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História do Robin I - História

História do Robin I - História


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Robin I

(Campo Minado No. 3: dp. 1.009 (f.), 1. 187'10 ", b. 35'6"
dr. 10'4 "; s. 14 k .; cpl. 78; a. 2 3"; cl. Quero-Quero)

O primeiro Robin (caça-minas No. 3) foi estabelecido em 4 de março de 1918 pelo Todd Shipyard Corp., NTew York; lançado em 17 de junho de 1918, patrocinado por Miss Bessie Veronica Callaghan; e comissionado em 29 de agosto de 1918, o tenente (jg.) Lewis H. Cutting no comando.

Comissionado em Nova York, Robin operou na área Vit] l uma corrida para Hampton Roads, até 23 de fevereiro de 1919. Naquela época, a necessidade de melhorar os métodos de varredura para acelerar a remoção da Barragem da Mina do Mar do Norte tinha se tornado muito aparente. Robin, com dois outros caça-minas testou a viabilidade de usar varreduras de largura maior que 500-600 jardas. Os testes foram conduzidos em Newport no final de fevereiro e início de março.

Em meados de março, Rohin foi para Boston. Em 6 de abril, ela partiu para a Escócia. No dia 20, ela chegou a Inverness e se juntou ao Destacamento de Mineração do Mar do Norte. Com base em Kirkwal1, ela participou de sete operações conduzidas para limpar a barragem de tee de suas mais de 70.000 minas entre as Orkney e a Noruega.

Com a conclusão da varredura final, em 19 de setembro, Rohin voltou a Kirkwal1 para um breve descanso após a difícil missão, tornada mais perigosa pelos fortes ventos, mar agitado e pouca visibilidade do Mar do Norte. Ela partiu da Escócia em 1º de outubro e chegou a INew York em 19 de novembro.

Designada AM-3, 17 de julho de 1920, ela operou ao longo da costa leste pelos próximos 11 anos, com implantações de inverno no Caribe. Após as manobras de inverno em 1932, ela seguiu para a costa oeste e desde sua chegada, 6 de março, até 9 de abril de 1934, ela operou na área de San Pedro-San Diego. Durante o verão de 1934, ela voltou a Norfolk, mas no final de novembro estava de volta a San Diego. Ela permaneceu na costa oeste, indo do México ao Alasca e até o oeste do Havaí, pelo resto da década.

Em 7 de dezembro de 1941, Robin estava a caminho da Ilha Johnston para Elawaii. Ela chegou a Pearl Harbor no dia 10 e até o final de fevereiro de 1942 serviu como navio de salvamento e remoção de minas. Em fevereiro, ela mudou para pequenas embarcações e reboque de alvos, recuperação de torpedos e tarefas de transporte de passageiros e carga. Em 1 de junho de 1942, ela foi oficialmente redesignada como AT-140.

Em junho de 1943, após uma ampla reforma, ela se juntou a um comboio para Samoa. Ela chegou no dia 10 e se apresentou ao serviço como navio-estação, Estação Naval, Tutuila. ATO140 reclassificada em 13 de abril de 1944, ela operou fora de Tutuila até 1945 em missões de reboque e salvamento que a levaram para as ilhas Ellice e Fiji, bem como entre o grupo de Samoa. Então, de janeiro a março de 1945, ela operou entre os MarsLalls e Gilberts.

Em 21 de março, Robin partiu de Majuro para os Estados Unidos. Ela chegou a San Diego em 21 de abril e, dois dias depois, mudou-se para Long Beach para uma revisão. Ainda1 no estaleiro no final da guerra, ela foi designada para eliminação. Ela foi desativada em 9 de novembro e excluída da lista da Marinha no dia 28.


Mk. 1 edição

O Robin foi fabricado pela primeira vez em outubro de 1973 [3] como um substituto direto para o Reliant Regal. Esses modelos apresentam um motor de 750 cc, mas em 1975, o carro ganhou uma série de melhorias, incluindo uma aceleração do motor para 850 cc. O Reliant Robin foi bem recebido na década de 1970 devido ao bom trabalho executado pela Ogle Design, (que havia projetado o Bond Bug e a Reliant Scimitar) e preço acessível, considerando 70 e 85 mph (113 e 137 km / h). , e os pedidos aumentaram com a crise de combustível dos anos 1970. A versão original final do Robin saiu da linha de produção em 1982 e, após uma série de edições limitadas, incluindo o GBS e o Jubilee, foi substituído pelo Reliant Rialto reestilizado projetado pelo IAD em Worthing, Reino Unido. O veículo também foi produzido sob licença na Grécia pela MEBEA entre 1974 e 1978, e foi fabricado na Índia pela Sunrise Automotive Industries Limited como o "Badal".

Mk. 2 Editar

Em 1989, a Reliant reviveu o nome Robin, produzindo um Robin novo e totalmente remodelado com uma nova carroceria de fibra de vidro com um hatchback, com mais tarde uma carrinha e uma carrinha juntando-se à gama. O Rialto continuou em produção ao lado do novo Robin até 1998 como um modelo puramente mais barato em modelos de salão, carrinha e van também. Mais tarde na produção, o Robin recebeu novas rodas de 12 polegadas, freios aprimorados (do mini original) e um interior aprimorado com novos mostradores e acabamentos internos. A Reliant também começou a oferecer um motor sem chumbo (mostrado por ter uma tampa de balancim verde) que possui assentos de válvula de escape endurecidos. Além disso, os novos modelos juntaram-se à gama com os modelos LX, SLX, BRG e Royale. Os modelos Royale e BRG eram top de linha e custavam mais de £ 9.000. Novas cores, como prata metálica, verde de corrida britânico, azul royal e vermelho noturno foram usadas, junto com uma gama de opcionais opcionais de estilo retro, como rodas de liga leve minilite e padrões de bancos personalizados Jaguar, que então se tornaram disponíveis em todos os modelos Robin.

Mk. 3 Editar

O Robin recebeu outro facelift em 1999, com o design executado por Andy Plumb, designer-chefe da Reliant na época. Esta versão final foi lançada com as maiores alterações desde o lançamento original, com painéis totalmente novos e faróis dianteiros Vauxhall Corsa. Foi o primeiro Robin a ser projetado com o uso de um computador. Uma versão elétrica e uma versão a diesel junto com uma variante de picape foram conceituadas, mas nunca feitas. Uma van de hatchback foi fabricada.

Em 2000, foi anunciado que o Reliant Robin final seria construído após 65 edições limitadas. Ele foi chamado de "Reliant Robin 65" e tinha uma especificação muito alta. Todos os 65s tinham tinta metálica dourada, bancos de couro vermelho e cinza, tapetes vermelhos, painéis de nogueira, mostradores brancos, rodas de liga leve minilite, sistemas estéreo premium, ignições eletrônicas e placas de ouro nos painéis que eram numerados individualmente e tinham o nome gravado do proprietário original. O preço de venda foi de £ 10.000. O último Reliant Robin produzido foi doado por O sol jornal em uma competição do Dia dos Namorados em 2001. [4]

Edição BN-1 e BN-2

A fabricação do Robin foi retomada sob licença da B & ampN Plastics em julho de 2001. Esta empresa foi autorizada a produzir 250 carros por ano, mas foi paralisada por problemas e falhas de produção e entrou em apuros financeiros após produzir apenas 40 ou mais carros completos até outubro 2002

O BN-1 Robin foi baseado na edição limitada do Robin 65 e apresentava todos os extras caros, mas com um conjunto de recursos mais moderno. O carro teve um interior totalmente redesenhado, com novo painel de instrumentos e interior na cor preta. A carroceria também recebeu alguns recursos sob a pele, incluindo skims de fibra de vidro integrados para as dobradiças da porta e um novo processo de fabricação de corpo inteiro, que resultou em peso reduzido. O carro revisado foi reaprovado, de modo que sua venda no Reino Unido era legal.

O BN-2 Robin era um modelo de especificação superior, com materiais de alta qualidade para o interior, um acabamento em pintura metálica personalizada, um rádio-CD (em vez de um rádio-cassete) e vidros elétricos dianteiros, uma inovação para o Robin.

Especificações gerais Editar

A única roda dianteira é responsável pela direção, enquanto o motor (também na dianteira) aciona o eixo traseiro. O Reliant Robin teve como objetivo fornecer transporte pessoal econômico e previsível. O motor de 850 cc dá uma aceleração de 0 a 60 mph em 14 segundos e uma velocidade máxima de 85 mph, eles também dão uma figura de economia muito boa de até 70 mpg, o último Mk3 Reliant Robin foi citado para dar 60 a 100 mpg.

