães quanto pelos soviéticos). Com os aliados no controle da Noruega, a opinião alemã importa muito menos, e eles e os soviéticos (que não querem guerra contra os aliados ou a Alemanha neste momento, Stalin queria que os aliados e os alemães sangrassem uns aos outros antes que ele interveio) pode realmente parecer favorável a uma aliança neutra sueco-finlandesa, uma vez que garantiria o flanco norte para ambos.

Uma vez que os alemães tinham o controle das minas de ferro francesas e belgas, eles não eram dependentes do minério de ferro sueco. O minério sueco era de alta qualidade e fácil de usar no processo bessemer para criar aço de alta qualidade, mas os alemães PODEM dispensar. A Suécia precisa de cerca de 5,5 milhões de toneladas de coque e carvão anualmente, e a Alemanha poderia entregar isso de 1940 a 1944, quando os aliados ocidentais não. A menos que os aliados possam substituí-lo, a Suécia continuará a enviar minério de ferro para a Alemanha. OTL, os aliados ocidentais exigiram uma redução no frete e a Suécia obedeceu, mas deu aos alemães prioridade no minério de alto teor, o que deixou todas as peças felizes.

O controle aliado da Noruega pode significar uma aliança de estado sueco-finlandês, sem mais participação finlandesa na guerra e talvez uma França que luta a partir do norte da África.

DaleCoz

Assim, se os Aliados tiverem sorte, o único navio de guerra alemão de superfície digno de menção que sobreviveria à operação seria o cruzador leve Emden. Dificilmente o suficiente para puxar o Sealion.

Os britânicos também ficarão muito menos assustados com o Sealion, já que o RN acabou de provar que pode facilmente vencer uma tentativa de pouso alemã, afundando a maior parte do Kriegsmarine no processo.

Se você contar os navios afundados e danificados, o Kriegsmarine não tinha muitos navios de superfície deixados prontos para a ação depois da história da Noruega.

Finalmente, as borboletas PODEM afetar a Batalha da França. Digamos, por exemplo, que os panzers que foram para a Noruega sejam enviados para as Ardenas, adicionando 1-2 dias ao gargalo, ou que diferentes decisões sejam tomadas em relação às operações da Luftwaffe em Sedan, potencialmente levando a uma falha na travessia inicial .

Embora haja uma pequena chance de que isso se transforme em uma derrota alemã, pode resultar em coisas como perdas alemãs muito, muito maiores ou um governo francês que decida continuar do Norte da África. Meu favorito pessoal, porém (no qual uma vez eu estava planejando fazer um TL) é atrasar um voo alemão por tempo suficiente para que os Aliados lancem a Operação Pike.

É certamente possível que as borboletas norueguesas afetem a Batalha da França, mas até onde sei, nenhuma divisão panzer foi enviada para a Noruega na invasão inicial, ou posteriormente entre essa invasão e a invasão da França. As tropas alemãs eram de infantaria (5 divisões) ou divisões de montanha (1 divisão). A única parte de sua ordem de batalha que poderia conter tanques era uma brigada de infantaria motorizada que, historicamente, apenas foi para a Dinamarca e foi enviada para a Batalha da França a partir de 13 de maio. Mesmo se aquela brigada chegasse à França um pouco mais cedo, seria uma adição trivial à massa de 7 divisões Panzer e numerosas divisões motorizadas na área crucial.

Fontes mais prováveis ​​de borboletas, que podem atingir os dois lados: (1) Os Aliados seriam mais confiantes e os alemães menos, tanto no nível individual quanto no de comando. Isso poderia levar Hitler a colocar mais restrições na corrida do Panzer para o mar. Por outro lado, poderia levar os britânicos a atrasar o início da evacuação de Dunquerque por um ou dois dias em favor de continuar apoiando as tentativas francesas de organizar uma contra-ofensiva para cortar o corredor Panzer. Difícil saber até que ponto os Aliados mais confiantes e os alemães menos confiantes se sairiam.

(2) Pelo menos alguns navios de guerra aliados não estariam disponíveis. Os britânicos poderiam afundar a maior parte da marinha alemã na operação na Noruega, mas afundá-la sem perder pelo menos alguns navios capitais adicionais e, presumivelmente, os destróieres que os acompanham nos levam ao território de Mary Sue. Os britânicos provavelmente teriam menos navios disponíveis na batalha da França e na evacuação de Dunquerque. Por outro lado, a marinha britânica teria mais liberdade de ação sem nenhum Kriegsmarine, pelo menos até que os alemães colocassem Bismarck em serviço em agosto de 1940, passassem por testes no mar e acabassem com alguns navios que os acompanhavam.

(3) Chamberlain provavelmente ainda seria o primeiro-ministro britânico durante a Batalha da França, conforme observado anteriormente. Isso é um curinga. Ele teria sido capaz de fornecer o tipo de liderança inspiradora durante e depois de Dunquerque que Churchill fez? Ele daria a ordem de atacar a frota francesa para evitar que caísse nas mãos dos alemães? Ele pararia de enviar aviões britânicos para a Batalha da França quando ficasse óbvio que a batalha estava perdida? Ele resistiria ao impulso de negociar com Hitler após a queda da França?


