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Benigno Aquino Jr. Assassinado nas Filipinas

Benigno Aquino Jr. Assassinado nas Filipinas


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Em 21 de agosto de 1983, o líder político filipino Benigno Aquino Jr. retornou às Filipinas após um exílio de três anos nos Estados Unidos e foi morto a tiros segundos depois de deixar seu avião no Aeroporto Internacional de Manila. ABC News, cujo correspondente estava a bordo do avião, relata o evento.


Morre herdeiro da democracia nas Filipinas, ex-líder Benigno Aquino

ARQUIVO - Neste 30 de junho de 2010, foto de arquivo, o então recém-empossado presidente filipino Benigno Aquino III, centro, jurou em autoridades locais durante seu primeiro dia no palácio presidencial de Malacanang em Manila, Filipinas. Aquino, filho de ícones pró-democracia que ajudaram a derrubar o ditador Ferdinand Marcos e tinha relações problemáticas com a China, morreu quinta-feira, 24 de junho de 2021, disseram um primo e funcionários públicos. (AP Photo / Aaron Favila, Arquivo)

MANILA - O ex-presidente das Filipinas Benigno Aquino III, filho de ícones pró-democracia que ajudaram a derrubar o ditador Ferdinand Marcos e um defensor da boa governança que levou as reivindicações territoriais da China a um tribunal internacional, morreu. Ele tinha 61 anos.

A família de Aquino disse em uma entrevista coletiva que ele morreu durante o sono na quinta-feira devido a "insuficiência renal secundária ao diabetes". Um ex-funcionário do gabinete, Rogelio Singson, disse que Aquino estava em diálise e se preparava para um transplante de rim.

“Missão cumprida, Noy, seja feliz agora com papai e mamãe”, disse Pinky Aquino-Abellada, uma irmã do falecido presidente, usando seu apelido e lutando para conter as lágrimas.

Choveram condolências de líderes políticos como o presidente Joe Biden e o sucessor de Aquino, Rodrigo Duterte, e da Igreja Católica dominante. Bandeiras filipinas foram baixadas a meio mastro em prédios do governo.

“Para além da política e de muita acrimônia pública, eu conhecia Noynoy como uma alma gentil e simples. Ele fará muita falta ”, disse a senadora Imee Marcos, filha do falecido ditador, em nota, usando o apelido de Aquino.

Biden chamou Aquino de “um amigo e parceiro valioso dos Estados Unidos” e disse que gostava do tempo que passavam trabalhando juntos.

“O compromisso constante do presidente Aquino em promover a paz, defender o Estado de Direito e impulsionar o crescimento econômico de todos os filipinos, ao mesmo tempo em que dá passos ousados ​​para promover a ordem internacional baseada em regras, deixa um legado notável em casa e no exterior que perdurará por anos. venha ”, disse Biden em um comunicado de luto pela morte de Aquino.

Aquino, que foi presidente de 2010 a 2016, era herdeiro de uma família considerada um baluarte contra o autoritarismo nas Filipinas.

Seu pai, o ex-senador Benigno Aquino Jr., foi assassinado em 1983 enquanto estava sob custódia militar no aeroporto internacional de Manila, que hoje leva seu nome. Sua mãe, Corazon Aquino, liderou a revolta do “poder popular” de 1986 que depôs Marcos. O levante apoiado pelo exército se tornou um prenúncio de revoltas populares contra regimes autoritários em todo o mundo.

Descendente de um rico clã político proprietário de terras no norte das Filipinas, Aquino, carinhosamente chamado de Noynoy ou Pnoy por muitos filipinos, construiu a imagem de um político incorruptível que lutou contra a pobreza e desaprovou os excessos das elites do país, incluindo políticos poderosos . Uma de suas primeiras ordens que durou ao longo de sua presidência foi proibir o uso de sirenes em veículos que transportavam VIPs pelos notórios engarrafamentos de Manila.

Aquino, cuja família foi para o exílio nos EUA durante o governo de Marcos, tinha laços turbulentos com a China como presidente. Depois que a China apreendeu um banco de areia disputado em 2012 após um impasse tenso no Mar da China Meridional, Aquino autorizou a apresentação de uma queixa perante um tribunal de arbitragem internacional que questionava a validade das reivindicações abrangentes da China na hidrovia estratégica que Pequim reivindica virtualmente todo o Mar da China Meridional. em bases históricas.

