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Dolly Payne Todd Madison - História

Dolly Payne Todd Madison - História


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Dolly Madison se tornou uma anfitriã mundialmente famosa enquanto era a primeira-dama de 1809-1817. Com uma facilidade incomum para nomes e rostos, Dolly Madison encantou a todos. Ela estabeleceu os padrões que outras mulheres americanas tentaram seguir, especialmente no reino da moda. Os vestidos parisienses caros, turbantes de penas elaborados, rapé e ruge tornaram-se suas marcas registradas.

Dolly Payne Todd era uma viúva de vinte e seis anos com dois filhos quando conheceu Madison, que tinha quarenta e três. (Seu primeiro marido morreu de febre amarela depois de apenas três anos de casamento). Embora Dolly e James parecessem um par improvável, ele logo se tornou seu segundo marido.

As formidáveis ​​habilidades sociais de Dolly Madison foram um grande trunfo durante a Guerra de 1812, quando ela deu inúmeras festas para manter o moral elevado. Mas ela é creditada com uma conquista ainda mais significativa. Imediatamente antes de os invasores britânicos incendiarem a Casa Branca, Dolly salvou o rascunho original da Constituição e da Declaração da Independência, junto com o retrato de George Washington feito por Stuart.


Dolly Payne Todd Madison - História

Biografia: Por meio século ela foi a mulher mais importante nos círculos sociais da América. Até hoje ela continua sendo uma das damas mais conhecidas e amadas da Casa Branca - embora muitas vezes referida, erroneamente, como Dorothy ou Dorothea.

Ela sempre se chamou Dolley, e com esse nome a Reunião Mensal New Garden da Sociedade de Amigos, em Piedmont, Carolina do Norte, registrou seu nascimento para John e Mary Coles Payne, colonos da Virgínia. Em 1769, John Payne levou sua família de volta para sua colônia natal e em 1783 mudou-se para Filadélfia, cidade dos Quakers. Dolley cresceu sob a rígida disciplina da Sociedade, mas nada silenciava sua personalidade feliz e seu coração caloroso.

John Todd Jr., advogado, trocou votos de casamento com Dolley em 1790. Apenas três anos depois ele morreu em uma epidemia de febre amarela, deixando sua esposa com um filho pequeno.

Nessa época, Filadélfia havia se tornado a capital. Com seu charme e olhos azuis sorridentes, pele clara e cachos negros, a jovem viúva atraiu atenção distinta. Em pouco tempo, Dolley estava relatando à sua melhor amiga que "a grande e pequena Madison pediu. Para me ver esta noite".

Embora o representante James Madison, da Virgínia, fosse 17 anos mais velho que ela e tivesse formação episcopal, eles se casaram em setembro de 1794. O casamento, embora sem filhos, foi notavelmente feliz, "nossos corações se entendem", ela assegurou. Ele poderia até ser paciente com o filho de Dolley, Payne, que lidou mal com seus próprios negócios - e, eventualmente, administrou mal os bens de Madison.

Descartando o vestido quacre sombrio após seu segundo casamento, Dolley escolheu a melhor das modas. Margaret Bayard Smith, cronista do início da vida social de Washington, escreveu: "Ela parecia uma rainha. Seria absolutamente impossivel para qualquer um se comportar com mais propriedade perfeita do que ela. "

Abençoada com um desejo de agradar e uma disposição para ser satisfeita, Dolley fez de sua casa o centro da sociedade quando Madison começou, em 1801, seus oito anos como Secretária de Estado de Jefferson. Ela ajudou na Casa Branca quando o presidente pediu-lhe ajuda para receber mulheres e presidiu o primeiro baile de posse em Washington, quando seu marido se tornou chefe do executivo em 1809.

As qualidades sociais de Dolley a tornaram famosa. Sua perspicácia política, valorizada por seu marido, é menos conhecida, embora seu tato cortês suavizasse muitas brigas. Estadistas hostis, enviados difíceis da Espanha ou da Tunísia, chefes guerreiros do oeste, jovens agitados - ela sempre deu as boas-vindas a todos. Forçada a fugir da Casa Branca por um exército britânico durante a Guerra de 1812, ela voltou para encontrar a mansão em ruínas. Destemida por aposentos temporários, ela entreteve tão habilmente como sempre.

Em sua plantação, Montpelier, na Virgínia, os Madisons viveram em uma aposentadoria agradável até que ele morreu em 1836. Ela voltou para a capital no outono de 1837, e amigos encontraram maneiras diplomáticas de complementar sua renda diminuída. Ela permaneceu em Washington até sua morte em 1849, honrada e amada por todos. A personalidade encantadora dessa mulher incomum é uma parte importante da história de seu país.


Conteúdo

A primeira menina em sua família, Dolley Payne nasceu em 20 de maio de 1768, no assentamento quaker de "New Garden" dentro do condado de Guilford (atual Greensboro), Carolina do Norte, filha de Mary Coles e John Payne, Jr., ambos Virgínios que se mudaram para a Carolina do Norte em 1765. [4] Mary Coles, uma quacre, casou-se com John Payne, um não-quacre, em 1761. Três anos depois, ele se inscreveu e foi admitido no Quaker Monthly Meeting no Condado de Hanover, Virginia, onde moravam os pais de Coles. Ele se tornou um seguidor fervoroso e eles criaram seus filhos na fé quacre.

Em 1769, os Paynes retornaram à Virgínia [4] e a jovem Dolley cresceu na plantação de seus pais na zona rural do leste da Virgínia e tornou-se profundamente ligada à família de sua mãe. Por fim, ela teve três irmãs (Lucy, Anna e Mary) e quatro irmãos (Walter, William Temple, Isaac e John). [ citação necessária ]

Em 1783, após a Guerra Revolucionária Americana, John Payne emancipou seus escravos, [4] assim como vários proprietários de escravos no Upper South. [5] Alguns, como Payne, eram quacres, que por muito tempo encorajaram a alforria, outros foram inspirados por ideais revolucionários. De 1782 a 1810, a proporção de negros livres em relação ao total da população negra na Virgínia aumentou de menos de um por cento para 7,2 por cento, e mais de 30.000 negros eram livres. [5]

Quando Dolley tinha 15 anos, Payne mudou-se com a família para a Filadélfia, onde abriu um negócio como comerciante de amido, mas o negócio faliu em 1791. Isso foi visto como uma "fraqueza" em suas reuniões quacres, pelas quais ele foi expulso. [6] Ele morreu em outubro de 1792 e Mary Payne inicialmente pagou as contas abrindo uma pensão, mas no ano seguinte ela levou seus dois filhos mais novos, Mary e John, e se mudou para o oeste da Virgínia para morar com sua filha Lucy e seu novo marido , George Steptoe Washington, um sobrinho de George Washington. [ citação necessária ]

Edição de casamento e família

Em janeiro de 1790, Dolley Payne casou-se com John Todd, um advogado quacre na Filadélfia. Eles rapidamente tiveram dois filhos, John Payne (chamado Payne) e William Temple (nascido em 4 de julho de 1793 [7]). Depois que Mary Payne deixou a Filadélfia em 1793, a irmã de Dolley, Anna Payne, foi morar com eles para ajudar com as crianças.