Selo postal de Booker T. Washington

--> 10c Booker T. Washington à prova de placa certificada, aprovado em 25 de janeiro de 1940

Em 7 de abril de 1940, o Post Office Department (POD) emitiu um selo em homenagem ao educador afro-americano Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) como parte de sua Famous Americans Series. O primeiro selo do país em homenagem a um afro-americano, ocupa um lugar único na história americana. As lutas sociais, econômicas e legislativas desde 1940 produziram uma compreensão e aceitação mais profundas entre os grupos raciais. Hoje, o Serviço Postal dos Estados Unidos (USPS) homenageia regularmente os afro-americanos e suas contribuições amplamente variadas para a nação e o mundo.

Nascido escravo em Hale's Ford, Virginia, Washington serviu de modelo para outros lutadores afro-americanos e, como fundador da Tuskegee Normal Industrial School do Alabama (rebatizado de Tuskegee Institute em 1937), ele influenciou profundamente a auto-estima e a auto-estima da comunidade -confiança. Em 1938, o presidente Franklin D. Roosevelt, respondendo a inúmeras petições de apoiadores afro-americanos, reconheceu a oportunidade de tal selo e ordenou que Washington fosse considerado para esta importante série de selos.

10c Booker T. Washington capa do primeiro dia, 1940

O major Robert Richard Wright, sênior, entre outros, havia feito lobby agressivamente por um selo em homenagem a Booker T. Washington desde que Roosevelt assumiu o cargo em 1933. Quando Wright leu a decisão do POD de apresentar Washington no selo de 10 centavos, anunciada em 1939, ele refletiu with gratification, [the stamp] "comes pretty nearly within the limit of seventy-five years of Negro Emancipation.”¹ He objected, however, to its high denomination, preferring to see it as one of the lower-priced, more affordable denominations used by the public daily. He worried that the cost of the 10¢ stamp "will not induce a large first day sale . . . among colored people.”² Echoing Wright's concerns, o Washington Tribune recommended that its readers buy the stamp for special delivery and parcel post mailings. "Let's overlook no chance to use these new stamps which honor our eminent educator,” urged the newspaper's editor in a special issue released on March 23, 1940.

10c Booker T. Washington first day cover mailed by Postmaster General James A. Farley, 1940

Numerous institutions, all important in the lives of African-Americans, clamored to host the stamp's first day of issue ceremony. The POD selected Tuskegee Institute, founded by Washington in 1881, for this watershed ceremony's location. Guests gathered in the Institute Chapel. Postmaster General James A. Farley attended the ceremony and afterwards, joined by the Tuskegee Club of Montgomery, Alabama, placed a wreath at Washington's tomb. George W. Peterson, an African-American Civil Service employee attached to the POD's Division of Stamps, attended and helped Tuskegee's postmaster, R. H. Harris, prepare the first day covers. Also an African-American, Harris attracted recognition in The Washington Tribune (March 23, 1940) as "one of the few colored postmasters in the United States.” All told, twenty-five extra clerks assisted Harris in preparing the first day covers.

First day enclosure from PMG Farley to his wife Bess, 1940

Enthusiasm for the Booker T. Washington stamp and its momentous significance for the African-American population prompted two official second day of issue ceremonies, events unprecedented in philatelic history—one in New York City and the other in Philadelphia. Unable to attend the ceremony at Tuskegee, Major Robert Richard Wright, Sr., attended Philadelphia's ceremony, where he purchased a batch of 1,000 stamps. The press focused attention not only on Washington but also on Major Wright, a prominent African-American man in his own right. Wright, like Washington, had been born a slave. He had carved-out a distinctive niche within the community as an educator and administrator, through military service during the Spanish-American War, and as a banker.

Tuskegee Institute owns the first sheet of Booker T. Washington stamps sold, but it passed through several hands before reaching its final destination. Captain Alvin J. Neely, Tuskegee General Alumni Association's executive secretary, purchased the sheet, autographed by James A. Farley. Neely presented the sheet to Washington's daughter, Portia Washington Pittman, who then gave it to Dr. William J. Schieffelin, Tuskegee's chairman of the board, for preservation. Adding to the memorable event, the Tuskegee Philatelic Club issued covers with a hand-stamped cachet showing a likeness of Washington's graveside monument.

3c Booker T. Washington log cabin die proof, 1956

The POD honored Booker T. Washington once again in 1956, the centennial of his birth. The stamp's vignette features an image of a cabin similar to the one in which Washington was born.

Endnote

1) R.R. Wright, Sr., to Deputy Third Assistant Postmaster General Roy M. North, letter, July 20, 1939.

2) R.R. Wright to Postmaster General James A. Farley, letter, November 8, 1939.