“Não seremos pressionados porque somos um estado minúsculo em comparação com o deles”, disse Aquino à The Associated Press em junho de 2011. “Achamos que temos bases muito sólidas para dizer‘ não se intrometa em nosso território ’”.

As Filipinas venceram em grande parte. Mas a China se recusou a participar da arbitragem e rejeitou como uma farsa a decisão do tribunal de 2016, que invalidou as reivindicações de Pequim com base em um tratado marítimo da ONU de 1982. A contestação legal de Aquino e a eventual decisão colocaram as relações entre Pequim e Manila em um ponto mais baixo.

Nascido em 1960 como o terceiro de cinco filhos, Aquino nunca se casou e não teve filhos. Formado em economia, ele buscou oportunidades de negócios antes de entrar na política.

Durante a tumultuada presidência de sua mãe, depois que a democracia foi restaurada, Aquino foi ferido por tiros durante uma tentativa fracassada de golpe de 1987 por soldados rebeldes que tentaram sitiar o fortemente guardado palácio presidencial de Malacanang. Três de suas escoltas de segurança foram mortas. Uma bala permanecera cravada no pescoço de Aquino.

Ele ganhou uma cadeira na Câmara dos Representantes em 1998, onde serviu até 2007, então concorreu com sucesso para o Senado. Aquino anunciou sua campanha presidencial em setembro de 2009, dizendo que estava respondendo ao chamado do povo para continuar o legado de sua mãe. Ela havia morrido poucas semanas antes de câncer de cólon.

Ele venceu com um grito de batalha "sem os corruptos, não haverá pobres." Ele chamou os filipinos comuns de "patrão" e se ofereceu como servo. Amigos disseram que ele costumava levar uma cópia da Constituição das Filipinas no bolso, um reflexo de sua crença inabalável de que ninguém está acima da lei.

Sua vitória também foi vista como um voto de protesto devido à exasperação com os escândalos de corrupção de sua antecessora, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Ela foi detida por quase cinco anos antes que a Suprema Corte a inocentasse das acusações. Arroyo mais tarde serviu como presidente da Câmara sob Duterte.

As expectativas do público em relação a Aquino eram altas. Enquanto ele agia contra a corrupção - prendendo Arroyo e três senadores poderosos - e iniciava programas anti-pobreza, as profundas desigualdades e instituições fracas na nação do sudeste asiático destruída por décadas de insurgências comunistas e muçulmanas continuaram assustadoras.

Sob Aquino, o governo expandiu um programa que fornece dinheiro para os mais pobres em troca do compromisso dos pais de enviar os filhos à escola. As grandes empresas, por sua vez, se beneficiaram de acordos de parceria do governo para financiar grandes projetos de infraestrutura.

Um dos maiores sucessos de Aquino foi a assinatura de um acordo de paz em 2014 com o maior grupo rebelde separatista muçulmano, a Frente de Libertação Moro Islâmica. Isso aliviou décadas de combates no sul do país, terra natal da minoria muçulmana em uma nação predominantemente católica romana.

Os oponentes deram passos em falso, incluindo uma crise de reféns de ônibus em Manila que terminou com a morte de oito turistas chineses de Hong Kong por um policial descontente e atrasos nos esforços de recuperação após o desastroso tufão Haiyan em 2013. Ele também foi criticado em 2015 por sua ausência em uma cerimônia de base aérea em homenagem a comandos policiais mortos por insurgentes muçulmanos durante uma operação secreta que matou um dos suspeitos de terrorismo mais procurados da Ásia.

Aquino manteve altos índices de aprovação quando seu mandato de seis anos terminou em 2016. A ascensão do populista Duterte, cuja repressão às drogas ilegais matou milhares de suspeitos de drogas, em sua maioria insignificantes, foi uma verificação da realidade sobre a extensão da insatisfação pública e falhas percebidas durante o governo reformista de Aquino.

Aquino fez campanha contra Duterte, alertando que ele poderia ser um ditador iminente e poderia atrasar a democracia e o ímpeto econômico alcançados em seu próprio mandato.

A revista Time nomeou Aquino como uma das 100 pessoas mais influentes do mundo em 2013, elogiando-o por estabilizar uma economia turbulenta e por enfrentar bravamente a China nas disputas do Mar do Sul da China.

Depois de deixar o cargo, Aquino se afastou da política e dos olhos do público.

Ele deixa quatro irmãs. Seus restos mortais cremados serão levados na sexta-feira a uma igreja católica romana na Universidade Ateneo de Manila, sua antiga escola, para uma visita pública de um dia sujeito a salvaguardas contra o coronavírus antes do enterro planejado para o fim de semana, disseram os organizadores.