Requisitos de licença Editar

Apesar de seu tamanho, por ser um veículo de três rodas com massa oficial abaixo de 450 kg (992 lb), o Robin poderia tradicionalmente ser dirigido por titulares de uma carteira de motorista da categoria B1 [5] no Reino Unido, e registrado e taxado em motocicletas taxas, o que resultou em uma economia de £ 55 por ano em relação a um carro convencional. Até 2001, o direito à licença B1 era concedido àqueles que passavam no teste de motocicleta da categoria A, levando ao equívoco comum de que as pessoas poderiam dirigir um Robin com uma licença de motocicleta. Aqueles que passaram no teste de motocicleta depois de 2001 não podiam dirigir um Robin, até que a lei mudou em dezembro de 2012. A partir de 29 de dezembro de 2012, triciclos como o Robin não se enquadram mais na licença da categoria B1, de acordo com a legislação da União Europeia, os triciclos são agora classificado na categoria A "licença de motocicleta". Como tal, qualquer pessoa que possua uma "licença completa para motocicleta" pode legalmente dirigir um Robin. Uma vez que não foi o direito à licença que mudou, mas sim a categorização dos triciclos numa categoria existente, a alteração aplica-se a todos os titulares de licenças de motociclos da categoria A, sempre que tenham sido obtidas. Pouco depois disso, um descuido foi que uma pessoa com uma licença completa de carro não podia mais dirigir um veículo de três rodas, isso foi alterado pelo governo do Reino Unido depois que as empresas automotivas que produzem veículos de três rodas (como Morgan) protestaram contra as mudanças de licenciamento , isso resultou em titulares de licença de carro agora sendo capazes de dirigir um veículo de três rodas, mas um limite de idade de 21 também foi adicionado este limite de idade de 21 ou mais também se aplica a titulares de licença de motocicleta categoria A.

Dirigindo um Reliant com licença de motocicleta (regulamentos do Reino Unido) Editar

Originalmente, era possível dirigir um Reliant de três rodas com uma licença de motocicleta, já que uma licença completa de motocicleta incluía um endosso da classe B1, que dava ao motorista o direito de dirigir veículos com três ou quatro rodas de até 550 kg. [ citação necessária ] No entanto, o DVLA deixou de emitir o endosso B1 em 2001. [ citação necessária ]

O interesse no Reliant aumentou mais uma vez após janeiro de 2013, quando o esquema de licenciamento foi alterado mais uma vez. A partir de 2013, o titular de uma licença completa de motocicleta da categoria A com mais de 21 anos pode dirigir um veículo de três rodas de qualquer potência. Esta restrição de idade também se aplica aos titulares da Categoria B.

Por causa dessas mudanças de licenciamento, um Reliant Robin não pode ser dirigido com uma licença provisória [6], a menos que o motorista atenda a certos critérios de deficiência. [7]

Os veículos de três rodas da Reliant desfrutam de um lugar especial na cultura britânica, muitas vezes como alvo de piadas, como quando Patsy Stone se refere com desdém à câmara de isolamento de Edina Monsoon como semelhante a uma das séries de TV Absolutamente fabuloso. No Reino Unido, o Robin é às vezes carinhosamente apelidado de "Porco de Plástico" por causa de seu formato distinto e corpo de fibra de vidro. Também é frequentemente, e erroneamente, referido como o Robin Reliant. [8] Georgia Nicolson, a heroína fictícia de Louise Rennison Confissões de Georgia Nicolson série de livros voltada para meninas adolescentes, regularmente zomba do carro da família, conhecido como Robin Reliant.

Miss Shepherd possuía um Reliant Robin [9] em A Dama na Van, um livro de 1989, peça de 1999 e filme de 2015 de Alan Bennett, um retrato da vida real de um caso de síndrome de Diógenes.

O Reliant Robin é material básico para o comediante Jasper Carrott.

Talvez dois dos Reliants mais conhecidos na comédia britânica sejam, na verdade, Reliant Regal Supervans - a van amarela suja dos irmãos Trotter em Somente tolos e cavalos, e a van azul claro que sempre acaba sendo derrubada, batida, arrancada de sua vaga de estacionamento, etc. por um Mini Leyland britânico em Sr. Bean.

Reliant Robins faz aparições semi-regulares em Desafio Scrapheap, muitas vezes reduzido a um leve chassi de três rodas. Uma equipe converteu o carro em um carro de corrida com rodas. [10]

O filme da Disney de 2011 Carros 2 apresenta um personagem francês chamado Tomber que é modelado em um carro saloon Reliant Regal, embora ele também tenha sido comparado a um Robin. Seu nome significa "queda" em francês, referindo-se à instabilidade dos veículos de três rodas. [11]

O videoclipe de 2018 de 'She Makes Me' de Rick Astley, do álbum Beautiful Life, apresenta um Reliant Rialto amarelo com destaque. [12]

A série de televisão americana original Magnum P.I. apresenta um Robin na abertura da 6ª temporada de 1985, intitulado "Deja Vu". Johnathon Quayle Higgins aluga e dirige um.

Na série Amazon Prime Video Good Omens (que estreou em 31 de maio de 2019), o caçador de bruxas Newton Pulsifer (interpretado por Jack Whitehall) dirige um Robin azul-ovo de tordo.

Top Gear Editar

Em 18 de fevereiro de 2007, episódio de Top Gear (série 9, episódio 4), um Reliant Robin foi usado por Richard Hammond e James May em uma tentativa de modificar um K-reg Robin normal em um ônibus espacial reutilizável. Os foguetes de reforço se separaram perfeitamente, mas o tanque de combustível não se soltou e o Robin caiu no chão. Este lançamento foi o "maior lançamento de foguete não comercial da história da Europa". [13]

Em um episódio subsequente de Top Gear (série 15, episódio 1), um Reliant Robin modificado de 1994 foi usado por Jeremy Clarkson para dirigir 14 milhas de Sheffield a Rotherham. Ele descreveu dirigir como perigoso como "convidar sua mãe para uma noite em bate-papo", e que o Robin "não era engraçado, era uma ameaça completa". Durante o segmento, Clarkson rolou um Robin com peso lateral especial pelo menos seis vezes. Os dois episódios seguintes apresentaram o piloto de corrida The Stig e Ken Block em sua pista de testes em Robins, e nenhum deles conseguiu terminar uma volta limpa no Robin especialmente adulterado.

Mais tarde, Clarkson admitiu que o Robin usado no show teve o diferencial modificado para permitir que "a coitadinha" rolasse com facilidade. [14] [15]


Robin Hood

Nossos editores irão revisar o que você enviou e determinar se o artigo deve ser revisado.

Robin Hood, lendário herói fora da lei de uma série de baladas inglesas, algumas das quais datam de pelo menos já no século XIV. Robin Hood era um rebelde, e muitos dos episódios mais marcantes nos contos sobre ele mostram ele e seus companheiros roubando e matando representantes de autoridade e dando os ganhos aos pobres. Seu inimigo mais frequente era o xerife de Nottingham, um agente local do governo central (embora as evidências internas das primeiras baladas deixem claro que a ação ocorreu principalmente no sul de Yorkshire, não em Nottinghamshire). Outros inimigos incluíam ricos proprietários de terras eclesiásticos. Robin tratava as mulheres, os pobres e as pessoas humildes com cortesia. Grande parte do ímpeto de sua revolta contra a autoridade veio do ressentimento popular com as leis da floresta que restringiam os direitos de caça. As primeiras baladas, especialmente, revelam a crueldade que era uma parte inevitável da vida medieval.

Numerosas tentativas foram feitas para provar que havia um Robin Hood histórico, embora referências à lenda por escritores medievais deixem claro que as próprias baladas eram a única evidência de sua existência disponível para eles. Uma crença popular moderna de que ele era da época de Ricardo I provavelmente deriva de um “pedigree” fabricado por um antiquário do século 18, William Stukeley. Nenhuma das várias afirmações que identificam Robin Hood com uma figura histórica particular ganhou muito apoio, e a existência do fora-da-lei pode nunca ter sido nada além de lendária.