References and Further Reading

George C. Hahn, United States Famous American Series of 1940 (State College: The American Philatelic Society, 1950).


Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por phylo_roadking » 03 Jan 2011, 18:34

I take it you missed the bit (again) about them being TOLD the Germans were going to attempt it?

What the British didn't consider was that the German actions represented mais than a simple reaction to WILFRED. but in fact represented a fullblown invasion planned for some considerable time!

TOLD the Germans were going to attempt it

Postado por Dave Bender » 03 Jan 2011, 21:07

Receiving an intelligence report and believing it are two different things.

During late 1939 / early 1940 there were numerous intelligence reports concerning Norway. Both Britain and Germany had to compare these reports and make an educated guess as to what the enemy was up to. Germany guessed right. Britain guessed wrong.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por phylo_roadking » 03 Jan 2011, 21:46

Receiving an intelligence report and believing it are two different things.

During late 1939 / early 1940 there were numerous intelligence reports concerning Norway

. because. in the meantime. the RAF had made a much more "substantial" contact with the ships moving north! Twelve Blenheim bombers of No 107 Squadron found the enemy shortly before 1:30 PM, seventy-eight miles farther north on before. The attack, though followed up with the search by a second force of Wellingtons, had no success, but they had reported the Germans much more accurately as one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers . again - no transports or troopships!

YOU however want this fleet to comprise one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers and one or more large passenger liners. I.E. Confirmation that the word from Copenhagen was correct.

Thus it não era a matter of. just "guessing" it was a matter of receiving intelligence, and needing confirmation/ corroboration of it. Historically, the subsequent intelligence (SEVERAL instances of air recce) provided more accurate intel. but intel contradicting the Copenhagen report. Here you want that fleet to be accompanied by thousands of tons of floating confimation that the Danes estavam actually correct.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por John T » 03 Jan 2011, 22:08

IMHO using 2 cruise liners instead of 10 DD's would have been disasterous because:
- slower cruising speed
- bigger targets
- likely slower unloading speed
- lack of armament to defeat/ persuade Norwegian coastal defenses
- 2000 Gebirgsjäger were enough historically, don't need 2-3 times that amount
..<snip>
The two liners would not have made it to Narvik pier.

I think it would have been prudent to use two liners and three Destroyers. Or throw in a cruiser too.
The Liners as ships where more expendable than ten destroyers and could have refuelled their escorts too.
So in my opinion Km who had nothing really usefull for power projection as well could have used them to something.
(but IIRC the dream where to convert them to carriers ?)


And some other notes regarding the Liners-

If spotted by the British, they might very well be identified as Armed Merchant cruisers trying to break out.
And why not add a couple of 15 cm guns to them too, in addition to the AA envisioned earlier in the tread?

The Liners Lifeboats where at least a reasonable mean to quickly unload personnel at least as efficient as the destroyers, Bremen had a 50% redundancy of lifeboat seats to actual passeneger capacity so most lifeboats could been loaded with a few tonns of equipment already before entering the Harbour. And note that Lifeboats where pretty big, 99 passengers seems to been a de facto standard so if we do not have to fill the liners with soldiers.
This is actually close to the Early British AP's that initially replaced the lifeboats in the derricks with landing crafts.
(as the British had designed proper landing crafts of the same size and weight to be used from liners)

Remember that German forces that did invade Norway had no landing crafts of any kind.
A motorized life boot is better than nothing

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por phylo_roadking » 03 Jan 2011, 22:34

John, there's a considerable difference between a merchant ship (even a period "merchant liner") and a true period passenger liner. Even if mistakenly indentified that first time by the RAF recce aircraft - then the second "contact", the attacking Blenheims, would most likely identify them correctly.

Secondly - even IF mis-identified as merchant raiders, this would make their interception even MORE vital anyway, for other reasons

Thirdly - their SECOND acquisition by the RAF would "prove" they weren't just armed merchantmen. Armed cruisers like the Pinguin were much slower than KM naval vessels or passenger liner the Pinguin for instance had a top speed of only 18-20mph. As noted by Dave, the liners were mais rápido, more able to keep up with the KM's ships. if the flotilla spotted then due to be attacked wasn't where a simple time vs distance calculation SHOULD put them - then the British would KNOW there era something wrong with their initial identification.

John, I don't know if many captains would have wanted to try manouvering along a Norwegian fjord or into Narvik Basin around all those anchored ore ships with that much weight so far above the waterline! The word "untrimmed" comes to mind.

Which brings in other aspects I wonder what the turning circle of the putative liners at speed was, compared to a KM destroyer? Could they have maounvered up Ofotfjord? Or safely avoided the RN minefields?

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por John T » 03 Jan 2011, 22:58

. because. in the meantime. the RAF had made a much more "substantial" contact with the ships moving north! Twelve Blenheim bombers of No 107 Squadron found the enemy shortly before 1:30 PM, seventy-eight miles farther north on before. The attack, though followed up with the search by a second force of Wellingtons, had no success, but they had reported the Germans much more accurately as one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers . again - no transports or troopships!