Os jornalistas da Associated Press Joeal Calupitan e Aaron Favila contribuíram para este relatório.

Copyright 2021 da Associated Press. Todos os direitos reservados. Este material não pode ser publicado, transmitido, reescrito ou redistribuído sem permissão.


Descendente da democracia nas Filipinas, ex-presidente Benigno Aquino morre

O ex-presidente filipino, no cargo de 2010 a 2016, foi o herdeiro de um legado familiar de oposição ao autoritarismo.

Nesta foto de arquivo de 21 de agosto de 2018, o ex-presidente Benigno Aquino III lidera a comemoração do assassinato de seu pai em 21 de agosto de 1983, o senador da oposição Benigno Aquino Jr., no Parque Memorial de Manila, no subúrbio de Paranaque, a leste de Manila , Filipinas.

Crédito: AP Photo / Bullit Marquez, anúncio de arquivo

O ex-presidente das Filipinas, Benigno Aquino III, filho de ícones pró-democracia que ajudaram a derrubar o ditador Ferdinand Marcos e tinha relações problemáticas com a China, morreu na quinta-feira, disseram um primo e funcionários públicos. Ele tinha 61 anos.

O ex-senador Bam Aquino disse que ficou de coração partido com a morte de seu primo. & # 8220Ele deu tudo para o filipino, ele não deixou nada, & # 8221 ele disse.

Os detalhes de sua morte não foram divulgados imediatamente por membros de sua família, que foram vistos correndo para um hospital metropolitano de Manila pela manhã. Mas um de seus ex-funcionários de gabinete, Rogelio Singson, disse que Aquino estava em diálise e se preparava para um transplante de rim.

As condolências foram recebidas de políticos filipinos, da Igreja Católica e de outros, incluindo o governo dos Estados Unidos, o atual governo do presidente Rodrigo Duterte & # 8217 e uma filha de Marcos, que agora é senador. Bandeiras filipinas foram baixadas para metade do mastro em prédios do governo.

& # 8220Estamos tristes com a morte do presidente Aquino & # 8217 e sempre seremos gratos por nossa parceria, & # 8221 US Embassy Charge d & # 8217 Affaires John Law disse em um comunicado. O porta-voz da Duterte & # 8217s, Harry Roque, pediu um momento de silêncio e orações no início de uma entrevista coletiva televisionada e a senadora Imee Marcos, filha do falecido ditador, também ofereceu suas condolências.

& # 8220Para além da política e de muita amargura pública, conheci Noynoy como uma alma gentil e simples. Ele fará muita falta ”, disse Marcos em comunicado, usando o apelido de Aquino.

Aquino, que foi presidente de 2010 a 2016, era o herdeiro do legado político de uma família considerada um baluarte contra o autoritarismo nas Filipinas.

Diplomat Brief

Boletim Semanal

Receba informações sobre a história da semana e histórias em desenvolvimento para assistir em toda a Ásia-Pacífico.

Seu pai, o ex-senador Benigno Aquino Jr., foi assassinado em 1983 enquanto estava sob custódia militar no aeroporto internacional de Manila, que hoje leva seu nome. Sua mãe, Corazon Aquino, liderou a revolta de 1986 & # 8220 pelo poder popular & # 8221 que depôs Marcos. O levante apoiado pelo exército se tornou um prenúncio de revoltas populares contra regimes autoritários em todo o mundo.

Apesar de ser descendente de um rico clã político proprietário de terras no norte das Filipinas, Aquino, carinhosamente chamado de Noynoy ou Pinoy por muitos filipinos e tinha uma imagem de político incorruptível, lutou contra a pobreza e franziu o cenho diante dos excessos das famílias da elite do país e # 8217s e políticos poderosos. Uma de suas primeiras ordens que durou durante sua presidência foi proibir o uso de sirenes em veículos que transportavam VIPs através dos notórios engarrafamentos de Manila.

Aquino, cuja família foi para o exílio nos EUA durante o governo de Marcos & # 8217, tinha laços turbulentos com a China como presidente. Depois que a China efetivamente apreendeu um banco de areia disputado em 2012 após um impasse tenso entre navios chineses e filipinos no Mar da China Meridional, Aquino autorizou a apresentação de uma queixa perante um tribunal de arbitragem internacional que questionava a validade das reivindicações de varrer da China & # 8217s na via navegável estratégica em bases históricas.