As autênticas baladas de Robin Hood foram a expressão poética das aspirações populares no norte da Inglaterra durante uma época turbulenta de rebeliões baroniais e descontentamento agrário, que culminou na Revolta dos Camponeses de 1381. O tema do fora-da-lei livre, mas perseguido, desfrutando da caça proibida da floresta e enganar ou matar as forças da lei e da ordem naturalmente atraíam as pessoas comuns.

Embora muitas das baladas de Robin Hood mais conhecidas sejam pós-medievais, há um núcleo que pode ser atribuído com segurança ao período medieval. Estes são Robin Hood e o Monge, Robin Hood e Guy de Gisborne, Robin Hood e o Oleiro, e as Lytyll Geste de Robin Hode. Durante o século 16 e mais tarde, o caráter essencial da lenda foi distorcido por uma sugestão de que Robin era um nobre caído, e dramaturgos, adotando avidamente este novo elemento, aumentaram o apelo romântico das histórias, mas os privaram de sua mordida social. As baladas pós-medievais (que deram a Robin uma companheira, Maid Marian) também perderam a maior parte de sua vitalidade e valor poético, sem dúvida como resultado da perda do impulso social original que as trouxe à existência.


Seguindo em Frente

Após o desaparecimento da família Murray-O & # 8217Hair, Ellen Johnson foi nomeada presidente da American Atheists. Durante sua gestão, os ateus americanos produziram O Ponto de Vista Ateu, um programa de televisão que continua até hoje. Além disso, a Sra. Johnson criou o Comitê de Ação Política dos Americanos Sem Deus e ajudou a organizar a Marcha dos Americanos Sem Deus em Washington. A Sra. Johnson foi presidente da American Atheists até maio de 2008. Daquela época até setembro de 2008, Frank R. Zindler atuou como presidente interino.

Em setembro de 2008, o Dr. Ed Buckner, natural da Geórgia, foi eleito para liderar os ateus americanos. Dr. Buckner serviu como presidente até 2010, quando David Silverman foi eleito presidente. O Sr. Silverman serviu como presidente até abril de 2018, quando o Dr. Buckner foi nomeado Diretor Executivo Interino.


Robin D. G. Kelley

Informações de contato

Minha pesquisa explorou a história dos movimentos sociais nos EUA, na diáspora africana e na música e cultura visual de intelectuais negros da África, surrealismo, marxismo, entre outras coisas. Meus ensaios apareceram em uma ampla variedade de periódicos profissionais, bem como publicações gerais, incluindo o Journal of American History, American Historical Review, The Nation, Monthly Review, New York Times, Color Lines, Counterpunch, Souls, Black Renaissance / Renaissance Noir, Social Text, The Black Scholar, Journal of Palestine Studies,e Boston Review,para o qual também atuo como Editor Colaborador.

Meus livros incluem, África fala, América responde: jazz moderno em tempos revolucionários (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012) Thelonious Monk: The Life and Times of an American Original (The Free Press, 2009) Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination (Beacon Press, 2002) com Howard Zinn e Dana Frank, Três greves: o espírito de luta do trabalho no século passado (Beacon Press, 2001) Yo ’Mama’s Disfunktional !: Lutando nas Guerras Culturais na América urbana (Boston: Beacon Press, 1997) Rebeldes raciais: cultura, política e a classe trabalhadora negra (Nova York: The Free Press, 1994) No fogo: afro-americanos desde 1970 (Nova York: Oxford University Press, 1996) [Vol. 10 de História dos jovens afro-americanos em Oxford Series] Martelo e enxada: comunistas do Alabama durante a Grande Depressão (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1990).

Também sou coeditor dos seguintes livros: Walter Rodney, A Revolução Russa: Uma Visão do Terceiro Mundo (com Jesse Benjamin (Nova York: Verso, 2018) A outra relação especial: raça, direitos e motins na Grã-Bretanha e nos Estados Unidos (com Stephen Tuck) (Nova York: Palgrave, 2015) Preto, marrom e bege: escritos surrealistas da África e da diáspora africana (com Franklin Rosemont) (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009) Para tornar nosso mundo novo: uma história dos afro-americanos (com Earl Lewis) (Oxford University Press, 2000), volumes 1 e 2 Imagining Home: Class, Culture, and Nationalism in African Diáspora (com Sidney J. Lemelle) (Londres: Verso Books, 1995) e o onze volume História dos jovens afro-americanos em Oxford (com Earl Lewis) (1995-1998).

Atualmente, estou concluindo três projetos de livro:

Black Bodies Swinging: An American Postmortem (Metropolitan Books) é uma genealogia dos protestos da Primavera Negra de 2020 por meio de um exame profundo da violência racializada sancionada pelo estado e uma história de resistência. Para entender como chegamos a esse momento, é necessário um tipo diferente de autópsia - uma autópsia histórica que pode revelar as condições estruturais responsáveis ​​pela morte prematura. Emprestando uma metáfora da canção icônica de Abel Meeropol, "Strange Fruit", o livro traça as mortes e as vidas de nossas vítimas mais recentes até o "sangue na raiz" - o terror racial na base de nosso sistema de exploração e acumulação de riqueza. O sangue na raiz é o "capitalismo racial". O tipo de autópsia histórica que estou propondo tem como objetivo tornar visível a história e o funcionamento do capitalismo racial. Ele expõe não apenas os efeitos do policiamento racista, mas a extração de riqueza dos negros, expropriação de terras, deslocamento, empréstimos predatórios, tributação, privação de direitos, catástrofe ambiental e a longa história de pilhagem por meio do terror e das políticas governamentais que suprimiram os salários dos negros, nos aliviou de propriedade, excluiu os negros de melhores escolas e acomodações públicas, suprimiu os valores domésticos dos negros e subsidiou a acumulação de riqueza branca. Mas Black Bodies Swinging também é uma história de resistência, argumentando que os novos abolicionistas representam a “Terceira geração da Reconstrução”, cuja gênese organizacional começa na década de 1990, mas cuja linhagem política pode ser rastreada até a escravidão e o colonialismo colonizador.

Também estou concluindo uma biografia da falecida Grace Halsell, provisoriamente intitulada A educação da Sra. Grace Halsell: uma história íntima do século americano . A jornalista nascida no Texas, neta de proprietários de escravos confederados, filha de um outrora rico fazendeiro de gado e guerreiro indígena, começou sua carreira como correspondente de vários jornais do Texas durante as décadas de 1940 e 50, e acabou trabalhando como redatora do presidente Lyndon B. Johnson, antes de partir em 1968 para escurecer quimicamente sua pele e viver como uma mulher negra por um ano. Ela publicou o best-seller Irmã da alma: o diário de uma mulher branca que se tornou negra (1969). Ela iria escrever mais doze livros, incluindo uma exposição sobre como viver como um Navajo e trabalhar como doméstica em um subúrbio da Califórnia ( Bessie Yellowhair ), um livro sobre passar como trabalhador sem documentos do México ( The Illegals ), e vários outros textos não relacionados. Ela viajou para Israel e Palestina em 1980 e escreveu um livro duramente crítico da ocupação. Como resultado, empregos, contratos lucrativos de livros e outras oportunidades começaram a desaparecer. Ela morreu em 2000 de câncer de mieloma múltiplo causado em grande parte pelos medicamentos que ela havia tomado para ficar morena.

Finalmente, estou colaborando com o professor Tera Hunter em um levantamento geral da história afro-americana.


Robin mensais

O primeiro Robin a minissérie foi impressa em 1992 após a estreia de Tim Drake como Robin. A série girava em torno do treinamento contínuo de Tim e criava vilões ligados ao personagem. Foi seguido por outra série Robin II: Joker's Wild que colocou Tim contra o assassino de seu predecessor, o Coringa. Com Batman fora da cidade, cabia a Tim e Alfred encerrar a última onda de crimes do Coringa. Uma minissérie final, Robin III: Grito da Caçadora encerrou a trilogia, juntando Tim com a caçadora. Em 1994, o sucesso das três minisséries levou ao contínuo Robin série foi publicada em 2009. O título será substituído por um Batman e Robin série após a minissérie 'Battle For the Cowl'.


Quem quer que tenha inventado o método de usar gelo misturado com sal para reduzir e controlar a temperatura dos ingredientes forneceu um grande avanço na tecnologia do sorvete. Também foi importante a invenção do freezer de balde de madeira com pás giratórias, que aprimorou a fabricação de sorvetes.