Em agosto de 1793, uma epidemia de febre amarela estourou na Filadélfia, matando 5.019 pessoas em quatro meses. [8] Dolley foi atingida de forma particularmente dura, perdendo seu marido, filho William, sogra e sogro. [6]

Embora sofresse a perda de grande parte de sua família, ela também teve que cuidar de seu filho sobrevivente sem apoio financeiro. Enquanto seu marido havia deixado seu dinheiro em seu testamento, o executor, seu cunhado, reteve os fundos e ela teve que processá-lo pelo que era devido. [6]

Apesar da posição enfraquecida de Dolley após a morte da maioria de seus parentes do sexo masculino, ela ainda era considerada uma bela mulher e vivia na capital temporária dos Estados Unidos, Filadélfia. Enquanto sua mãe foi morar com outra filha casada em 1801, Dolley chamou a atenção de James Madison, que então representava Virginia na Câmara dos Representantes dos Estados Unidos. Embora casar novamente tenha sido crucial para ela, já que manter a si mesma e ao filho com a renda que uma mulher poderia ganhar seria um desafio, dizem que ela parecia genuinamente se importar com James. [6]

Algumas fontes afirmam que Aaron Burr, um amigo de longa data de Madison desde seus dias de estudante no College of New Jersey (agora chamado Princeton University), ficou em uma pensão onde Dolley também residia, e foi idéia de Aaron apresentar os dois. Em maio de 1794, Burr fez a apresentação formal entre a jovem viúva e Madison, que aos 43 anos era solteirona de longa data, 17 anos mais velha. Seguiu-se um rápido namoro e, em agosto, Dolley aceitou sua proposta de casamento. Como ele não era um quaker, ela foi expulsa da Sociedade de Amigos por se casar fora de sua religião, após o que Dolley começou a frequentar os serviços episcopais. Apesar de sua educação quacre, não há evidências de que ela desaprovasse James como dono de escravos. [6] Eles se casaram em 15 de setembro de 1794 e viveram na Filadélfia pelos três anos seguintes. [9]

Em 1797, após oito anos na Câmara dos Representantes, James Madison se aposentou da política. Ele voltou com sua família para Montpelier, a plantação da família Madison em Orange County, Virgínia. Lá, eles expandiram a casa e se estabeleceram. Quando Thomas Jefferson foi eleito como o terceiro presidente dos Estados Unidos em 1800, ele pediu a Madison para servir como seu secretário de Estado. Madison aceitou e mudou Dolley, seu filho Payne, sua irmã Anna e seus escravos domésticos para Washington na F Street. Eles ocuparam uma casa grande, pois Dolley acreditava que o entretenimento seria importante na nova capital. [10]

Dolley trabalhou com o arquiteto Benjamin Henry Latrobe para mobiliar a Casa Branca, a primeira residência oficial construída para o presidente dos Estados Unidos. Ela às vezes servia como anfitriã do viúvo Jefferson para funções cerimoniais oficiais. [11] Dolley se tornaria uma parte crucial do círculo social de Washington, fazendo amizade com as esposas de vários diplomatas como Sarah Martinez de Yrujo, esposa do embaixador da Espanha, e Marie-Angelique Turreau, esposa do embaixador francês. Seu charme precipitou uma crise diplomática, chamada de Merry Affair, depois que Jefferson escoltou Dolley até a sala de jantar em vez da esposa de Anthony Merry, diplomata inglês nos EUA, em um grande erro.

Na aproximação da eleição presidencial de 1808, com Thomas Jefferson pronto para se aposentar, a bancada democrata-republicana indicou James Madison para sucedê-lo. Ele foi eleito presidente, cumprindo dois mandatos de 1809 a 1817, e Dolley tornou-se a anfitriã oficial da Casa Branca. [12] Dolley ajudou a definir as funções oficiais, decorou a Mansão Executiva e deu as boas-vindas aos visitantes em sua sala de estar. Ela era conhecida por suas graças sociais e hospitalidade, e contribuiu para a popularidade de seu marido como presidente. Ela foi a única primeira-dama a receber um assento honorário no plenário do Congresso e a primeira americana a responder a uma mensagem telegráfica. [13] Em 1812, James foi reeleito. Este foi o ano em que a Guerra de 1812 começou com a Grã-Bretanha. Depois de enviar o diplomata e poeta Joel Barlow à Europa para discutir o Decreto de Berlim e as polêmicas Ordens em Conselho, James Madison entregaria seu pedido de guerra ao Congresso.

Queima de Washington, 1814 Editar

Depois que os Estados Unidos declararam guerra em 1812 e tentaram invadir o Canadá em 1813, uma força britânica atacou Washington em 1814. À medida que se aproximava e a equipe da Casa Branca se preparava apressadamente para fugir, Dolley encomendou a pintura de Stuart, uma cópia do retrato de Lansdowne, ser salva, como escreveu em carta à irmã às 3 horas da tarde de 23 de agosto:

Nosso amável amigo, o Sr. Carroll, veio apressar minha partida, e de muito mau humor comigo, porque insisto em esperar até que o grande quadro do General Washington esteja seguro e precise ser desparafusado da parede. O processo foi considerado tedioso demais para esses momentos perigosos. Ordenei que a moldura fosse quebrada e a tela retirada. Está feito, e o precioso retrato colocado nas mãos de dois cavalheiros de Nova York para mantê-lo em segurança. Ao entregar a tela aos cavalheiros em questão, Srs. Barker e Depeyster, o Sr. Sioussat os advertiu contra enrolá-la, dizendo que isso destruiria o retrato. Ele foi movido para isso porque o Sr. Barker começou a enrolá-lo para maior comodidade de transporte. [14] [15]

Relatos populares durante e após os anos de guerra tendem a retratar Dolley como quem removeu a pintura, e ela se tornou uma heroína nacional. Historiadores do início do século XX observaram que Jean Pierre Sioussat havia dirigido os criados, muitos dos quais eram escravos, na crise, e que escravos domésticos eram os que realmente preservavam a pintura. [16] [17]

Dolley Madison saiu apressada em sua carruagem, junto com outras famílias que fugiam da cidade. Eles foram para Georgetown e no dia seguinte cruzaram o Potomac para a Virgínia. [18] Quando o perigo diminuiu depois que os britânicos deixaram Washington alguns dias depois, ela voltou à capital para se encontrar com seu marido. No entanto, a pilhagem desenfreada e a destruição sistemática devastaram grande parte da nova cidade. Quando o Congresso iniciou as discussões sobre a construção de uma nova capital, Dolley e James mudaram-se para a Octagon House.

Em 6 de abril de 1817, um mês após sua aposentadoria da presidência, Dolley e James Madison retornaram à plantação de Montpelier em Orange County, Virgínia. [19]

Em 1830, o filho de Dolley, Payne Todd, que nunca encontrou uma carreira, foi para a prisão de devedores na Filadélfia e os Madisons venderam terras em Kentucky e hipotecaram metade da plantação de Montpelier para pagar suas dívidas. [20]

James morreu em Montpelier em 28 de junho de 1836. Dolley permaneceu em Montpelier por um ano. Sua sobrinha Anna Payne foi morar com ela, e Todd veio para uma longa estadia. Durante esse tempo, Dolley organizou e copiou os papéis do marido. O Congresso autorizou $ 55.000 como pagamento pela edição e publicação de sete volumes dos documentos de Madison, incluindo suas notas exclusivas sobre a convenção de 1787. [19]

No outono de 1837, Dolley voltou a Washington, encarregando Todd de cuidar da plantação. Ela e sua irmã Anna se mudaram para uma casa, comprada por Anna e seu marido Richard Cutts, na Lafayette Square. Madison levou Paul Jennings como mordomo e ele foi forçado a deixar sua família na Virgínia. [21]

Enquanto Dolley Madison morava em Washington, Payne Todd não conseguiu administrar a plantação, devido ao alcoolismo e doenças relacionadas. Ela tentou arrecadar dinheiro vendendo o resto dos papéis do presidente. Ela concordou em vender Jennings para Daniel Webster, que permitiu que ele ganhasse sua liberdade pagando-o pelo trabalho.

Incapaz de encontrar um comprador para os papéis, ela vendeu Montpelier, seus escravos restantes e a mobília para pagar dívidas pendentes.

Paul Jennings, o ex-escravo dos Madisons, mais tarde lembrado em suas memórias,

Nos últimos dias de sua vida, antes que o Congresso comprasse os papéis de seu marido, ela estava em estado de pobreza absoluta, e acho que às vezes sofria pelas necessidades da vida. Enquanto eu era um servo do Sr. Webster, ele freqüentemente me mandava até ela com uma cesta cheia de provisões, e me dizia sempre que eu visse alguma coisa na casa que eu achasse que ela precisava, para levar para ela. Eu costumava fazer isso e, ocasionalmente, dava a ela pequenas quantias de meu próprio bolso, embora eu já tivesse comprado a liberdade dela anos antes. [22]

Em 1848, o Congresso concordou em comprar o restante dos documentos de James Madison por US $ 22.000 ou US $ 25.000. [ citação necessária ]

Em 1842, Dolley Madison juntou-se à Igreja Episcopal de St. John, Lafayette Square em Washington, D.C. Esta igreja era frequentada por outros membros das famílias Madison e Payne.