& # 8220Não queremos aumentar as tensões com ninguém, mas devemos deixar o mundo saber que estamos prontos para proteger o que é nosso & # 8221 Aquino disse em seu discurso sobre o estado da nação no Congresso em 2011.

As Filipinas venceram em grande parte. A China se recusou a participar da arbitragem e rejeitou como uma farsa a decisão do tribunal & # 8217s de 2016, que invalidou as reivindicações de Pequim & # 8217s em praticamente todo o Mar da China Meridional com base em um tratado marítimo da ONU de 1982 e continua a desafiá-lo. A contestação legal de Aquino e a decisão final colocaram as relações entre Pequim e Manila em seu ponto mais baixo.

Nascido em 1960 como o terceiro de cinco filhos, Aquino nunca se casou e não teve filhos. Formado em economia, Aquino se envolveu em negócios antes de entrar na política.

Durante a presidência politicamente tumultuada de sua mãe, Aquino foi ferido por tiros durante uma tentativa fracassada de golpe de 1987 por soldados rebeldes, que tentaram sitiar o fortemente guardado palácio presidencial de Malacanang. Aquino estava em um carro com companheiros no caminho de volta para o palácio em Manila quando eles foram vítimas de pesados ​​tiros. Três de suas escoltas de segurança foram mortas e Aquino foi gravemente ferido, com uma bala permanecendo cravada em seu pescoço durante toda a vida porque era muito perigosa para ser retirada por cirurgia.

Ele ganhou uma cadeira na poderosa Câmara dos Representantes em 1998, onde serviu até 2007, e então concorreu com sucesso a uma cadeira no Senado. Aquino anunciou sua campanha presidencial em setembro de 2009, dizendo que estava respondendo ao chamado do povo para continuar o legado de sua mãe. Ela havia morrido poucas semanas antes de câncer de cólon.

& # 8220Aceito a responsabilidade de continuar nossa luta pelo povo. Aceito o desafio de liderar esta luta, & # 8221 disse ele.

Ele venceu por uma grande margem com a promessa de combater a corrupção e a pobreza, mas sua vitória também foi vista como um voto de protesto devido à exasperação com os escândalos de corrupção que abalaram a presidência de sua antecessora, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, que foi detida por quase cinco anos e foi libertada depois que o Supremo Tribunal a absolveu das acusações. Arroyo mais tarde retornou com sucesso ao poder político, ao mesmo tempo servindo como presidente da Câmara sob Duterte.

As expectativas do público em relação a Aquino eram altas e enquanto ele agia contra a corrupção - prendendo Arroyo e três senadores poderosos por alegações de corrupção - e iniciava programas anti-pobreza, os problemas em seu país do sudeste asiático, sujeito a desastres, que permaneceu destruído por comunistas de décadas e As insurgências muçulmanas continuaram assustadoras.

Sob Aquino, o governo expandiu um programa que fornece dinheiro para os mais pobres em troca de compromissos dos pais para garantir que seus filhos frequentem as aulas e recebam cuidados de saúde do governo. Enquanto isso, as grandes empresas se beneficiaram de acordos de parceria com o governo que lhes permitiram financiar grandes projetos de infraestrutura, como rodovias e aeroportos, para ganhos de longo prazo.

Um dos legados da presidência de Aquino foi a assinatura de um acordo de paz de 2014 com o maior grupo rebelde separatista muçulmano do país, a Frente de Libertação Islâmica Moro, em 2014 que facilitou décadas de lutas esporádicas no país & # 8217s sul, terra natal de minoria muçulmana na nação predominantemente católica romana.

Os oponentes políticos criticaram o que eles chamam de falha de sua administração em uma série de crises, incluindo uma crise de reféns em um ônibus de Manila que terminou com a morte de oito turistas chineses de Hong Kong por um policial descontente e atrasos nos esforços de recuperação após o desastroso rescaldo do tufão Haiyan em 2013.

Aquino foi fortemente criticado em 2015 por sua ausência em uma cerimônia solene em uma base aérea de Manila, onde aeronaves da força aérea trouxeram os restos mortais de comandos da polícia que foram mortos por insurgentes muçulmanos durante uma operação secreta que matou um dos mais asiáticos queria suspeitos de terrorismo. Aquino prosseguiu com a inauguração programada de uma fábrica de automóveis e seus oponentes disseram que faltou empatia.