Augustus Jackson, um confeiteiro da Filadélfia, criou novas receitas para fazer sorvete em 1832.

Em 1846, Nancy Johnson patenteou um freezer de manivela que estabeleceu o método básico de fazer sorvete usado ainda hoje. William Young patenteou o similar "Johnson Patent Ice-Cream Freezer" em 1848.

Em 1851, Jacob Fussell em Baltimore estabeleceu a primeira fábrica de sorvetes comercial em grande escala. Alfred Cralle patenteou uma forma e colher de sorvete usada para servi-lo em 2 de fevereiro de 1897.

O tratamento tornou-se distribuível e lucrativo com a introdução da refrigeração mecânica. A sorveteria, ou fonte de refrigerante, desde então se tornou um ícone da cultura americana.

Por volta de 1926, o primeiro freezer de processo contínuo para sorvete de sucesso comercial foi inventado por Clarence Vogt.


Um buraco na cabeça: uma história de trepanação

Um detalhe de um kit de trepanação de cirurgião naval do século 17. Os trefinos são muito semelhantes aos da Roma Antiga e aos modernos.

Em 1865, na antiga cidade inca de Cuzco, Ephraim George Squier, explorador, arqueólogo, etnólogo e norte-americano cobrar d’affaires na América Central, recebeu um presente incomum de sua anfitriã, Señora Zentino, uma mulher conhecida como a melhor colecionadora de arte e antiguidades do Peru. O presente foi um crânio de um vasto cemitério inca nas proximidades. O que era incomum no crânio era que um buraco um pouco maior do que meia polegada quadrada havia sido cortado dele. O julgamento de Squier foi que o buraco do crânio não era uma lesão, mas era o resultado de uma operação cirúrgica deliberada conhecida como trepanação e, além disso, o indivíduo havia sobrevivido à cirurgia.

Quando o crânio foi apresentado em uma reunião da Academia de Medicina de Nova York, o público se recusou a acreditar que alguém pudesse ter sobrevivido a uma operação de trefilação realizada por um índio peruano. Além do racismo característico da época, o ceticismo era alimentado pelo fato de que nos melhores hospitais da época, a taxa de sobrevivência da trefina (e muitas outras operações) raramente chegava a 10 por cento e, portanto, a operação era vista como uma dos procedimentos cirúrgicos mais perigosos. A principal razão para a baixa taxa de sobrevivência foram as infecções mortais que se espalharam nos hospitais. Outra foi que a operação só foi tentada em casos muito graves de traumatismo craniano.

Squier então trouxe seu crânio peruano para a maior autoridade da Europa em crânio humano, Paul Broca, professor de patologia externa e de cirurgia clínica na Universidade de Paris e fundador da primeira sociedade antropológica. Hoje, é claro, Broca é mais conhecido por sua localização da fala na terceira convolução frontal, "área de Broca", o primeiro exemplo de localização cerebral de uma função psicológica, mas neste momento sua fama parece ter sido principalmente por sua craniometria e estudos antropológicos.

O crânio inca trefinado dado a Ephraim George Squier. Agora reside no Museu Americano de História Natural.

Broca e mais crânios

Depois de examinar o crânio e consultar alguns de seus colegas cirúrgicos, Broca teve certeza de que o orifício no crânio era devido à trepanação e que o paciente havia sobrevivido por um tempo. Mas quando, em 1876, Broca relatou essas conclusões à Sociedade Antropológica de Paris, o público, como nos Estados Unidos, duvidou que os índios pudessem realizar essa difícil cirurgia com sucesso.

Sete anos depois, uma descoberta foi feita no centro da França que confirmou a interpretação de Broca do crânio de Squier, ou pelo menos demonstrou que "primitivos", na verdade os neolíticos, podiam trefinar com sucesso. Vários crânios em uma sepultura neolítica foram encontrados com buracos arredondados de cinco a sete centímetros de largura. Os crânios tinham bordas recortadas, como se tivessem sido raspados com uma pedra afiada. Ainda mais notável, discos de crânio do mesmo tamanho dos orifícios foram encontrados nesses locais. Alguns dos discos tinham pequenos orifícios perfurados, talvez para serem amarrados como amuletos. Embora alguns dos discos tenham sido esculpidos após a morte, na maioria dos casos ficou claro pela formação da cicatriz na borda da ferida que o intervalo entre a cirurgia e a morte deve ter sido de anos. Crânios triplos foram encontrados de ambos os sexos e de todas as idades. Praticamente nenhum dos orifícios do crânio nesta amostra foi acidental, patológico ou traumático. Além disso, muito poucos dos crânios mostravam qualquer sinal de fratura com afundamento, uma indicação comum para trepanação nos tempos modernos.

Crânios triplos foram descobertos em vários locais em todas as partes do mundo, em locais que datam do final do Paleolítico até este século.

Essas descobertas finalmente estabeleceram que o homem neolítico poderia realizar a trepanação de sobrevivência, mas não resolveram a motivação para essa operação. A princípio, Broca pensou que a prática devia ser algum tipo de ritual religioso, mas depois concluiu que, pelo menos em alguns casos, deve ter tido significado terapêutico. Na verdade, Broca escreveu mais artigos sobre trefinação pré-histórica e sua possível motivação do que sobre a localização cortical da linguagem. Desde a época de Broca, milhares de crânios trefinados foram encontrados e quase a mesma quantidade de artigos escritos sobre eles. Eles foram descobertos em diversos locais em todas as partes do mundo, em locais que datam do final do Paleolítico até este século. As estimativas usuais de sobrevivência de diferentes amostras de crânios trefinados variam de 50% a 90%, com a maioria das estimativas no lado superior.

Métodos de Trefinação

Ao longo do tempo e do espaço, cinco métodos principais de trepanação foram usados. O primeiro eram cortes retangulares que se cruzavam, como no crânio de Squier. Estas foram feitas primeiro com obsidiana, sílex ou outras facas de pedra dura e mais tarde com facas de metal. Os cemitérios peruanos geralmente contêm uma faca de metal curva chamada tumi, que parece ser bem adequada para o trabalho. (O tumi foi adotado pela Academia Peruana de Cirurgia como seu emblema.) Além do Peru, crânios trefinados com esse procedimento foram encontrados na França, Israel e África.

O segundo método era a raspagem com uma pederneira, como nos crânios encontrados na França e estudados por Broca. Broca demonstrou que conseguia reproduzir essas aberturas raspando com um pedaço de vidro, embora um crânio de adulto muito grosso demorasse 50 minutos “contando os períodos de descanso por cansaço da mão”. Este foi um método particularmente comum e persistiu na Renascença na Itália.

Diferentes métodos de trefilagem: (1) raspagem (2) ranhura (3) perfuração e corte (4) cortes retangulares de intersecção.

O terceiro método era cortar um sulco circular e então retirar o disco de osso. Este é outro método comum e difundido e ainda estava em uso, pelo menos até recentemente, no Quênia.

O quarto método, o uso de uma trefina circular ou serra circular, pode ter se desenvolvido a partir do terceiro. A trefina é um cilindro oco com uma borda inferior dentada. Seu uso foi descrito em detalhes por Hipócrates. Na época de Celsus, um escritor médico romano do primeiro século, tinha um pino central retrátil e uma alça transversal. Parecia quase idêntico aos trefinos modernos, incluindo aquele que usei como estudante de pós-graduação em macacos.

O quinto método consistia em fazer um círculo de orifícios bem espaçados e então cortar ou cinzelar o osso entre os orifícios. Um arco pode ter sido usado para perfurar ou a broca simplesmente girada à mão. Esse método foi recomendado por Celsus, foi adotado pelos árabes e se tornou um método padrão na Idade Média. Também foi relatado ter sido usado no Peru e, até recentemente, no Norte da África. É essencialmente o mesmo que o método moderno para girar um grande retalho osteoplástico no qual uma serra Gigli (um fio de arame afiado) é usada para serrar entre um conjunto de pequenos orifícios trefinados ou perfurados. (Eu também usei esse método como estudante de pós-graduação.)