Em 28 de fevereiro de 1844, Madison estava com o presidente John Tyler a bordo do USS Princeton quando um canhão "Peacemaker" explodiu no processo de ser disparado. Enquanto os secretários de Estado e da Marinha Abel P. Upshur e Thomas Walker Gilmer, o futuro sogro de Tyler, David Gardiner, e três outros foram mortos, o presidente Tyler e Dolley Madison escaparam ilesos.

Ela morreu em sua casa em Washington em 1849, aos 81 anos. Ela foi sepultada pela primeira vez no cemitério do Congresso, Washington, D.C., mas mais tarde foi enterrada novamente em Montpelier ao lado de seu marido. [11]

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, o navio da Liberdade SS Dolly Madison foi construído na Cidade do Panamá, Flórida, e batizado em sua homenagem. [23]

Madison foi um membro da turma inaugural de Mulheres da Virgínia de História em 2000. [24]

No passado, biógrafos e outros afirmaram que seu nome era Dorothea, em homenagem a sua tia, ou Dorothy, e que Dolley era um apelido. Mas seu nascimento foi registrado no New Garden Friends Meeting como Dolley, e seu testamento de 1841 afirma "Eu, Dolly P. Madison". [25] Com base na evidência do manuscrito e na bolsa de biógrafos recentes, Dollie, soletrada "ie", parece ter sido seu nome de nascimento. [26] [27] Por outro lado, a imprensa escrita, especialmente jornais, tendia a soletrá-lo "Dolly": por exemplo, o Hallowell (Maine) Gazette, 8 de fevereiro de 1815, p. 4, refere-se a como o Congresso concedeu a "Madame Dolly Madison" um subsídio de US $ 14.000 para a compra de móveis novos e o New Bedford (MA) de 3 de março de 1837, p. 2 referiu-se a uma série de documentos importantes de seu falecido marido e disse que a "Sra. Dolly Madison" seria paga pelo Senado por esses manuscritos históricos. Várias revistas da época também usavam a grafia "Dolly", como The Knickerbocker, Fevereiro de 1837, p. 165 [28] assim como muitas revistas populares das décadas de 1860 a 1890. Ela foi referida como "Senhora Dolly" em um ensaio de Munsey's Magazine em 1896. [29] Sua sobrinha-neta Lucia Beverly Cutts, em seu Memórias e cartas de Dolly Madison: esposa de James Madison, presidente dos Estados Unidos (1896) usa "Dolly" de forma consistente em todo o livro. [30]


Dolley Payne Todd Madison

Dolley Payne Todd Madison, uma das primeiras-damas mais conhecidas e amadas, era a esposa de James Madison, o quarto presidente dos Estados Unidos (1809-1817). Seu estilo icônico e presença social impulsionaram a popularidade de seu marido como presidente.

Por meio século ela foi a mulher mais importante nos círculos sociais da América. Até hoje ela continua sendo uma das damas mais conhecidas e amadas da Casa Branca - embora muitas vezes referida, erroneamente, como Dorothy ou Dorothea.

Ela sempre se chamou Dolley, e com esse nome a Reunião Mensal New Garden da Sociedade de Amigos, em Piedmont, Carolina do Norte, registrou seu nascimento para John e Mary Coles Payne, colonos da Virgínia. Em 1769, John Payne levou sua família de volta para sua colônia natal e em 1783 mudou-se para Filadélfia, cidade dos Quakers. Dolley cresceu sob a rígida disciplina da Sociedade, mas nada silenciava sua personalidade feliz e seu coração caloroso.

John Todd Jr., advogado, trocou votos de casamento com Dolley em 1790. Apenas três anos depois ele morreu em uma epidemia de febre amarela, deixando sua esposa com um filho pequeno.

Nessa época, Filadélfia havia se tornado a capital. Com seu charme e olhos azuis sorridentes, pele clara e cachos negros, a jovem viúva atraiu atenção distinta. Em pouco tempo, Dolley estava relatando a sua melhor amiga que "a grande e pequena Madison pediu ... para me ver esta noite".

Embora o representante James Madison, da Virgínia, fosse 17 anos mais velho que ela e tivesse formação episcopal, eles se casaram em setembro de 1794. O casamento, embora sem filhos, foi notavelmente feliz, “nossos corações se entendem”, garantiu ela. Ele poderia até ser paciente com o filho de Dolley, Payne, que lidou mal com seus próprios negócios - e, eventualmente, administrou mal os bens de Madison.

Descartando o vestido quacre sombrio após seu segundo casamento, Dolley escolheu a melhor das modas. Margaret Bayard Smith, cronista do início da vida social de Washington, escreveu: "Ela parecia uma rainha ... Seria absolutamente impossível para qualquer pessoa se comportar com mais propriedade perfeita do que ela."

Abençoada com um desejo de agradar e uma disposição para ser satisfeita, Dolley fez de sua casa o centro da sociedade quando Madison começou, em 1801, seus oito anos como Secretário de Estado de Jefferson. Ela ajudou na Casa Branca quando o presidente pediu-lhe ajuda para receber mulheres e presidiu o primeiro baile de posse em Washington, quando seu marido se tornou chefe do executivo em 1809.

As qualidades sociais de Dolley a tornaram famosa. Sua perspicácia política, valorizada por seu marido, é menos conhecida, embora seu tato cortês suavizasse muitas brigas. Estadistas hostis, enviados difíceis da Espanha ou da Tunísia, chefes guerreiros do oeste, jovens agitados - ela sempre deu as boas-vindas a todos. Forçada a fugir da Casa Branca por um exército britânico durante a Guerra de 1812, ela voltou para encontrar a mansão em ruínas. Destemida por aposentos temporários, ela entreteve tão habilmente como sempre.

Em sua plantação, Montpelier, na Virgínia, os Madisons viveram em uma aposentadoria agradável até que ele morreu em 1836. Ela voltou para a capital no outono de 1837, e amigos encontraram maneiras diplomáticas de complementar sua renda diminuída. Ela permaneceu em Washington até sua morte em 1849, honrada e amada por todos. A personalidade encantadora desta mulher incomum é uma parte importante da história de seu país.


Vestido de veludo vermelho de The Legend of Dolley Madison

Enquanto o general Robert Ross e suas 4.000 tropas britânicas se aproximavam de Washington, com ordens de incendiar os prédios públicos da cidade, Dolley Madison manteve sua posição na Casa Branca. Uma das primeiras-damas mais poderosas da história, ela manteve a compostura o suficiente para reunir alguns dos tesouros da nação antes de escapar.

Naquele dia fatídico, 24 de agosto de 1814, Dolley notoriamente providenciou para que servos arrebentassem a moldura do retrato de George Washington de Gilbert Stuart Stuart # 8217 pendurado na sala de jantar oficial e o levassem para um lugar seguro. Ela também guardou um pouco de prata, porcelana e, de todas as coisas, cortinas de veludo vermelho da Sala Oval.

Na National Portrait Gallery, um vestido de veludo vermelho flamejante atrai a atenção dos visitantes para & # 82201812: A Nation Emerges & # 8221 uma nova exposição que comemora o bicentenário da Guerra de 1812. Poderia o vestido em estilo império, que Dolley Madison possuída até sua morte em 1849, foram feitas com as cortinas que ela salvou da Casa Branca? Alguns historiadores e curadores suspeitam que sim.

A montagem da história do vestido requer, primeiro, uma consideração da história das cortinas. Em 1809, o Congresso destinou US $ 14.000 para o arquiteto Benjamin Latrobe redecorar a Casa Branca. Para a Sala de Estar Oval (agora chamada de Sala Azul), Latrobe imaginou uma grande janela feita de damasco de seda. Mas ele escreveu a Dolley, em 22 de março de 1809, com notícias decepcionantes: & # 8220Não há damasco de seda disponível em Nova York ou Filadélfia e, portanto, sou forçado a lhe dar cortinas de veludo carmesim. & # 8221

Quando Latrobe recebeu o veludo, ele o achou extravagante. & # 8220As cortinas! Oh, as terríveis cortinas de veludo! Seu efeito me arruinará inteiramente, de tão brilhantes que serão ”, escreveu ele em uma carta de abril à primeira-dama. Já Dolley, conhecida por ter gostos ousados, gostou do tecido.