YOU however want this fleet to comprise one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers and one or more large passenger liners. I.E. Confirmation that the word from Copenhagen was correct.

Thus it não era a matter of. just "guessing" it was a matter of receiving intelligence, and needing confirmation/ corroboration of it. Historically, the subsequent intelligence (SEVERAL instances of air recce) provided more accurate intel. but intel contradicting the Copenhagen report. Here you want that fleet to be accompanied by thousands of tons of floating confimation that the Danes estavam actually correct.

But on April 7:th
the Export column, 48 800 GRT,
of the Tanker column 24 000 GRT
And the First transport column 72 00 GRT
Where already underway towards Norway.

But RN did not spot them.
In the Evening both Oslo and Copenhagen had reports of troop transports moving North.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por John T » 03 Jan 2011, 23:43

Is it ?
I fail to follow you claim, I thought the problem where if bremen where spotted as a troop transport or as a Armed Merchant cruiser?

Could you explain the difference between an Armed Merchant cruiser like HMS Rawalpindi and a passenger liner?

I suppose most captains knows a bit about metacentric height, the basic theories are available here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metacentric_height

With a displacement of 55 kt how much is needed to make her "untrimmed" in a way that affects manoeuvrability ?
Me thinks the risk of explosion would be more relevant to bother about for the captain.

Does you seriously question if Bremen could manovre up the ofotfjord?
Avoided the minefield?
are you serious ?

Might needed tugs to get quaysides that's possible, but with four screws she might be surprisingly dexterious at low speed.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por phylo_roadking » 04 Jan 2011, 00:22

No. Why would I? Why would I explain the difference between a BRITISH armed merchant cruiser and a pasenger liner?

What I WILL do is illustrate the difference between what the GERMANS used as armed merchant cruisers and passenger liners.

The Pinguin.

The Bremen.

Do you think the huge superstructure, the lines of lifeboats, the one tiny deck cargo hatch compared to the Pinguin's two large ones would be the giveaway? Or would it perhaps be the two funnels? Or the fact that it's nearly twice the length of the Pinguin? (938 feet vs. 509 feet)

27 knots - that proves there's no german armed armed merchant cruisers in that convoy. The non-naval vessels would then tenho to be something big and capable of

1/ The RN laid their minefields in the Channel etc. so that their destroyers could manouver IN them safely they were to stop deeper-draught vessels and submarines. Do YOU think the Bremen had a deeper draught than British destroyers?

2/ The KM occasionally seemed (as I noted in another recent thread) to have difficulties manouvering their more manouverable destroyers in Ofotjord/Narvik Basin without running aground.

3/ Narvik basin was already quite crowded when the Germans arrived, as I noted before.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por Dave Bender » 04 Jan 2011, 18:38

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por phylo_roadking » 04 Jan 2011, 19:16

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por kfbr392 » 05 Jan 2011, 10:37

Juha and Phylo,
how about you continue the discussion of a possible German glider landing in the Oslo fjord in a seperate thread, no?

This thread should remain reserved for discussions on composition and actions of the German Kriegsschiffgruppe 1, the one going to Narvik.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por Polar bear » 05 Jan 2011, 11:43

the consideration (from a german planner´s point of view) that the "alternate group 1" liners might be more prone to submarine attack in the North Sea and off Southern Norway hasn´t been mentioned, yet.

BREMEN had been close to being attacked on her return trip from Murmansk.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Postado por kfbr392 » 05 Jan 2011, 13:10

Any German ship/ convoy entering Narvik on April 9th, 1940:
- must be fast on the way up from Germany
- must be able to overcome Norwegian coastal gun and warship opposition
- has less than 24h of safe unloading the Gebirgsjäger
- will be bottled in by superior Royal Navy forces as early as 0410hrs on April 9th
- will be confronted by RN by the early hours of April 10th


With this benfit of hindsight, I propose the following scenarios:
Scenario I
as OTL, but Jan Wellem awaits in some desolate spot around 150nm north of Narvik 10DDs break out in the late evening of April 9th (visibility was very low) if engaged by RN, 2 DD's, lay fog, fire guns, and draw the RN upon them and go south, while the other 8 DD's proceed to Jan Wellem, refuel and either sneak south or go to "Basis Nord" in Murmansk

Scenario II
as OTL, but Gruppe 1 consists of 4 DD's (not carrying troops) and Liner BREMEN. 3 DD's speed ahead and defeat Norwegian resistance, then Bremen disembarks Gebirgsjäger 4 DD's refuel from Jan Wellem (which here is specifically equipped and trained for speedy refuelling) All ships break out in the late evening of April 9th The DD's carry a deck load of mines, which they drop on the way out of the fjord It boils down to this: are 10-6 DD's worth more than BREMEN?