& # 8220Trepan & # 8221 Versus & # 8220Trephine & # 8221

A relação entre os termos trépano e trefina é curioso. The terms are now synonyms but have different origins and once had different meanings. In Hippocrates’ time the terms terebra e trepanon (from the Greek trupanon, a borer) were used for the instrument that is very similar to the modern trephine. In the 16th century, Fabricius ab Aquapendente invented a triangular instrument for boring holes in the skull. (He was Harvey’s teacher and the discoverer of venous valves.) It had three arms with different-shaped points. Each of the ends could be applied to the skull using the other two as handles. He called it a “tre fines” from the Latin for three ends, which became trafine and then trephine, and by 1656 it was used as a synonym for trepan, as a term for the older instrument. In another version of the etymology, a quite different triangular instrument for boring a hole in the skull was invented in 1639 by John Woodall, a London surgeon, who also called his instrument a tres fines, which became trefina and then trephine and, eventually, a synonym for trepan. More generally, in Renaissance times and later, trephination was a popular operation and a great variety of instruments for carrying it out were invented.

Why did so many cultures in different periods cut or drill holes in the skull? Since most trephined skulls come from vanished nonliterate cultures, the problem of reconstructing the motivations for trephining in these cultures is a difficult one. However, there is information about trephining in Western medicine from the fifth century BCE onward as well as about trephining in recent and contemporary non-Western medical systems. Both of these sources may throw light on the reasons for the practice in earlier times. In the following sections we consider trephination in Hippocratic medicine, in ancient Chinese medicine, in European medicine from the Renaissance onward, in contemporary non-Western medicine, and on the Internet today.

Greek Medicine

The earliest detailed account of trephining is in the Hippocratic corpus, the first large body of Western scientific or medical writing that has survived. Although there is no question that there was a famous physician called Hippocrates in the fifth century BCE, it is not clear which of the Hippocratic works were written by him. The most extensive discussion of head injuries and the use of trephining in their treatment is in the Hippocratic work On Wounds in the Head.

A 17th-century naval surgeon’s trephination kit.

This treatise describes five types of head wounds. Interestingly, however, the only type for which trephination is not advocated is in cases of depressed fractures. Even when there is not much sign of bruising, drilling a hole in the head is recommended. The trephining instrument was very similar to the modern trephine, except that it was turned between the hands or by a bow and string rather than by using a crosspiece. The Hippocratic writer stressed the importance of proceeding slowly and carefully in order to avoid injuring the [dural] membrane. Additional advice was to “plunge [the trephine] into cold water to avoid heating the bone . . . often examine the circular track of the saw with the probe. . . . [and] aim at to and fro movements.” Trephining over a suture was to be studiously avoided.

The Hippocratic doctors believed that stagnant blood (like stagnant water) was bad. It could decay and turn into pus. Thus, the reason for trephining, or at least one reason, was to allow the blood to flow out before it spoiled.

Apparently the Hippocratic doctors expected bleeding from a head wound and the reason for drilling the hole in the skull was to allow the blood to escape (“let blood by perforating with a small trepan, keeping a look out [for the dura] at short intervals”). Since they presumably had no notion of intracerebral pressure, why did they want the blood to run out? Although the reasons for trephining are not discussed in “On Wounds in the Head,” they seem clear from other Hippocratic treatises such as “On Wounds and On Diseases.” The Hippocratic doctors believed that stagnant blood (like stagnant water) was bad. It could decay and turn into pus. Thus, the reason for trephining, or at least one reason, was to allow the blood to flow out before it spoiled. In cases of depressed fractures, there was no need to trephine since there were already passages in the fractured skull for the blood to escape.

By Galen’s time (129–199) trephining was in standard use in treating skull fracture for relieving pressure, for gaining access to remove skull fragments that threatened the dura, and, as in Hippocratic medicine, for drainage. Galen discussed the techniques and instruments in detail and advocated practicing on animals, especially the Barbary “ape” (Macaca sylvana). He was well aware of avoiding damage or pressure on the dura and indeed carried out experiments on the effect of pressing on the dura in animals.

Trepanation in Ancient China

The possibility that trepanation was practiced in ancient China is suggested by the following story about Cao Cao and Hua Tua, from a historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong, written in the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and set in 168–280 at the end of the Later Han dynasty. Cao Cao was commander of the Han forces and posthumously Emperor of the Wei dynasty, and Hua Tuo was (and still is) a famous physician of the time.

Cao Cao screamed and awoke, his head throbbing unbearably. Physicians were sought, but none could bring relief. The court officials were depressed. Hua Xin submitted a proposal: “Your highness knows of the marvelous physician Hua Tuo? . . . Your highness should call for him.”

Hua Tuo was speedily summoned and ordered to examine the ailing king. “Your Highness’s severe headaches are due to a humor that is active. The root cause is in the skull, where trapped air and fluids are building up. Medicine won’t do any good. The method I would advise is this: after general anesthesia I will open your skull with a cleaver and remove the excess matter, only then can the root cause be removed.” “Are you trying to kill me?” Cao Cao protested angrily . . . [and] . . . ordered Hua Tuo imprisoned and interrogated.

Ten days later Hua Tuo died. His medical text was lost upon his death.

Western Medicine

From the Renaissance until the beginning of the 19th century trephining was widely advocated and practiced for the treatment of head wounds. The most common use was in the treatment of depressed fractures and penetrating head wounds. However, because of the high incidence of mortality particularly when the dura was penetrated, there was considerable debate in the medical literature throughout this long span about if and when to trephine. Besides trephining in cases of skull fracture, the Hippocratic practice of “prophylactic trephination” in the absence of fracture after head injury continued to persist. For example, in the 1800s Cornish miners “insisted on having their skulls bored” after head injuries, even when there was no sign of fracture.

The practice of trephination was so dangerous that the first requirement for the operation was said to be “that the wound surgeon himself must have fallen on his head.”

Until the early 19th century trephination was done in the home. However, when the operation was moved to hospitals, the mortality was so high that trephination for any reason including treatment of fractures and other head injury declined precipitously. The practice was so dangerous that the first requirement for the operation was said to be “that the wound surgeon himself must have fallen on his head.” Or as Sir Astley Cooper put it in 1839, “If you were to trephine you ought to be trephined in turn.” It was against this background that the discovery of Neolithic trephining was so unbelievable to the American and French medical communities in the middle of the 19th century. Eventually, the introduction of modern antisepsis and prophylaxis of infection at the end of the 19th century, as well as an increased understanding of the importance of intracerebral pressure in head injury, allowed trephination to return as a common procedure in the management of head trauma.

In modern neurosurgical practice, trephining is still an important procedure but it is no longer viewed as therapeutic in itself. It may be used for exploratory diagnosis, for relieving intracerebral pressure (as from an epidural or subdural hematoma), for debridement of a penetrating wound, and to gain access to the dura and thence the brain itself (for example, to provide a port through which a stereotactic probe can be introduced into the brain.)

Epilepsy and Mental Disease

In the European medical tradition, in addition to its use in treating head injury, trephining has been an important therapy for two other conditions, epilepsy and mental illness.

A 16th-century woodcut of a trephination in the home. Note the man warming a cloth dressing, the woman praying, and the cat catching a rat.

The tradition of trephining as a treatment for epilepsy begins as early as Aretaeus the Cappadocian (ca. 150), one of the most famous Greek clinicians, and lasted into the 18th century. The 13th-century surgical text “Quattuor magistri” recommended opening the skulls of epileptics so “that the humors and air may go out and evaporate.” However, by the 17th century trephination for epilepsy was beginning to be viewed as an extreme measure, as in Riverius, “The Practice of Physick” (1655):

If all means fail the last remedy is to open the fore part of the Skul with a Trepan, at distance from the sutures, that the evil air may breath out. By this means many desperate Epilepsies have been cured, and it may be safely done if the Chyrurgeon be skilful.

One 13th-century text recommended opening the skulls of epileptics so “that the humors and air may go out and evaporate.”

By the 18th century the incidence of trephining for epilepsy had declined and its rationale changed. Now rather than the idea of allowing an exit for evil vapors and humors, the purpose was to remove some localized pathology. By the 19th century trephining for epilepsy was confined to the treatment of traumatic epilepsy, that is, cases associated with known head injury.

Another use of trephining was as a treatment for mental disease. In his “Practica Chirurgiae,” Roger of Parma (ca. 1170) wrote:

For mania or melancholy a cruciate incision is made in the top of the head and the cranium is penetrated, to permit the noxious material to exhale to the outside. The patient is held in chains and the wound is treated, as above, under treatment of wounds.

Robert Burton, in “Anatomy of Melancholy” (1652), also advocated boring a cranial hole for madness, as did the great Oxford neuroanatomist and physician Thomas Willis (1621–1675).