& # 8220Ela consegue o que quer, é claro & # 8221 diz Sid Hart, historiador sênior e curador da exposição da National Portrait Gallery & # 8217s.

Uma carta que Dolley escreveu para a esposa de Latrobe, Mary, logo após o incêndio da Casa Branca, é freqüentemente citada como prova de que ela, de fato, agarrou as cortinas. & # 8220Duas horas antes de o inimigo entrar na cidade & # 8230, enviei as cortinas de prata (quase todas) e de veludo e a foto do General Washington & # 8217s. & # 8221 Ela providenciou para que apenas alguns itens queridos fossem salvos, então por que incluir o cortinas?

Na National Portrait Gallery, um vestido de veludo vermelho flamejante atrai a atenção dos visitantes para "1812: A Nation Emerges", uma nova exposição que comemora o bicentenário da Guerra de 1812. (Greensboro Historical Museum) Enquanto o general Robert Ross e suas 4.000 tropas britânicas se aproximavam de Washington, com ordens de incendiar os prédios públicos da cidade, Dolley Madison manteve sua posição na Casa Branca. (Dolley Dandridge Payne Todd Madison por Gilbert Stuart / White House Historical Association (Coleção da Casa Branca)) Alguns historiadores e curadores suspeitam que o vestido estilo império, que Dolley Madison possuiu até sua morte em 1849, pode ter sido feito com as cortinas que ela salvou da Casa Branca em 1814. (Mark Gulezian. & # 169 National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Instituição)

& # 8220Ela tinha um carinho especial pelas cortinas & # 8221 diz Hart. & # 8220Talvez eles representassem de alguma forma em sua mente seus esforços para fazer da Casa Branca um centro de atividade social. & # 8221

Com a eclosão da Guerra Civil de 1812, a nação estava tão polarizada quanto estaria quase 50 anos depois, no início da Guerra Civil. Os republicanos democratas, como o presidente Madison, apoiaram a guerra, enquanto os federalistas se opuseram a ela. & # 8220É necessário haver uma força coesa em Washington & # 8221 diz Hart. Por mais vivaz que fosse, Dolley desempenhou esse papel.

Durante o mandato de seu marido como presidente, Dolley oferecia festas todas as quartas-feiras à noite, com a presença de pessoas de diferentes pontos de vista. Com bastante propósito, ela reuniu facções na esperança de que acordos pudessem ser feitos. As reuniões, muitas vezes realizadas na Sala Oval, onde as cortinas de veludo estavam penduradas, eram chamadas de & # 8220squeezes & # 8221 Hart explica, porque & # 8220todo mundo queria se espremer. & # 8221

Mais tarde, já viúva, Dolley era bastante pobre. Quando ela morreu, a maioria de seus bens restantes foi vendida em leilão público. Em um leilão em 1852, a sobrinha de Dolley & # 8217s Anna Payne comprou o vestido de veludo vermelho, um retrato de Dolley, alguns de seus turbantes de seda e outros itens, que a filha e o neto de Payne & # 8217 mais tarde herdaram. Em 1956, um baú contendo os pertences foi descoberto no sótão de uma casa rural da Pensilvânia, onde morava a viúva do neto & # 8217s. A Dolley Madison Memorial Association investiu na coleção e, em seguida, doou-a ao Museu Histórico de Greensboro em 1963. (Dolley nasceu em Greensboro.)

Uma vez nas mãos do museu, os pesquisadores começaram a falar sobre como o vestido vermelho Dolley & # 8217s parecia ser feito de veludo pesado. O vestido foi apresentado em uma exposição de 1977, intitulada & # 8220Dolley and the & # 8216Great Little Madison & # 8217 & # 8221 na Octagon House em Washington, onde os Madisons viveram após o incêndio da Casa Branca. Em um livro que acompanha o programa, o curador do programa Conover Hunt-Jones observou que o vestido foi feito & # 8220não dos veludos leves normalmente usados ​​para roupas. & # 8221 A observação foi suficiente para alimentar a imaginação dos historiadores, e muitos desde então acalentou a ideia de que Dolley pode ter reaproveitado as cortinas.

& # 8220Parece estar dentro do personagem & # 8221 diz Susan Webster, curadora de trajes e tecidos no Museu Histórico de Greensboro. & # 8220Por que desperdiçar isso e não & # 8217não será uma ótima peça para falar quando estivermos jantando com as pessoas? Talvez seja sua praticidade como quaker. Acho que ela valorizava coisas. Ela entendeu o valor deles. & # 8221

Os documentos encontrados com o vestido vermelho o prendem, inquestionavelmente, a Dolley. Provavelmente foi feito em algum momento entre 1810 e 1820. No entanto, nenhum registro, seja uma carta de Dolley & # 8217s ou um pedido de um vestido, foi encontrado ligando o vestido às cortinas de Latrobe & # 8217s. & # 8220É um folclore do século 20 & # 8221 diz Webster.

Na agitação da publicidade para a exposição National Portrait Gallery & # 8217s, Diane Dunkley, diretora e curadora-chefe do Museu das Filhas da Revolução Americana (DAR), também em Washington, DC, leu sobre o vestido & # 8212 provavelmente em exibição para o da última vez devido à sua condição frágil. Suas orelhas se animaram. O Museu DAR tem em sua coleção uma amostra de tecido supostamente das cortinas de veludo vermelho.

Planos formulados rapidamente. O DAR Museum e o Greensboro Historical Museum enviaram recortes das supostas cortinas e do vestido para o National Museum of American History, para o conservador de trajes Sunae Park Evans para compará-los usando um novo microscópio digital.

& # 8220Você não pode & # 8217t provar absolutamente que a história é verdadeira apenas por uma comparação, & # 8221 explica Alden O & # 8217Brien, curador de trajes e tecidos no Museu DAR. Afinal, só por meio da história oral o DAR Museum sabe que sua amostra vem das cortinas. & # 8220Mas se os tecidos combinam, isso aumenta a probabilidade de que haja verdade nas histórias compartilhadas & # 8221, diz ela.

Em um laboratório bem iluminado no porão do Museu de História Americana, acompanhado por alguns corpetes de manequim de isopor parcialmente construídos, vejo Evans e O & # 8217Brien analisarem um pequeno pedaço do resto do DAR & # 8217s. A visão ampliada do microscópio & # 8217s é transposta para a tela do computador. Com base na trama do tecido & # 8217s, eles rapidamente percebem que é cetim, não veludo. De forma um tanto decepcionante, O & # 8217Brien conclui que a amostra não poderia ser das cortinas vermelhas da Sala Oval, como pensava o DAR, uma vez que todas as referências às cortinas especificam que são de veludo.

Evans então coloca um pequeno pedaço do vestido, tirado de uma costura interna, sob a lente. & # 8220Oh, estrutura de trama muito diferente, & # 8221 O & # 8217Brien exclama. & # 8220Totalmente diferente. & # 8221 Na verdade, a cor também é. Esta peça é mais rosada do que a amostra anterior. Com base na forma como as fibras são tecidas, Evans diz com certeza que esta & # 160é& # 160velvet. Seja & # 160a& # 160velvet das cortinas, porém, ninguém pode dizer.

Hart, da National Portrait Gallery, gosta de acreditar na história. & # 8220Parece razoável para mim & # 8221 diz o historiador. Dolley manteve o vestido até o dia de sua morte. & # 8220Mas não há como ver que isso possa realmente ser provado de uma forma ou de outra & # 8221, diz ele.


Fatos sobre Dolley Madison 9: casado com James Madison

Em 15 de setembro de 1794, Dolley casou-se com James Madison depois que ele foi expulso da Sociedade de Amigos porque Madison não era quacre.

Fatos sobre Dolley Madison 10: como a primeira-dama

Dolley assumiu o papel de primeira-dama depois que seu marido foi eleito presidente. Ela se destacou por sua hospitalidade e graça social.

Você gosta de ler fatos sobre Dolley Madison?