A note on German Hilfskreuzer:
The KM converted the first wave of HSK's from merchant ships in secrect in the Winter of 1939/40.
The British converted liners to become auxillary cruisers. They did not know in April 1940, that german HSK's do outwardly appear to be merchants.
Thus, a liner going north in the North Sea with troops for Narvik, even one with a DD escort, might appear as a HSK to the RN, causing them not to suspect an invasion of Norway from this bit of intelligence.


Founding by Richard and Maurice McDonald Edit

The McDonald family moved from Manchester, New Hampshire to Hollywood, California in the late 1930s, where brothers Richard and Maurice McDonald ("Dick" and "Mac") began working as set movers and handymen at Motion-Picture studios. [1] In 1937, their father Patrick McDonald opened "The Airdrome", a food stand, on Huntington Drive (Route 66) near the Monrovia Airport in the Los Angeles County city of Monrovia, California [2]

In October 1948, after the McDonald brothers realized that most of their profits came from selling hamburgers, they closed down their successful carhop drive-in to establish a streamlined system with a simple menu which consisted of only hamburgers, cheeseburgers, potato chips, coffee, soft drinks, and apple pie. [3]

In April 1952, the brothers decided they needed an entirely new building in order to achieve two goals: further efficiency improvements, and a more eye-catching appearance. They collected recommendations for an architect and interviewed at least four, finally choosing Stanley Clark Meston, an architect practicing in nearby Fontana. [1] The brothers and Meston worked together closely in the design of their new building. They achieved the extra efficiencies they needed by, among other things, drawing the actual measurements of every piece of equipment in chalk on a tennis court behind the McDonald house (with Meston's assistant Charles Fish). [4] The new restaurant's design achieved a high level of notice thanks to gleaming surfaces of red and white ceramic tile, stainless steel, brightly colored sheet metal, and glass pulsing red, white, yellow, and green neon and two 25-foot yellow sheet-metal arches trimmed in neon, called "golden arches" even at the design stage. A third, smaller arch sign at the roadside hosted a pudgy character in a chef's hat, known as Speedee, striding across the top, trimmed in animated neon. Further marketing techniques were implemented to change McDonald's from a sit down restaurant to a fast food chain. They used such things as turning off the heating to prevent people wanting to stay so long, fixed and angled seating so the customer would sit over their food promoting them to eat faster, spreading the seats further apart so being less of a sociable place to dine in, and giving their customers branded cone shaped cups forcing them to hold their drink whilst eating which would speed up the eating process. [1]

In late 1953, with only a rendering of Meston's design in hand, the brothers began seeking franchisees. [1] Their first franchisee was Neil Fox, a distributor for General Petroleum Corporation. Fox's stand, the first with Meston's golden arches design, opened in May 1953 at Central Avenue and Indian School Road in Phoenix, Arizona. Their second franchisee was the team of Fox's brother-in-law Roger Williams and Burdette "Bud" Landon, both of whom also worked for General Petroleum. Williams and Landon opened their stand on August 18, 1953 at 10207 Lakewood Boulevard in Downey, California. The Downey stand has the distinction of being the oldest surviving McDonald's restaurant. [5] [6] [7]

Ray Kroc joins the company and expands its franchise operation Edit

In 1954, Ray Kroc, a seller of Prince Castle brand Multimixer milkshake machines, learned that the McDonald brothers were using eight of his machines in their San Bernardino restaurant. His curiosity was piqued, and he went to take a look at the restaurant. He was joined by good friend Charles Lewis who had suggested to Kroc several improvements to the McDonald's burger recipe. At this point, the McDonald brothers had six franchise locations in operation. [8]

Believing the McDonald's formula was a ticket to success, Kroc suggested they franchise their restaurants throughout the country. The brothers were skeptical, however, that the self-service approach could succeed in colder, rainier climates furthermore, their thriving business in San Bernardino, and franchises already operating or planned, made them reluctant to risk a national venture. [1] Kroc offered to take the major responsibility for setting up the new franchises elsewhere. He returned to his home outside of Chicago with rights to set up McDonald's restaurants throughout the country, except in a handful of territories in California and Arizona already licensed by the McDonald brothers. The brothers were to receive one-half of one percent of gross sales. [1]

Sonneborn model and shift to real estate holdings Edit

In 1956, Ray Kroc met Harry J. Sonneborn, a former VP of finance for Tastee-Freez, who offered an idea to accelerate the growth and investment grade of Kroc's planned McDonald's operation: Own the real estate that future franchises would be built on. Kroc hired Sonneborn and his plan was executed through forming a separate company called Franchise Realty Corp. which was solely designed to hold McDonald's real estate. The new company signed leases and took out mortgages for both lands and buildings, in turn then passing these costs on to the franchisee with a 20-40% markup and a reduced initial deposit of $950. [9] [10] The "Sonneborn model" of real estate ownership within the franchise persists to this day, possibly being the most important financial decision in the company's history. McDonald's present-day real estate holdings represent $37.7Bn on its balance sheet, about 99% of the company's assets and 35% of its annual gross revenue. [11]