Hieronymus Bosch’s The Cure for Madness (or Folly), also known as The Stone Operation shows a surgical incision being made in the scalp.

Probably the most famous depictions of apparent trephining for mental disease are in early Flemish Renaissance painting. Thus, Hieronymus Bosch’s The Cure for Madness (or Folly), também conhecido como The Stone Operation, shows a surgical incision being made in the scalp. The inscription has been translated in part “Master, dig out the stones of folly.” There are similar depictions of the removal of stones from the head by Peter Bruegel, Jan Steen, Pieter Huys, and other artists of the time.

By the 18th century, “most reputable and enlightened surgeons gave up the practice of . . . [trephination] . . . for psychiatric aberrations or headache without evidence of trauma. Thus, . . . the skull was never to be trephined for ‘internal disorders of the head.”’

Trephining in Africa

Herodotus describes the Libyans as cauterizing the heads of their children to “prevent them being plagued in their afterlives by a flow of rheum from the head.” And indeed, trephined skulls have been found among the people he was probably writing about, the Tuareg nomads.

An important source of information on the motivations for trephination is contemporary traditional practitioners and their patients. There are literally hundreds of 20th-century accounts of trephination, particularly in Oceanic and African cultures. Especially detailed and recent ones concern the Kisii of South Nyanza in Kenya and include photographs of the surgical instruments, practitioners, and patients X-rays of the skulls of surviving patients detailed interviews and even a documentary film.

The ancient Greek historian Herodotus describes the Libyans as cauterizing the heads of their children to “prevent them being plagued in their afterlives by a flow of rheum from the head.”

Trephining among the Kisii is carried out primarily for the relief of headache after some kind of head injury. According to Margetts, it is not done for “psychosis, epilepsy, dizziness or spirit possession.” The operation is carried out by general practitioners of medicine and takes a few hours. Restraint rather than anesthesia is used. The hole in the skull is usually made by scraping with a sharp knife with a curved tip to avoid injuring the dura. Various medicines are administered before, during, and after surgery but their nature does not seem to have been studied. Mortality, by one authority, is described as “low, perhaps 5 per cent.” The practitioners and patients seem to be quite satisfied with the results of the operation.

Although headache after head injury is the most prevalent reason given for trephining by contemporary practitioners of traditional medicine in Africa and elsewhere, other reasons are cited in the literature such as “to let out the evil spirits which were causing an intractable headache.”

Trephining on the Internet

Today, the practice of trephining is not confined to surgical suites or traditional medicine men. It is advocated by the International Trepanation Advocacy Group as a means of enlightenment and enhanced consciousness. Their general idea is that when the skull sutures close in childhood it “inhibits brain pulsations causing a loss of dreams, imagination and intense perceptions.” Trephining a small hole, they say, “restores the intracranial pulse pressure which leads to a permanent increase of the brain-blood volume which leads to accelerated brain metabolism and more areas of the brain functioning simultaneously” and “increased originality, creativity and…testosterone level.” Beyond such “physiological” arguments, the group supports the practice by pointing out its ancient, widespread, and continuing presence in other cultures. This particular form of alternative medicine recently gained considerable if not entirely positive publicity: In November 1998 it was featured on ER, the television soap opera set in an emergency ward.

Much of the defense for alternative medicine treatments is that they must work because they have been around for such a long time, an apparently attractive argument for the increasing popularity of five-thousand-plus-year-old Chinese traditional medical practices. However, the case of trephining suggests that just because a procedure is very old does not mean it is necessarily an effective one, at least for enhanced enlightenment and creativity.

Trepanation as an Empirical If Not a Rational Procedure

The most common view of the prehistoric and the non-Western practice of trephining, especially in the absence of a depressed fracture, was that it represented some kind of “superstition,” “primitive thinking,” “magic,” or “exorcism.” Yet an examination of the reasons for the practice among the Hippocratic and early European doctors as well as among contemporary Kenyan practitioners suggests a different view. Trephining may have appeared, in these contexts and cultures, to have been an effective empirical approach to head injury and the headaches that often accompany them. Headaches after head injury often do feel like “a pounding” and “pressure” inside the head and thus the idea that a hole in the skull would relieve them is not necessarily magical or bizarre. Furthermore, epidural bleeding does sometimes accompany head injury, and in these cases trephining might have actually reduced intracranial pressure. Finally, the apparently excellent survival rate meant that the procedure, at least until it moved into a hospital setting, may have met the prime requirement of medicine, “do no harm.”

POSTSCRIPT

The first International Colloquium on Cranial Trepanation in Human History was held at the University of Birmingham in April 2000. Papers from this unique three-day meeting were published as Trepanation: History, Discovery, Theory, which provides the most complete review of the subject to date. A major achievement of the meeting was the demonstration that trepanation was widespread in many regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania, and the Americas in both preliterate and literate periods. The volume also contains illustrations of trephined skulls from many cultures and of the great variety of instruments used.

Another interesting development was the return of E. L. Margetts to the Kisii of Kenya, whose trepanning practices he had studied 25 years earlier. He estimates that there may now be more than 100 surgeons carrying out the operation. Unlike in the past, they now use modern Western local anesthetics injected into the scalp prior to surgery. However, the reasons for the very low rate of infections still have not been studied systematically.

Since my original article, there seems to have been an increase in Internet sites advocating trepanning and often self-trepanning for the treatment of, among other disorders, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, and stress and to improve mental “energy and vigor.”

The British Medical Journal took these developments seriously enough to issue a warning of their dangers:

Doctors have warned about the dangers of trepanning after the launch of several websites promoting the “do it yourself ” surgery and the case of a Gloucestershire woman who drilled a 2 cm diameter hole in her skull. Concern has been expressed about the growing interest in trepanning for several conditions, including depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. Concern is also growing about the increasing promotion of trepanning, including videos, T-shirts, and a virtual trepanning shopping mall on the internet.

Trepanning received widespread publicity when the surgeon Stephen Maturin carried out the procedure on a sailor in view of the assembled crew in the film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World, based on the Patrick O’Brian naval novels about the Napoleonic Wars.

Charles G. Gross was a pioneering neuroscientist who specialized in vision and the functions of the cerebral cortex. This essay is excerpted from his book “A Hole in the Head: More Tales in the History of Neuroscience.”


History of Robin I - History

The Real History of the Crusades

The crusades are quite possibly the most misunderstood event in European history. Most of what passes for public knowledge about it is either misleading or just plain wrong

By Prof. Thomas F. Madden

Misconceptions about the Crusades are all too common. The Crusades are generally portrayed as a series of holy wars against Islam led by power-mad popes and fought by religious fanatics. They are supposed to have been the epitome of self-righteousness and intolerance, a black stain on the history of the Catholic Church in particular and Western civilization in general. A breed of proto-imperialists, the Crusaders introduced Western aggression to the peaceful Middle East and then deformed the enlightened Muslim culture, leaving it in ruins. For variations on this theme, one need not look far. See, for example, Steven Runciman's famous three-volume epic, History of the Crusades, or the BBC/A&E documentary, As Cruzadas, hosted by Terry Jones. Both are terrible history yet wonderfully entertaining.

So what is the truth about the Crusades? Scholars are still working some of that out. But much can already be said with certainty. For starters, the Crusades to the East were in every way defensive wars. They were a direct response to Muslim aggression—an attempt to turn back or defend against Muslim conquests of Christian lands.

From the safe distance of many centuries, it is easy enough to scowl in disgust at the Crusades. Religion, after all, is nothing to fight wars over.
Christians in the eleventh century were not paranoid fanatics. Muslims really were gunning for them. While Muslims can be peaceful, Islam was born in war and grew the same way. From the time of Mohammed , the means of Muslim expansion was always the sword. Muslim thought divides the world into two spheres, the Abode of Islam and the Abode of War. Christianity — and for that matter any other non-Muslim religion—has no abode. Christians and Jews can be tolerated within a Muslim state under Muslim rule. But, in traditional Islam, Christian and Jewish states must be destroyed and their lands conquered. When Mohammed was waging war against Mecca in the seventh century, Christianity was the dominant religion of power and wealth. As the faith of the Roman Empire, it spanned the entire Mediterranean, including the Middle East, where it was born. The Christian world, therefore, was a prime target for the earliest caliphs, and it would remain so for Muslim leaders for the next thousand years.