SOBRE DOLLEY PAYNE MADISON:

Aqui estão algumas informações que indicam que Dolley Madison, esposa do presidente James Madison, pode ser um parente de sangue:

Do PoliSci Dept., W.Virginia University, Marion County History: & quot A história oral indica que em 1808 BOAZ FLEMING fez sua viagem anual a Clarksburg para pagar os impostos de Harrison County de seu irmão. Enquanto em Clarksburg, ele participou de uma reunião social que incluiu DOLLY MADISON, sua prima. & Quot

John Fleming era seu tataravô. Ele nasceu na Escócia por volta de 1627 e morreu na Virgínia por volta de 1686.

De Ancestry.com e outras fontes: Mary Cole, a mãe de Dolley, morreu em Clarksburg, VA em 1808. Este foi o mesmo ano em que Boaz Fleming visitou Clarksburg e encontrou sua prima, Dolley.

De Wikipedia.org/DolleyMadison: Dolley Payne Todd casou-se com James Madison em 15 de setembro de 1794 em Harewood, Virgínia (agora W.Virginia), uma plantação de propriedade de sua irmã, Mary, e de seu cunhado, George Steptoe Washington, sobrinho do 1º Presidente dos EUA, GEORGE WASHINGTON.

O primeiro marido de Dolley foi John Todd, Jr. Eles tiveram dois filhos. John morreu em 1793 junto com seu filho mais velho e seus pais de febre amarela.


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Sobre Dolly Madison, Primeira Dama dos EUA

First Lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She also occasionally acted as what is now described as First Lady of the United States during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, fulfilling the ceremonial functions more usually associated with the President's wife, since Jefferson was a widower.[1] It is disputed as to whether her true name is Dorothea, Dorothy, or Dolley and her name has been widely misspelled as "Dolly" her most recent biographers use the name Dolley as that is how she identified herself during her lifetime and because that is how her name was registered at her birth.

On January 7, 1790, in Philadelphia, she married John Todd, Jr. (1764-1793), a lawyer who was instrumental in keeping her father out of bankruptcy and who found Mary Payne a position as the manager of a boarding house. The couple had two sons, John Payne (February 29, 1792-1852) and William Temple (born/died in 1793). In 1793, a yellow fever epidemic broke out in Philadelphia. Her husband moved Dolley and their older son, out of the city to safety, while he returned to attend to the sick including his parents. John Todd and his parents soon died, however. [6] Their youngest son, William Temple Todd, also died in 1793 from yellow fever.[7] Dolley and her other son, John Payne, were both also afflicted with yellow fever, but recovered.

Marriage to James Madison:

In 1794, after returning to Philadelphia, her friend Aaron Burr, who was a frequent guest at the boarding house managed by Mary Payne, introduced her to James Madison. On September 14, 1794, Dolley Todd married James Madison, who was seventeen years older. The location of the wedding was Harewood, Virginia (now in West Virginia), a plantation owned by the bride's brother-in-law George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of the first president of the United States. The Madisons had no children but raised Dolley's son from her first marriage, John Payne Todd, whom they called Payne.

The First Spouse Program under the Presidential $1 Coin Act authorizes the United States Mint to issue 1/2 ounce $10 gold coins and bronze medal duplicates[8] to honor the spouses of Presidents of the United States. Dolley Madison's coin (below, right) was released on November 18, 2007. Earlier, the Mint had issued a commemorative coin (below, left) in 1999 bearing her likeness. ________________________________________________________________________________________ During the War of 1812, the Tayloe family offered their home, known as The Octagon, as a temporary "Executive Mansion" after the British burned the White House. There are reports of Dolley Madison's ghost seen roaming the house after her death, still wearing her elegant clothes and the feathered turban.

Dolley Madison was the wife of James Madison, the architect of the U.S. Constitution and fourth president of the United States (1809­�). She was the third woman to serve as what is now called "first lady," and her imprint as the national hostess defined the role until the more activist Eleanor Roosevelt broke Madison's ceremonial model. It was during her years in the White House that Madison gained her fame as a shrewd and graceful politician who could win the hearts of those who opposed her husband, and the greatest Washington hostess of the first quarter of the nineteenth century. She is also known for saving a portrait of George Washington during the War of 1812. After the end of James Madison's second term in the White House, the couple returned to live at their plantation, Montpelier, in Orange County, where they remained until James Madison died in 1836. From 1836 to 1844, Dolley Madison resided both in Washington, D.C., and at Montpelier, after which she spent the last five and a half years of her life in Washington. She was criticized by abolitionists for continuing to own slaves but remained a prominent national figure even while facing serious financial struggles. Along with Elizabeth Hamilton, the wife of Alexander Hamilton, she was the last surviving member of the founding generation, admired and esteemed for both her own contributions and those of her husband. She died in 1849 in Washington, where she was buried. Her remains were later moved to the Madison family cemetery at Montpelier.

BURIAL DATE IS NOT WRONG -- READ BIO BELOW. Dolley was buried three different times.

Presidential First Lady. She was the wife of 4th United States President James Madison. Born in New Garden, North Carolina, she married John Todd, Jr., a lawyer, in 1790. He succumbed to yellow fever in 1793, leaving her with a small son, Payne. Her second marriage was to James Madison, who was then serving as a Congressman from Virginia, and was seventeen years her senior. He was very patient with his stepson Payne who first mismanaged his own affairs and eventually his mothers which left her destitute. She was a great asset to Madison's career. When her husband was appointed Secretary of State by the widowed President Thomas Jefferson in 1801, Dolley assisted him as White House hostess and presided at the first inaugural ball when her husband became Chief Executive in 1809. During the burning of the White House in 1814, she saved many state papers and a portrait of George Washington from the advancing British. Upon her husbands death in 1836 in Virginia, she returned to Washington, D.C. residing on Lafayette Square where she retained a place in Washington society and was granted a lifelong seat on the floor of the House of Representatives. Upon her death she was interred in a brick receiving vault at the Congressional Cemetery, Washington D.C. It was removed in 1852 and placed in the private vault of her niece. The remains were on the move again in 1858 when it was exhumed and transported to the Madison family graveyard at Montpelier and interred behind her husband's monument. (bio by: Paul S.)

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Wife of James Madison, the fourth President of the United States.

Dolley Payne Todd Madison (May 20, 1768 – July 12, 1849) was the spouse of the fourth President of the United States, James Madison, and was First Lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She also occasionally acted as First Lady during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, fulfilling the ceremonial functions more usually associated with the President's wife, since Jefferson was a widower.[1]

In the past, biographers and others stated that her real name was Dorothea after her Aunt, or Dorothy and Dolley was a nickname. However, the registry of her birth with the New Garden Friends Meeting lists her name as Dolley and her will of 1841 states "I, Dolley p. Madison"[2]. Based on manuscript evidence and the scholarship of her recent biographers, Dolley, spelled with an E, appears to have been her given name.[3]

Early life and first marriage

Dolley Payne was born on May 20, 1768, in the Quaker settlement of New Garden, North Carolina, in Guilford County. [4] Her parents, both Virginians, had moved there in 1765. Her mother, Mary Cole, a Quaker, married John Payne, a non-Quaker, in 1761. Three years later, he applied and was admitted to the Quaker Monthly Meeting in Hanover County, Virginia, and Dolley Payne was raised in the Quaker faith.

Dolley was one of 8 children, four boys (Walter, William Temple, Isaac, and John) and four girls (Dolley, Lucy, Anna, and Mary). In 1769, the family returned to Virginia.[5] As a young girl, she grew up in comfort in rural eastern Virginia, deeply attached to her mother's family.

In 1783, John Payne emancipated his slaves and moved his family to Philadelphia, where he went into business as a starch merchant. By 1789, however, his business had failed. He died in 1792. Dolley's mother initially made ends meet by opening a boarding house. A year later she moved to western Virginia to live with her daughter Lucy, who had married George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of George Washington. Mary Coles Payne took her two youngest children, Mary and John, with her. By then, Dolley Payne had married Quaker lawyer John Todd in January 1790. Their son, John Payne Todd, was born in 1792 and William Temple Todd in 1793. Her sister Anna lived with the Todds as well.