British Expeditionary Force

With the outbreak of the Second World War, the planning assumption was a German invasion through the Low Countries and into France, the same scenario as occurred in 1914. As the likelihood of war grew in 1938, plans were formulated for the creation of another expeditionary force to be sent to France as soon as war was declared. These plans were activated on 3 September 1939, with the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, General The Viscount GORT assuming command of the new field formation. The formations deployed to France increased steadily throughout late 1939 and into 1940. I Corps with the 1 Infantry Division and 2 Infantry Division arrived first in September 1939. II Corps with the 3 Infantry Division and 4 Infantry Division became operational in France in October 1939. The 5 Infantry Division arrived on 19 December 1939.

DOCUMENTOS PARA BAIXAR (pdfs)

Higher Formations History and Personnel
» B.E.F. History & Personnel (Personnel)
» B.E.F. Campaign Overview (BEING UPDATED)
» B.E.F. Divisional and Brigade Commanders (IN PREPARTION)

The winter of 1939 was very cold, which limited the activity of the B.E.F.. Training continued into 1940, boosted with the arrival in France of the first Territorial Army formations. Five first-line divisions arrived before the German invasion, these being:

5 January 1940 – 48 (South Midland) Infantry Division
20 January 1940 – 50 (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
4 January 1940 – 51 (Highland) Infantry Division
1 April 1940 – 44 (Home Counties) Infantry Division
12 April 1940 – 42 (East Lancashire) Infantry Division.

In addition to the five first line Territorial Army divisions deployed to France, three second line divisions were also sent to join the British Expeditionary Force. Estes foram:

12 April 1940 – 12 (Eastern) Infantry Division
22 April 1940 – 23 (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
24 April 1940 – 46 Infantry Division.


Swedish military strength in April 1940

Postado por historygeek2021 » 19 Feb 2021, 06:55

Does anyone have information on Swedish military strength in April 1940? It is possible that Sweden could have become entangled in Operation Weserübung, for example, if the Allies landed in Norway first. Was Sweden fully mobilized?

If Churchill had decided to stay in Narvik in June 1940, the Germans would have had no way to retake the port other than through Sweden. How much resistance could Sweden have put up against Germany?

Re: Swedish military strength in April 1940

Postado por Ro/Lt » 20 Feb 2021, 19:15

Re: Swedish military strength in April 1940

Postado por John T » 20 Feb 2021, 23:16

Does anyone have information on Swedish military strength in April 1940? It is possible that Sweden could have become entangled in Operation Weserübung, for example, if the Allies landed in Norway first. Was Sweden fully mobilized?

If Churchill had decided to stay in Narvik in June 1940, the Germans would have had no way to retake the port other than through Sweden. How much resistance could Sweden have put up against Germany?

I have done that scenario in a game - "The Operation art of War IV"
You can find the scenario here:
https://www.matrixgames.com/forums/tm.asp?m=4763066

In the scenario briefing I wrote:

The history of the Swedish armed forces during ww2 has mostly been written in a context to explain Swedish actions during the war and preserve a high defense expenditure after the war.
After WW2, Norway and Denmark became members of NATO while Sweden maintained its neutrality. Sweden had managed to stay out of military actions and the government's neutrality policy had overwhelming public support. The only problem was how to explain the concessions given to Germany. The simplest explanation was that the concessions were forced upon Sweden and there where no way to stand up against Germany since Sweden was so military weak. This explanation found consensus, mostly because it was in most respects true but also as it made the situation to look unique and something that could have been avoided if only Sweden had been better military prepared. And at the same time, it made it clear that Sweden had no alternatives to act as she did.
As the war progressed the Swedes built confidence in her own military capacity. But to what extent this was due to Swedish propaganda, own rearmament, and to what extent Germany waned is seldom elaborated on in Swedish military history.

This history writing had many benefits
· “small state realism” was a fairly truthful representation that most Swedes could subscribe to
· Those who had been under Nazi influence simply could claim that they only had “adjusted” themselves out of necessity
· It suited those who wanted to continue the path of neutrality as it basically ignored the problems of neutrality
· It was a good argument for the armed forces to maintain large defense expenditures

As this way of explaining history was uncontroversial between the political and the military leadership the history of Swedish military inability in the earlier parts of ww2 where perpetuated.
That six million Swedes could not stand up alone against seventy million Germans or hundred and seventy million Soviets is clear but very few Swedes today know that Swedish defense expenditure during the thirties was twice the Finnish and three to four times the Norwegian. But that’s enough on how the history has been told.