With enormous energy, the warriors of Islam struck out against the Christians shortly after Mohammed's death. They were extremely successful. Palestine, Syria, and Egypt—once the most heavily Christian areas in the world — quickly succumbed. By the eighth century, Muslim armies had conquered all of Christian North Africa and Spain. In the eleventh century, the Seljuk Turks conquered Asia Minor (modern Turkey), which had been Christian since the time of St. Paul. The old Roman Empire, known to modern historians as the Byzantine Empire, was reduced to little more than Greece. In desperation, the emperor in Constantinople sent word to the Christians of western Europe asking them to aid their brothers and sisters in the East.

That is what gave birth to the Crusades. They were not the brainchild of an ambitious pope or rapacious knights but a response to more than four centuries of conquests in which Muslims had already captured two-thirds of the old Christian world. At some point, Christianity as a faith and a culture had to defend itself or be subsumed by Islam. The Crusades were that defense.

Pope Urban II called upon the knights of Christendom to push back the conquests of Islam at the Council of Clermont in 1095. The response was tremendous. Many thousands of warriors took the vow of the cross and prepared for war. Why did they do it? The answer to that question has been badly misunderstood. In the wake of the Enlightenment, it was usually asserted that Crusaders were merely lacklands and ne'er-do-wells who took advantage of an opportunity to rob and pillage in a faraway land. The Crusaders' expressed sentiments of piety, self-sacrifice, and love for God were obviously not to be taken seriously. They were only a front for darker designs.

At some point, Christianity as a faith and a culture had to defend itself or be subsumed by Islam. The Crusades were that defense.
During the past two decades, computer-assisted charter studies have demolished that contrivance. Scholars have discovered that crusading knights were generally wealthy men with plenty of their own land in Europe. Nevertheless, they willingly gave up everything to undertake the holy mission. Crusading was not cheap. Even wealthy lords could easily impoverish themselves and their families by joining a Crusade. They did so not because they expected material wealth (which many of them had already) but because they hoped to store up treasure where rust and moth could not corrupt. They were keenly aware of their sinfulness and eager to undertake the hardships of the Crusade as a penitential act of charity and love. Europe is littered with thousands of medieval charters attesting to these sentiments, charters in which these men still speak to us today if we will listen. Of course, they were not opposed to capturing booty if it could be had. But the truth is that the Crusades were notoriously bad for plunder. A few people got rich, but the vast majority returned with nothing.

Urban II gave the Crusaders two goals, both of which would remain central to the eastern Crusades for centuries. The first was to rescue the Christians of the East. As his successor, Pope Innocent III, later wrote:

How does a man love according to divine precept his neighbor as himself when, knowing that his Christian brothers in faith and in name are held by the perfidious Muslims in strict confinement and weighed down by the yoke of heaviest servitude, he does not devote himself to the task of freeing them? . Is it by chance that you do not know that many thousands of Christians are bound in slavery and imprisoned by the Muslims, tortured with innumerable torments?

"Crusading," Professor Jonathan Riley-Smith has rightly argued, was understood as an "an act of love" — in this case, the love of one's neighbor. The Crusade was seen as an errand of mercy to right a terrible wrong. As Pope Innocent III wrote to the Knights Templar, "You carry out in deeds the words of the Gospel, 'Greater love than this hath no man, that he lay down his life for his friends.'"

The second goal was the liberation of Jerusalem and the other places made holy by the life of Christ. The word crusade is modern. Medieval Crusaders saw themselves as pilgrims, performing acts of righteousness on their way to the Holy Sepulcher. The Crusade indulgence they received was canonically related to the pilgrimage indulgence. This goal was frequently described in feudal terms. When calling the Fifth Crusade in 1215, Innocent III wrote:

Consider most dear sons, consider carefully that if any temporal king was thrown out of his domain and perhaps captured, would he not, when he was restored to his pristine liberty and the time had come for dispensing justice look on his vassals as unfaithful and traitors. unless they had committed not only their property but also their persons to the task of freeing him? . And similarly will not Jesus Christ, the king of kings and lord of lords, whose servant you cannot deny being, who joined your soul to your body, who redeemed you with the Precious Blood. condemn you for the vice of ingratitude and the crime of infidelity if you neglect to help Him?

The reconquest of Jerusalem, therefore, was not colonialism but an act of restoration and an open declaration of one's love of God. Medieval men knew, of course, that God had the power to restore Jerusalem Himself — indeed, He had the power to restore the whole world to His rule. Yet as St. Bernard of Clairvaux preached, His refusal to do so was a blessing to His people:

Again I say, consider the Almighty's goodness and pay heed to His plans of mercy. He puts Himself under obligation to you, or rather feigns to do so, that He can help you to satisfy your obligations toward Himself. I call blessed the generation that can seize an opportunity of such rich indulgence as this.

It is often assumed that the central goal of the Crusades was forced conversion of the Muslim world. Nothing could be further from the truth. From the perspective of medieval Christians, Muslims were the enemies of Christ and His Church. It was the Crusaders' task to defeat and defend against them. That was all. Muslims who lived in Crusader-won territories were generally allowed to retain their property and livelihood, and always their religion. Indeed, throughout the history of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, Muslim inhabitants far outnumbered the Catholics. It was not until the 13th century that the Franciscans began conversion efforts among Muslims. But these were mostly unsuccessful and finally abandoned. In any case, such efforts were by peaceful persuasion, not the threat of violence.

Like all warfare, the violence was brutal (although not as brutal as modern wars). There were mishaps, blunders, and crimes.
The Crusades were wars, so it would be a mistake to characterize them as nothing but piety and good intentions. Like all warfare, the violence was brutal (although not as brutal as modern wars). There were mishaps, blunders, and crimes. These are usually well-remembered today. During the early days of the First Crusade in 1095, a ragtag band of Crusaders led by Count Emicho of Leiningen made its way down the Rhine, robbing and murdering all the Jews they could find. Without success, the local bishops attempted to stop the carnage. In the eyes of these warriors, the Jews, like the Muslims, were the enemies of Christ. Plundering and killing them, then, was no vice. Indeed, they believed it was a righteous deed, since the Jews' money could be used to fund the Crusade to Jerusalem. But they were wrong, and the Church strongly condemned the anti-Jewish attacks.

Fifty years later, when the Second Crusade was gearing up, St. Bernard frequently preached that the Jews were not to be persecuted:

Ask anyone who knows the Sacred Scriptures what he finds foretold of the Jews in the Psalm. "Not for their destruction do I pray," it says. The Jews are for us the living words of Scripture, for they remind us always of what our Lord suffered. Under Christian princes they endure a hard captivity, but "they only wait for the time of their deliverance."

Nevertheless, a fellow Cistercian monk named Radulf stirred up people against the Rhineland Jews, despite numerous letters from Bernard demanding that he stop. At last Bernard was forced to travel to Germany himself, where he caught up with Radulf, sent him back to his convent, and ended the massacres.

It is often said that the roots of the Holocaust can be seen in these medieval pogroms. That may be. But if so, those roots are far deeper and more widespread than the Crusades. Jews perished during the Crusades, but the purpose of the Crusades was not to kill Jews. Quite the contrary: Popes, bishops, and preachers made it clear that the Jews of Europe were to be left unmolested. In a modern war, we call tragic deaths like these "collateral damage." Even with smart technologies, the United States has killed far more innocents in our wars than the Crusaders ever could. But no one would seriously argue that the purpose of American wars is to kill women and children.

By any reckoning, the First Crusade was a long shot. There was no leader, no chain of command, no supply lines, no detailed strategy. It was simply thousands of warriors marching deep into enemy territory, committed to a common cause. Many of them died, either in battle or through disease or starvation. It was a rough campaign, one that seemed always on the brink of disaster. Yet it was miraculously successful. By 1098, the Crusaders had restored Nicaea and Antioch to Christian rule. In July 1099, they conquered Jerusalem and began to build a Christian state in Palestine. The joy in Europe was unbridled. It seemed that the tide of history, which had lifted the Muslims to such heights, was now turning.

But it was not. When we think about the Middle Ages, it is easy to view Europe in light of what it became rather than what it was. The colossus of the medieval world was Islam, not Christendom. The Crusades are interesting largely because they were an attempt to counter that trend. But in five centuries of crusading, it was only the First Crusade that significantly rolled back the military progress of Islam. It was downhill from there.