In the fall of 1793, yellow fever struck Philadelphia. Her husband and younger son, William Temple, both died in the epidemic, and Dolley Todd was left a widow at the age of twenty-five.

In May, 1794, James Madison asked his friend Aaron Burr to introduce him to Dolley Todd. Madison was seventeen years her senior and, at the age of forty-three, a long-standing bachelor.

The encounter apparently went smoothly for a brisk courtship followed, and by August she had accepted his proposal of marriage. For marrying Madison, a non-Quaker, she was expelled from the Society of Friends. They were married on September 15, 1794 and lived in Philadelphia for the next three years.

In 1797, after eight years in the House of Representatives, James Madison retired from politics. He took his family to Montpelier, the Madison family estate in Orange County, Virginia. There they expanded the house and settled in. They expected to remain as planters living quietly in the country but when Thomas Jefferson became the third president of the United States, in 1801, he asked James Madison to serve as his Secretary of State. James Madison accepted, and the Madison family, consisting now of James, Dolley, her son Payne, and her sister Anna, moved to Washington, D.C.. They moved to an extremely large house for the amount of their savings.

Madison worked with the architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe to furnish the White House.

In the approach to the 1808 presidential election, with Thomas Jefferson ready to retire, the Democratic-Republican caucus nominated James Madison to succeed him. James Madison was elected President, serving two terms from 1809 to 1817, with Dolley becoming official First Lady.

As the invading British army approached Washington during the War of 1812, Madison's slaves collected valuables like silver, Gilbert Stuart's famous portrait of George Washington, an original draft of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

However, in her own letter to her sister the day before Washington was burned (after hearing about the Battle of Bladensburg) [6],Dolly says she ordered that the painting be removed: "Our kind friend Mr. Carroll has come to hasten my departure, and in a very bad humor with me, because I insist on waiting until the large picture of General Washington is secured, and it requires to be unscrewed from the wall. The process was found too tedious for these perilous moments I have ordered the frame to be broken and the canvas taken out". "It is done, and the precious portrait placed in the hands of two gentlemen from New York for safe keeping. On handing the canvas to the gentlemen in question, Messrs. Barker and Depeyster, Mr. Sioussat cautioned them against rolling it up, saying that it would destroy the portrait. He was moved to this because Mr. Barker started to roll it up for greater convenience for carrying." [7]

The late White House historians JH McCormick (1904) and Gilson Willets (1908)identify the man in charge of removing the painting, as Jean Pierre Sioussat [8], the first Master of Ceremonies of the White House [9], quoted as follows: " a negro servant, named Paul Jennings, issued in 1865, A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison, in which he, as a White House employe, insists 'She (Mrs. Madison) had no time for doing it It would have required a ladder to get it down. All she carried off was the silver in her reticule, as the British were thought to be but a few squares off, and were expected every moment. John Suse (meaning Jean Sioussat), a Frenchman, then doorkeeper, and still living, and McGraw, the President's gardener, took it down and sent it off on a wagon with some larger silver urns and other such valuables as could be hastily got together. When the British did arrive they ate up the very dinner that I had prepared for the President's party.'"

The late White House historians give the accounts of further authorities regarding the First Lady's escape from fire of 1814:

"The friends with Mrs. Madison hurried her away (her carriage being previously ready), and she, with many other families, retreated with the flying army. In Georgetown they perceived some men before them carrying off the picture of General Washington (the large one by Stewart), which with the plate was all that was saved out of the President's house. Mrs. Madison lost all her own property. Mrs. Madison slept that night in the encampment, a guard being placed round her tent the next day she crossed into Virginia, where she remained until Sunday, when she returned to meet her husband."

An eye-witness, writing for the Federal Republican, published at the time of the fire, says: "About ten o'clock on the night of the 24th ult., while the Capitol, the Navy Yard, the Magazine, and the buildings attached thereto, on Greenleaf's Point, were entirely in flames, I was sitting in the window of my lodging on the Pennsylvania Avenue, contemplating the solemn and awful scene, when about a hundred men passed the house, troops of the enemy, on their way toward the President's house. They walked two abreast preceded by an officer on foot, each armed with a hanger, and wearing a chapeau de bras. In the middle of the ranks were two men, each with a dark lanthorn. They marched quickly but silently. Some of them, however, were talking in the ranks, which being overheard by the officer, he called out to them 'Silence! If any man speaks in the ranks, I'll put him to death' 1 Shortly after they pushed on, I observed four officers on horseback, with chapeau de bras and side arms. They made up to the house, and pulling off their hats in a polite and social manner, wished us a good evening. The family and myself returned the salute, and I observed to them, 'Gentlemen! I presume you are officers of the British Army'. They replied they were. 'I hope, sir', said I, addressing one that rode up under the window, which I found to be Admiral Cockburn, 'that individuals and private property will be respected'. Admiral Cockburn and General Ross immediately replied: 'Yes, sir, we pledge our sacred honor that the citizens and private property shall be respected. Be under no apprehension. Our advice to you is to remain at home. Do not quit your houses'. Admiral Cockburn then inquired: 'Where is your President, Mr. Madison ?' I replied, "I could not tell, but supposed by this time at a considerable distance."

"They then observed that they were on their way to pay a visit to the President's house, which they were told was but a little distance ahead. They again requested that we would stay in our houses, where we would be perfectly safe, and bowing, politely, wished us good night, and proceeded on. I perceived the smoke coming from the windows of the President's house, and in a short time, that splendid and elegant edifice, reared at the expense of so much cost and labor, inferior to none that I have observed in the different parts of Europe, was wrapt in one entire flame. The large and elegant Capitol of the Nation on one side, and the splendid National Palace and Treasury Department on the other, all wrapt in flame, presented a grand and sublime, but, at the same time, an awful and melancholy sight."

On April 6 1817, Dolley and James Madison returned to their estate in Orange County, Virginia.

In 1830, Dolley Madison's son by her first marriage, Payne Todd, who had never found a career, went to debtors prison in Philadelphia. The Madisons sold land in Kentucky and mortgaged half of the Montpelier estate to pay Todd's debts.

James Madison died at Montpelier on June 28, 1836. Dolley remained at Montpelier for a year. One of her nieces, Anna Payne, came to live with her. Payne Todd also came for a stay, and Mrs. Madison organized and copied her husband's papers. In 1837, Congress authorized $30,000 as payment for the first installment of the Madison papers.

In the fall of 1837, Dolley Payne Madison decided to leave Montpelier for Washington, D.C., charging Payne Todd with the care of the plantation. She moved with Anna Payne into a house her sister Anna and her husband Richard Cutts had bought, located on Lafayette Square.

While Madison was living in Washington, Payne Todd was unable to manage the plantation successfully due to alcoholism and resulting illness. Madison tried to raise money by selling the rest of James' papers. Unable to find a buyer for the papers, she sold the whole estate to pay off outstanding debts. Paul Jennings later recalled, "In the last days of her life, before Congress purchased her husband's papers, she was in a state of absolute poverty, and I think sometimes suffered for the necessaries of life. While I was a servant to Mr. Webster, he often sent me to her with a market-basket full of provisions, and told me whenever I saw anything in the house that I thought she was in need of, to take it to her. I often did this, and occasionally gave her small sums from my own pocket, though I had years before bought my freedom of her."[10] In 1848, Congress agreed to buy the rest of James Madison's papers for the sum of $25,000.

Dolley Madison died at her home in Washington, DC at the age of 81. She was first interred in the Congressional Cemetery, Washington, DC., but later re-interred at Montpelier estate, Orange, Virginia. [11]

Dolley was born to John and Mary Coles Payne in North Carolina in 1768. In 1783, John Payne moved his family to Philadelphia, city of the Quakers. Although raised in the strict discipline of the Society of Friends, she had a happy personality and a warm heart.

John Todd, Jr., a lawyer, exchanged marriage vows with Dolley in 1790. Just three years later he died in a yellow-fever epidemic, leaving his wife with a small son.

By this time Philadelphia had become the capital city. With her charm and her laughing blue eyes, fair skin, and black curls, the young widow attracted distinguished attention. Although Representative James Madison of Virginia was 17 years her senior, and Episcopalian in background, they were married in September 1794. The marriage, though childless, was notably happy: "our hearts understand each other", she assured him. He could even be patient with Dolley's son, Payne, who mishandled his own affairs - and, eventually mismanaged Madison's estate.