In 1925 army funding was reduced by 25%, Six infantry divisions became four, cutting the number of cavalry regiments in half, and closed or combined a large number of other regiments. Conscript training reduced to basic training of 140 days and two refresher trainings at 30 days each. The number of officers also reduced by 25%. The territorial army, of conscripts aged 32 to 42 were abolished in peacetime. The most important thing was that the Liberals and Social Democrats accepted that the goal of the armed forces was to defend the country’s existence, not only be a “Neutrality guard”. Since they still did not want to waste money on the armed forces they created a theory of “Elasticity”, In calm and peaceful times, like the twenties as little as possible should be spent on arms, but if international tension rose spending would increase.

In 1936 Defense expenditure were increased by 30%. a ten-year plan would bring back the number of Infantry divisions to six, extend basic training to 170 days, doubled the air force expenditure and train and equip local defenses with the older conscripts. The Austrian Anschluss triggered an extra allotment of 70 MSEK in June 1938 and the same amount once more when Germany invaded Slovakia in March 1939. With other funds for specific investments. Swedish Defense expenditure almost doubled between 1936/37 and 1938/39.

After a brief partial mobilization in September 1939, Neutrality watch were upheld by air defenses, naval and coastal artillery units. To man the growing local defenses, enlisted ranks were trained in some School units with a secondary combat role.
All conscripts of the field army with the earlier 140 days of basic training had “extra training “ during six weeks. This refresher training was spread out between October 1939 and March 1940 to keep three reduced infantry regiment available.

During the Finnish-Russian winter war Sweden mobilized two divisions and grouped them at the Swedish-Finnish border. In the last days of March The VI. Infantry division was ordered to continue training until May 15 and the V. Infantry division to return to barracks and demobilize at the latest the 15:th April.

Swedish intelligence started to receive rumors of German preparation to attack north during the winter war. Even though the winter war ended on the 13 of March, information kept arriving about German preparations. One such source was the Swedish consulate in Stettin, located in the harbor just around the corner from the “Haken Terasse” where German troops trained to embark transport ships.

The first Swedish action to improve readiness in southern Sweden was to keep the reserve NCO school companies in service after their graduation on March 30.
Linha do tempo:
• April 2 Swedish Air force started to patrol southern Baltic up to the German territorial border.
• April 4 Swedish C ask the minister of defense permission to mobilize all of the field army. The C in C was told to wait until more solid information available.
• April 6 The 1. Army corps HQ, the Cavalry brigade, air defenses etcetera ordered to call up reserve officers and enlisted ranks to prepare mobilization.
• April 8 The 1. Army corps HQ and the Cavalry brigade mobilize from the 10:th,
I and III Infantry divisions, local defenses of L7 and some other units ordered to call up reserve officers and enlisted ranks to prepare mobilization. Air force and Navy to be combat-ready as soon as possible.

On the morning of April 9 Sweden had 87 000 men in uniform.

A few hours after German Diplomats delivered their ultimatums to the Danish and Norwegian Governments, Germany demanded that Sweden
• Would remain neutral and not mobilize
• For their own safety, Swedish Navy vessels would remain within territorial waters
• Iron ore trade with Germany should continue
• Allow German signal traffic from Norway to Germany on Swedish cables.

And that Sweden would not, for the time being, be affected as long Sweden kept calm and did not incite the Danish or Norwegian Governments to refuse the German demands.

Sweden declared neutrality in the conflict.

So Swedish Field army was on war footing by the 15:th of April, but large parts still at their barracks.


In 1971, five high school students in San Rafael, California, [5] [6] used the term "4:20" in connection with a plan to search for an abandoned cannabis crop, based on a treasure map made by the grower. [7] [8] Calling themselves the Waldos, [9] [10] because their typical hang-out spot "was a wall outside the school", [11] the five students—Steve Capper, Dave Reddix, Jeffrey Noel, Larry Schwartz, and Mark Gravich [12] —designated the Louis Pasteur statue [13] on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, and 4:20 pm as their meeting time. [11] The Waldos referred to this plan with the phrase "4:20 Louis". After several failed attempts to find the crop, the group eventually shortened their phrase to "4:20", which ultimately evolved into a code-word the teens used to refer to consuming cannabis. [7]

Steven Hager of High Times popularized the story of the Waldos. [14] The first High Times mention of 4:20 smoking and a 4/20 holiday appeared in May 1991, [15] and the connection to the Waldos appeared in December 1998. Hager attributed the early spread of the phrase to Grateful Dead followers [16] —after "Waldo" Reddix became a roadie for the Grateful Dead's bassist, Phil Lesh [12] —and called for 4:20 pm to be the socially accepted time of the day to consume cannabis. [16]

April 20 has become an international counterculture holiday, where people gather to celebrate and consume cannabis. [3] [17] [18] Many such events have a political nature to them, advocating the liberalization and legalization of cannabis. Vivian McPeak, a founder of Seattle's Hempfest states that 4/20 is "half celebration and half call to action". [19] Paul Birch calls it a global movement and suggests that one cannot stop events like these. [20]

On that day many marijuana users protest in civil disobedience by gathering in public to smoke at 4:20 pm. [21]