When the Crusader County of Edessa fell to the Turks and Kurds in 1144, there was an enormous groundswell of support for a new Crusade in Europe. It was led by two kings, Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, and preached by St. Bernard himself. It failed miserably. Most of the Crusaders were killed along the way. Those who made it to Jerusalem only made things worse by attacking Muslim Damascus, which formerly had been a strong ally of the Christians. In the wake of such a disaster, Christians across Europe were forced to accept not only the continued growth of Muslim power but the certainty that God was punishing the West for its sins. Lay piety movements sprouted up throughout Europe, all rooted in the desire to purify Christian society so that it might be worthy of victory in the East.

Crusading in the late twelfth century, therefore, became a total war effort. Every person, no matter how weak or poor, was called to help. Warriors were asked to sacrifice their wealth and, if need be, their lives for the defense of the Christian East. On the home front, all Christians were called to support the Crusades through prayer, fasting, and alms. Yet still the Muslims grew in strength. Saladin, the great unifier, had forged the Muslim Near East into a single entity, all the while preaching jihad against the Christians. In 1187 at the Battle of Hattin, his forces wiped out the combined armies of the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem and captured the precious relic of the True Cross. Defenseless, the Christian cities began surrendering one by one, culminating in the surrender of Jerusalem on October 2. Only a tiny handful of ports held out.

The response was the Third Crusade. It was led by Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of the German Empire, King Philip II Augustus of France, and King Richard I Lionheart of England. By any measure it was a grand affair, although not quite as grand as the Christians had hoped. The aged Frederick drowned while crossing a river on horseback, so his army returned home before reaching the Holy Land. Philip and Richard came by boat, but their incessant bickering only added to an already divisive situation on the ground in Palestine. After recapturing Acre, the king of France went home, where he busied himself carving up Richard's French holdings. The Crusade, therefore, fell into Richard's lap. A skilled warrior, gifted leader, and superb tactician, Richard led the Christian forces to victory after victory, eventually reconquering the entire coast. But Jerusalem was not on the coast, and after two abortive attempts to secure supply lines to the Holy City, Richard at last gave up. Promising to return one day, he struck a truce with Saladin that ensured peace in the region and free access to Jerusalem for unarmed pilgrims. But it was a bitter pill to swallow. The desire to restore Jerusalem to Christian rule and regain the True Cross remained intense throughout Europe.

The Crusades of the 13th century were larger, better funded, and better organized. But they too failed. The Fourth Crusade (1201-1204) ran aground when it was seduced into a web of Byzantine politics, which the Westerners never fully understood. They had made a detour to Constantinople to support an imperial claimant who promised great rewards and support for the Holy Land. Yet once he was on the throne of the Caesars, their benefactor found that he could not pay what he had promised. Thus betrayed by their Greek friends, in 1204 the Crusaders attacked, captured, and brutally sacked Constantinople, the greatest Christian city in the world. Pope Innocent III, who had previously excommunicated the entire Crusade, strongly denounced the Crusaders. But there was little else he could do. The tragic events of 1204 closed an iron door between Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox, a door that even today Pope John Paul II has been unable to reopen. It is a terrible irony that the Crusades, which were a direct result of the Catholic desire to rescue the Orthodox people, drove the two further—and perhaps irrevocably—apart.

The remainder of the 13th century's Crusades did little better. The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) managed briefly to capture Damietta in Egypt, but the Muslims eventually defeated the army and reoccupied the city. St. Louis IX of France led two Crusades in his life. The first also captured Damietta, but Louis was quickly outwitted by the Egyptians and forced to abandon the city. Although Louis was in the Holy Land for several years, spending freely on defensive works, he never achieved his fondest wish: to free Jerusalem. He was a much older man in 1270 when he led another Crusade to Tunis, where he died of a disease that ravaged the camp. After St. Louis's death, the ruthless Muslim leaders, Baybars andKalavun, waged a brutal jihad against the Christians in Palestine. By 1291, the Muslim forces had succeeded in killing or ejecting the last of the Crusaders, thus erasing the Crusader kingdom from the map. Despite numerous attempts and many more plans, Christian forces were never again able to gain a foothold in the region until the 19th century.

Whether we admire the Crusaders or not, it is a fact that the world we know today would not exist without their efforts.
One might think that three centuries of Christian defeats would have soured Europeans on the idea of Crusade. Not at all. In one sense, they had little alternative. Muslim kingdoms were becoming more, not less, powerful in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The Ottoman Turks conquered not only their fellow Muslims, thus further unifying Islam, but also continued to press westward, capturing Constantinople and plunging deep into Europe itself. By the 15th century, the Crusades were no longer errands of mercy for a distant people but desperate attempts of one of the last remnants of Christendom to survive. Europeans began to ponder the real possibility that Islam would finally achieve its aim of conquering the entire Christian world. One of the great best-sellers of the time, Sebastian Brant's The Ship of Fools , gave voice to this sentiment in a chapter titled "Of the Decline of the Faith":

Our faith was strong in th' Orient,
It ruled in all of Asia,
In Moorish lands and Africa.
But now for us these lands are gone
'Twould even grieve the hardest stone.
Four sisters of our Church you find,
They're of the patriarchic kind:
Constantinople, Alexandria,
Jerusalem, Antiochia.
But they've been forfeited and sacked
And soon the head will be attacked.

Of course, that is not what happened. But it very nearly did. In 1480, Sultan Mehmed II captured Otranto as a beachhead for his invasion of Italy. Rome was evacuated. Yet the sultan died shortly thereafter, and his plan died with him. In 1529, Suleiman the Magnificent laid siege to Vienna. If not for a run of freak rainstorms that delayed his progress and forced him to leave behind much of his artillery, it is virtually certain that the Turks would have taken the city. Germany, then, would have been at their mercy. [At that point crusades were no longer waged to rescue Jerusalem, but Europe itself.]

Yet, even while these close shaves were taking place, something else was brewing in Europe—something unprecedented in human history. The Renaissance, born from a strange mixture of Roman values, medieval piety, and a unique respect for commerce and entrepreneurialism, had led to other movements like humanism, the Scientific Revolution, and the Age of Exploration. Even while fighting for its life, Europe was preparing to expand on a global scale. The Protestant Reformation, which rejected the papacy and the doctrine of indulgence, made Crusades unthinkable for many Europeans, thus leaving the fighting to the Catholics. In 1571, a Holy League, which was itself a Crusade, defeated the Ottoman fleet at Lepanto . Yet military victories like that remained rare. The Muslim threat was neutralized economically. As Europe grew in wealth and power, the once awesome and sophisticated Turks began to seem backward and pathetic—no longer worth a Crusade. The "Sick Man of Europe" limped along until the 20th century, when he finally expired, leaving behind the present mess of the modern Middle East.

From the safe distance of many centuries, it is easy enough to scowl in disgust at the Crusades. Religion, after all, is nothing to fight wars over. But we should be mindful that our medieval ancestors would have been equally disgusted by our infinitely more destructive wars fought in the name of political ideologies. And yet, both the medieval and the modern soldier fight ultimately for their own world and all that makes it up. Both are willing to suffer enormous sacrifice, provided that it is in the service of something they hold dear, something greater than themselves. Whether we admire the Crusaders or not, it is a fact that the world we know today would not exist without their efforts. The ancient faith of Christianity, with its respect for women and antipathy toward slavery, not only survived but flourished. Without the Crusades, it might well have followed Zoroastrianism, another of Islam's rivals, into extinction.


The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

In 2009, a new kind of influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in the United States and spread quickly around the world. Initially known as “swine flu,” this particular subtype of virus contained a novel combination of influenza genes that hadn’t previously been identified in animals or people. The virus was designated as (H1N1)pdm09.

Very few young people had any existing immunity to the virus, but about 1/3rd of people over 60 had antibodies against it. Because it was very different than other H1N1 viruses, the seasonal vaccinations didn’t offer much cross-protection either. When a vaccine was finally made, it was not available in large quantities until late November, after the illness had already peaked.

The CDC estimates that between 151,700 - 575,400 people died worldwide during the first year that the (H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated. About 80% of those deaths are believed to have been people younger than 65 — which is unusual. During typical seasonal influenza epidemics, 70-90% of deaths occur in people over 65.

Know your flu risk. Check out the Flu Tracker on The Weather Channel App.


Assista o vídeo: Robin Hood Expedientes Misterio Documental National geographic en Español (Setembro 2022).


Comentários:

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