Discarding the somber Quaker dress after her second marriage, Dolley chose the finest of fashions. Blessed with a desire to please, and a willingness to be pleased, Dolley made her home the center of society when Madison began, in 1801, his eight years as Jefferson's Secretary of State. She assisted at the White House when the President asked her help in receiving ladies, and presided at the first inaugural ball in Washington when her husband became Chief Executive in 1809.

Dolly's social graces made her famous. Her political acumen, prized by her husband, is less renowned, though her gracious tact smoothed many a quarrel. Hostile statesmen, difficult envoys from Spain or Tunisia, warrior chiefs from the west, flustered youngsters - she always welcomed everyone.

During the War of 1812, she was forced to flee Washington, as the British Army was advancing. But not before insisting on saving Stuart's oil portrait of George Washington. On August 24, 1814, the burning walls of the White House were saved only by a thunderstorm that broke that night. She returned to find the mansion in ruins. But undaunted by temporary quarters, she continued to entertain as skillfully as ever.

At their plantation Montpelier in Virginia, the Madisons lived in pleasant retirement until he died in 1836. She returned to the capital in the autumn of 1837, where she remained until her death in 1849, honored and loved by all.

Presidential First Lady. She was the wife of 4th United States President James Madison. Born in New Garden, North Carolina, she married John Todd, Jr., a lawyer, in 1790. He succumbed to yellow fever in 1793, leaving her with a small son, Payne. Her second marriage was to James Madison, who was then serving as a Congressman from Virginia, and was seventeen years her senior. He was very patient with his stepson Payne who first mismanaged his own affairs and eventually his mothers which left her destitute. She was a great asset to Madison's career. When her husband was appointed Secretary of State by the widowed President Thomas Jefferson in 1801, Dolley assisted him as White House hostess and presided at the first inaugural ball when her husband became Chief Executive in 1809. During the burning of the White House in 1814, she saved many state papers and a portrait of George Washington from the advancing British. Upon her husbands death in 1836 in Virginia, she returned to Washington, D.C. residing on Lafayette Square where she retained a place in Washington society and was granted a lifelong seat on the floor of the House of Representatives.

First Lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She also occasionally acted as what is now described as First Lady of the United States during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, fulfilling the ceremonial functions more usually associated with the President's wife, since Jefferson was a widower.[1] It is disputed as to whether her true name is Dorothea, Dorothy, or Dolley and her name has been widely misspelled as "Dolly" her most recent biographers use the name Dolley as that is how she identified herself during her lifetime and because that is how her name was registered at her birth.

On January 7, 1790, in Philadelphia, she married John Todd, Jr. (1764-1793), a lawyer who was instrumental in keeping her father out of bankruptcy and who found Mary Payne a position as the manager of a boarding house. The couple had two sons, John Payne (February 29, 1792-1852) and William Temple (born/died in 1793). In 1793, a yellow fever epidemic broke out in Philadelphia. Her husband moved Dolley and their older son, out of the city to safety, while he returned to attend to the sick including his parents. John Todd and his parents soon died, however. [6] Their youngest son, William Temple Todd, also died in 1793 from yellow fever.[7] Dolley and her other son, John Payne, were both also afflicted with yellow fever, but recovered.

Marriage to James Madison:

In 1794, after returning to Philadelphia, her friend Aaron Burr, who was a frequent guest at the boarding house managed by Mary Payne, introduced her to James Madison. On September 14, 1794, Dolley Todd married James Madison, who was seventeen years older. The location of the wedding was Harewood, Virginia (now in West Virginia), a plantation owned by the bride's brother-in-law George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of the first president of the United States. The Madisons had no children but raised Dolley's son from her first marriage, John Payne Todd, whom they called Payne.

The First Spouse Program under the Presidential $1 Coin Act authorizes the United States Mint to issue 1/2 ounce $10 gold coins and bronze medal duplicates[8] to honor the spouses of Presidents of the United States. Dolley Madison's coin (below, right) was released on November 18, 2007. Earlier, the Mint had issued a commemorative coin (below, left) in 1999 bearing her likeness. ________________________________________________________________________________________ During the War of 1812, the Tayloe family offered their home, known as The Octagon, as a temporary "Executive Mansion" after the British burned the White House. There are reports of Dolley Madison's ghost seen roaming the house after her death, still wearing her elegant clothes and the feathered turban.

BURIAL DATE IS NOT WRONG -- READ BIO BELOW. Dolley was buried three different times.


Dolley Madison

Dolley Payne was born on May 20, 1768, in the Quaker settlement of New Garden in Guilford County, North Carolina. Her parents, John and Mary Coles Payne, had moved there from Virginia in 1765. Her mother, a Quaker, had married John Payne, a non-Quaker, in 1761. Three years later, John was admitted to the Quaker Monthly Meeting in Hanover County, Virginia, and Dolley Payne was raised in the Quaker faith.

Dolley was one of 8 children, four boys and four girls. In 1769 the family returned to Virginia. As a young girl, Dolley grew up in comfort in rural eastern Virginia. In 1783, John Payne emancipated his slaves and moved the family to Philadelphia, where he went into business as a starch merchant.

No records exist of any formal education for Dolley. Although Philadelphia’s Pine Street Meeting, to which the Paynes belonged, did offer class instructions for girls as well as boys, Dolley was 15 years old at the time she moved to Philadelphia and was past the usual age for school.

By 1789, however, Payne’s business had failed he died in 1792. Dolley’s mother, Mary Coles Payne, initially made ends meet by opening a boarding house, and one of her guests was Congressman Aaron Burr. A year later Mary moved to western Virginia to live with her daughter Lucy, who had married George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of George Washington.

In January 1790, Dolley Payne married John Todd a lawyer and fellow Quaker. They lived in a modest three-story brick house at the corner of Fourth and Walnut Streets. Their son John Payne Todd was born in 1792 and William Temple Todd in 1793. Dolley’s eleven-year-old sister Anna, whom Dolley referred to as her “daughter-sister,” lived with the Todds as well.

During a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia in the fall of 1793, Dolley’s husband and younger son both died on the same day, leaving her a widow at the age of twenty-five.

In May 1794, James Madison, a Congressman from Virginia, asked his friend Aaron Burr to introduce him to Dolley Todd. Madison was seventeen years her senior and, at the age of forty-three, a long-standing bachelor. A courtship followed, and by August she had accepted his proposal of marriage.

On September 15, 1794, Dolley married James Madison at her sister Lucy’s home in present-day West Virginia. Following their wedding, James and Dolley honeymooned at the home of Madison’s sister, Nelly Hite, at Belle Grove near Winchester, Virginia, before returning to Philadelphia where Madison resumed his leadership duties in Congress. They lived in Madison’s elegant three-story Spruce Street brick house until his retirement from Congress in 1797.

For marrying a non-Quaker, she was expelled from the Society of Friends. This never seemed to bother the lively Dolley who later noted that the “Society used to control me entirely and debar me from so many advantages and pleasures.”

James Madison: Founding Father
James Madison was among the first to recognize that a stronger central government would be critical to the new nation’s survival. He undertook an exhaustive study of government structures throughout history, outlining reasons why earlier attempts at democracy and representative government failed. His research convinced him that the Articles would not withstand the onslaughts of state interests.

Madison’s ideas eventually crystallized into the Virginia Plan, where the interests of individuals, states, and the national authority were balanced and mixed into “an extended republic.” He also sought the counsel of influential Americans whose support was vital if any changes in the government were to take place. George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Edmund Randolph were among the prominent politicians to support Madison’s plan.

When the Constitutional Convention finally began in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, many feared that the young country was near collapse. During the long, hot summer that followed, the 55 delegates hammered out a new framework of government. Madison lobbied strongly for his positions, proposed compromises and took copious notes.

In the end, many of Madison’s proposals were incorporated into the Constitution, including representation in Congress according to population, support for a strong national executive, the need for checks and balances among the three branches of government and the idea of a federal system that assigned certain powers to the national government and reserved others for the states.