As marijuana continues to be decriminalized and legalized around the world, Steve DeAngelo, cannabis activist and founder of California's Harborside Health Center, notes that "even if our activist work were complete, 420 morphs from a statement of conscience to a celebration of acceptance, a celebration of victory, a celebration of our amazing connection with this plant" and that he thinks that "it will always be worthy of celebration". [22] [23]

In North America Edit

North American observances have been held at many locations, including:

    : Washington Square Park in Manhattan[24] : Boston Common[25] : "Hippie Hill" in Golden Gate Park near the Haight-Ashbury[26] : Porter College meadows at the University of California, Santa Cruz[27][28] : The Vancouver Art Gallery[29][30] and Sunset Beach between 2016 and 2019. [31] : the Mount Royal monument [32][33] : Civic Center Park[34] : Parliament Hill and Major's Hill Park[35][36] : The Alberta Legislature Building[37] : campus of the University of Colorado Boulder[6][38][39][40][41] : Nathan Phillips Square[42] and Yonge-Dundas Square[43] : campus of the University of California, Berkeley on the Memorial Glade north of the Doe Memorial Library. [44] : Mexican Senate under the slogan Planton 420. [45]

In Australia Edit

Australian observances have been held at many locations, over many years, including:

  • "Who Are We Hurting?" – Sydney City: Martin Place, NSW (2019) [46]
  • 420 Picnic 2019 – Melbourne, VIC[47]
  • "Who Are We Hurting?" – Sydney, NSW (2018) [48][49][50][51]
  • "Who Are We Hurting?" – Sydney City: Kings Cross, NSW (2017) [52][53]

Elsewhere Edit

In Ljubljana, Slovenia, the University of Ljubljana's student organization has carried out several annual cannabis-themed protests that have contributed to the debate on cannabis status in Slovenia and the subsequent legislation proposals in 2018 by gathering responses from various political parties in Slovenia and ranking them accordingly. [61] [62]

In Northern Cyprus, known for strict drug laws and intolerance to cannabis consumption, [63] the first 420 event was held in the capital city Lefkoşa in 2015. On April 20, 2017 a small group of protesters carried out an event near the parliament building and made a public statement, demanding the legalization of cannabis sale, consumption, and production with state regulations. [64]

Traffic safety Edit

Despite two studies reporting a supposed increase in the risk of fatal motor vehicle crashes on April 20, [65] [66] further investigation and analysis found the evidence did not support such claims. [67] [68] [69] [70]

Stolen signs Edit

Signs bearing the number 420 have been frequently stolen. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on I-70 east of Denver with one reading 419.99 in an attempt to stop the thievery [71] however, the folklore of the 419.99 sign has caused it to be stolen, too, as well as becoming a tourist destination. As of August 2018, the sign was missing, presumed stolen. [72] The Colorado DOT usually will not replace signs that are repeatedly taken, but began the practice of replacing further down the road after "69" mile marker signs were frequently stolen—these were replaced with "68.5 mile" ones. [73] The Idaho Department of Transportation (ITD) replaced the mile marker 420 sign on U.S. Highway 95, just south of Coeur d'Alene, with mile marker 419.9. [74] The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) implemented similar measures, [75] but only replaced one of the two 420 signs in the state, with the remaining one being subsequently stolen. [73] According to The Washington Post, there are eleven 420 mile markers in the US, after three replacements and one stolen and not replaced. [76] In Goodhue County, Minnesota, officials have changed "420 St" street signs to "42x St". [77] The mile marker 420 sign on U.S. Route 89, the only 420 marker in the state of Utah, is frequently stolen. [78]

Legislation and other government recognition Edit

In 2003, California Senate Bill 420 was introduced to regulate medical marijuana use, in deliberate reference [ citação necessária ] to the status of 420 in marijuana culture. An unsuccessful 2010 bill to legalize cannabis in Guam was called Bill 420. [79] A North Dakota bill to legalize cannabis was HB 1420, introduced in January 2021. [80]

The Marijuana Freedom and Opportunity Act (which if enacted would decriminalize and deschedule cannabis in the United States) was announced by Senator and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-New York) on April 20, 2018. [81] [82] On January 9, 2019, H.R. 420 was introduced into the 116th Congress by Representative Earl Blumenauer (D-Oregon), named the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act, which is designed to remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act and return regulation to the states. [83]

The State of Colorado auctioned off several cannabis-themed personalized license plates in 2021, with the bidding to be closed on April 20 (4/20). The highest bid shortly before the auction closed was over $6,500 for "ISIT420". [84]

Following the success of Washington, D.C.'s Initiative 71 to legalize cannabis in 2014, Mayor Muriel Bowser granted license plate number 420 to the campaign's leader, Adam Eidinger. [85]

Edição de Literatura

Several books about cannabis have "420" in the title, including the cannabis cookbooks The 420 Cannabis Cookbook, published by Simon & Schuster, [86] and The 420 Gourmet published in 2016 by HarperCollins. [87] [88]


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