However, the Constitution still faced challenges with the state ratification conventions. Along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, Madison wrote a series of essays, The Federalist Papers, that argued for ratification. Virginia’s support would be absolutely critical, so he lobbied his fellow citizens hard for its passage. His efforts were rewarded in June 1788, when New Hampshire and Virginia ratified the Constitution.

In 1797, after eight years in the House of Representatives, James Madison retired from politics. He took his family to Montpelier, the Madison family estate in Orange County, Virginia. There they expanded the house and settled in, expecting to remain planters and live quietly in the country. Dolley assumed not only household management of the plantation and slaves, but also cared for her elderly mother-in-law who lived there.

However, when Thomas Jefferson became the third president of the United States in 1801, he asked James Madison to serve as his Secretary of State. He accepted, and the Madison family, moved to Washington, DC, the new capital, in June 1801.

Initially, the family – consisting now of James, Dolley, son Payne and sister Anna – lived in The White House (known simply as the “president’s house” at this time) with Jefferson, but by 1802 they had their own house on F Street two blocks away. Anna would continue as part of the family until she married Congressman Richard Cutts in 1804.

At receptions and dinners President Thomas Jefferson – who had been a widow since 1782 – felt required hostess, he asked Dolley Madison to help him. Though not given an official designation, her exposure to the political and diplomatic figures who were guests of the President, as well as to the general public who came to meet him, provided her with a lengthy experience as a White House hostess.

Dolley Madison’s popularity as a hostess for Jefferson in Washington added greatly to the recognition of her husband by those members of congress whose electoral votes chose the winner of presidential races. During the 1808 election, however, there was an attempt by Federalist newspapers in Baltimore and Boston that implied Mrs. Madison had been intimate with President Jefferson as a way of attacking her character.

In the approaching 1808 presidential election, with Jefferson ready to retire, the Democratic-Republican Party nominated James Madison to succeed him. Madison was elected the fourth President of the United States, serving two terms from 1809 to 1817 Dolley became First Lady of the United States.

Imagem: Presidente James Madison
4th President of the United States
John Vanderlyn, 1816

In the White House 1809-1817
In preparation for the inaugural ceremonies on March 4, 1809, the commandant of the Washington Navy Yard requested Dolley’s permission and sponsorship of a dance and dinner, and she readily agreed thus, the first Inaugural Ball took place that evening. Held at Long’s Hotel on Capitol Hill, four hundred guests attended. Dressed in a buff-colored velvet gown, wearing pearls and large plumes in a turban, Dolley made a dramatic impression.

With more conscious effort than either of her two predecessors, and with an enthusiasm for public life that neither of them had, Dolley Madison forged the highly public role as a President’s wife, believing that the citizenry was her constituency as well as that of her husband’s. This would establish her as the standard against which all her successors would be held, well into the mid-20th century.

This persona was specifically created to serve the political fortunes of not only the President, but also of the United States. She would steer conversation with political figures in a way that revealed their positions on issues facing the Madison Administration, or sought to convince them to consider the viewpoint of her husband. She held dove parties where congressional wives discussed current events, hosted political dinners, and gave wildly popular public receptions.

She was also the first to decorate the White House. Working within a tight budget, Dolley balanced the elegance required to impress international visitors and the modesty of a republican nation. Through her purchases of wallpaper, furniture, and china, Dolley Madison combined sophistication with simplicity. She completed her decoration of the White House by 1810, throwing a gala to display her achievements to the American public.

In 1814, while the War of 1812 was raging, the British Army advanced on Washington, and the President left the city to be on the front lines with the troops. He ordered his wife to leave, but she refused to leave until she heard cannon fire.

On August 24, 1814, British soldiers set fire to the White House, and fuel was added to the fires to ensure they would continue burning into the next day the smoke was reportedly visible as far away as Baltimore. Dolley commandeered a large wagon off the street and helped the servants load it with vital state documents, the President’s papers and books, her favorite silver and china, and at the last minute, Gilbert Stuart’s portrait of George Washington.

The fire in the White House destroyed the interior and charred much of the exterior. Reconstruction began almost immediately. Colonel John Tayloe III offered the use of his home, The Octagon House, to the Madisons as a temporary Executive Mansion, and they resided there for the remainder of his term. Madison used the circular room above the entrance as a study, and in that room in 1815, he signed the ratification papers for the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812.

At Montpelier 1817-1837
On April 6, 1817, Dolley and James Madison returned to their estate in Orange County, Virginia. In 1830, Dolley’s son by her first marriage, Payne Todd, a gambler and an alcoholic who never married nor had a career, went to debtors prison in Philadelphia. The Madisons sold land in Kentucky and mortgaged half of the Montpelier estate to pay Todd’s debts.

Madison used his retirement to organize his papers for publication, especially his notes from the Constitutional Convention. In this effort, Dolley was his helpmate, even serving as his hands when painful rheumatism kept him from writing. Madison always said he would not share these notes until the last of the delegates to the convention had died. As it turned out he himself was the last to pass away.

James Madison died at Montpelier on June 28, 1836, at the age of 85.

Thus the 41-year marriage between James and Dolley drew to a close. Theirs had been a supremely successful relationship on both a personal and a public level. Dolley remained at Montpelier for a year thereafter. One of her nieces, Anna Payne, daughter of her younger brother John Coles Payne came to live with Dolley, but she found life at Montpelier difficult.

In the fall of 1837, Dolley decided to leave Montpelier and again moved to Washington, DC, with her niece, leaving Payne Todd was to run the plantation. Dolley and Anna moved into a house Dolley’s sister Anna and her husband had bought. Dolley was socially in demand, and politically she was a living symbol of the generation of the Founding Fathers.

Dolley Madison had helped her husband organize and prepare his papers, including those he used in drafting the U.S. Constitution for public release. After his death, she continued to organize and copy her husband’s papers. It was left to Dolley to publish Madison’s papers, and they did not bring the money he had hoped would carry her through to the end of her life.

While Dolley was living in Washington, Payne Todd was unable to manage the plantation successfully due to alcoholism and resulting illnesses, leaving them without income. Dolley moved back to Montpelier to run the plantation, but failed to make a profit. Due to the increasing burden of vast debt accumulated by her irresponsible son, she was forced to sell their Virginia properties, including Montpelier.

In Washington 1844-1849
In 1844, Dolley Madison returned permanently to Washington, DC, and moved into another Madison property, a row house across the street from the White House. The former First Lady lived in near-poverty for several years, and was so poor that she had to accept hand-outs from friends. In 1847, she sold her slave Paul Jennings to her Lafayette Square neighbor, Daniel Webster.

In the last days of her life, before Congress purchased her husband’s papers, she was in a state of absolute poverty, and I think sometimes suffered for the necessaries of life. While I was a servant to Mr. Webster, he often sent me to her with a market-basket full of provisions, and told me whenever I saw anything in the house that I thought she was in need of, to take it to her. I often did this, and occasionally gave her small sums from my own pocket.

In 1844, the United States House of Representatives dedicated an honorary seat in Congress for Dolley, allowing her to watch congressional debates from the floor, where members sat at their desks. From the White House she was the first private citizen to transmit a message via telegraph, an honor given her by its inventor Samuel F. B. Morse.

In 1848, Congress finally purchased James Madison’s papers for the sum of $25,000. Of this sum, Dolley invested $20,000 in a trust fund out of fear that Payne Todd would waste it on gambling and alcohol. During this time, Dolley served as Honorary Chair of a women’s group to raise funds for the Washington Memorial. Her last public appearance was on the arm of President James K. Polk at his last White House reception.

Dolley Payne Todd Madison died at her home in Washington, DC, July 12, 1849, at the age of 81. Her funeral was a state occasion, attended by the president, the cabinet officers, the diplomatic corps, members of the House and Senate, the justices of the Supreme Court, officers of the army and navy, the mayor and city leaders, and “citizens and strangers.”

Sometimes referred to today as the primeiro First Lady, the title actually came from her eulogy which was delivered by then-President Zachary Taylor, who referred to her as “the first lady of the land for half a century.” Her final legacy was to inspire the term by which the presidents’ wives have been known ever since.

Her remains originally went to the Congressional Cemetery, but were later transported to Montpelier and now rest next to her husband’s in the Madison Family Cemetery.


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