Aquino manteve altos índices de aprovação quando seu mandato de solteiro de seis anos terminou em 2016. Mas a ascensão do populista Duterte, cuja repressão às drogas ilegais matou milhares de suspeitos de drogas, em sua maioria insignificantes, foi uma verificação da realidade sobre o grau de insatisfação pública e falhas percebidas durante o governo reformista de Aquino & # 8217s.

Aquino fez campanha contra Duterte, alertando que ele poderia ser um ditador iminente e poderia atrasar a democracia e o ímpeto econômico conquistados em seu próprio mandato.

Após a presidência, Aquino se afastou da política e dos olhos do público. Seu ex-secretário de Obras Públicas, Singson, disse à rádio DZMM que Aquino disse a ele em uma mensagem por celular em 3 de junho que ele estava fazendo diálise e se preparando para uma angioplastia, um procedimento médico delicado para tratar uma artéria bloqueada antes de um possível transplante de rim.

Singson disse que oraria pela presidência enferma e por um tratamento bem-sucedido. & # 8220Aquela foi a última vez & # 8221 disse Singson, um respeitado ex-membro do gabinete de Aquino & # 8217s que, como o falecido presidente, tinha uma imagem de funcionário incorruptível em um país asiático há muito atormentado por escândalos de corrupção.


Conteúdo

Benigno Simeón Aquino Jr. nasceu em Concepcion, Tarlac, em 27 de novembro de 1932, filho de Benigno Aquino Sr. e Aurora Lampa Aquino [5] [6] de uma próspera família de hacienderos, os proprietários originais da Hacienda Maling, Hacienda Sawang e Hacienda Murcia. [7]

Seu avô, Servillano Aquino, era um general do exército revolucionário de Emilio Aguinaldo, o primeiro presidente oficialmente reconhecido das Filipinas. [8]

Ele recebeu sua educação primária no departamento de educação básica do De La Salle College e terminou no departamento de educação básica do Saint Joseph's College of Quezon City. Ele então se formou no departamento de ensino médio do San Beda College. Aquino fez o ensino superior na Universidade Ateneo de Manila para obter o diploma de bacharel em artes, mas interrompeu os estudos. [9] De acordo com uma de suas biografias, ele se considerava um aluno mediano, sua nota não estava na linha dos 90 e nem chegava aos 70. Aos 17 anos, ele foi o correspondente de guerra mais jovem a cobrir a Guerra da Coréia durante The Manila Times do vestir Joaquín "Chino" Roces. Por causa de seus feitos jornalísticos, ele recebeu o prêmio da Legião de Honra das Filipinas do presidente Elpidio Quirino aos 18 anos. Aos 21, ele se tornou um conselheiro próximo do então secretário de Defesa Ramon Magsaysay. Aquino estudou Direito na Universidade das Filipinas em Diliman, onde se tornou membro da Upsilon Sigma Phi, a mesma fraternidade de Ferdinand Marcos. Ele interrompeu seus estudos novamente, no entanto, para seguir carreira no jornalismo. Segundo Máximo Soliven, Aquino "mais tarde 'explicou' que tinha decidido frequentar o maior número de escolas possível, para poder fazer o maior número possível de novos amigos". [9] No início de 1954, ele foi nomeado pelo presidente Ramon Magsaysay, seu patrocinador do casamento de 1953 na Igreja Nossa Senhora das Dores em Pasay com Corazon Cojuangco, para atuar como emissário pessoal de Luis Taruc, líder do grupo rebelde Hukbalahap . Após quatro meses de negociações, ele foi creditado pela rendição incondicional de Taruc [10] e recebeu um segundo prêmio da Legião de Honra das Filipinas com o grau de Comandante em 14 de outubro de 1954. [11]

Ele se tornou prefeito de Concepcion em 1955 com a idade de 23 anos. [12]

Aquino se familiarizou cedo com a política filipina, pois nasceu em um dos clãs políticos e proprietários de terras das Filipinas. Seu avô serviu no governo do presidente Aguinaldo, e seu pai ocupou o cargo dos presidentes Quezon e Jose P. Laurel. Como consequência, Aquino pôde ser eleito prefeito aos 23 anos. [12] Cinco anos depois, ele foi eleito o mais jovem vice-governador do país aos 27 anos (o recorde foi superado por Bongbong Marcos aos 22 em 1980). Dois anos depois, ele se tornou governador da província de Tarlac em 1961 e então secretário-geral do Partido Liberal em 1966.

Em 1968, durante seu primeiro ano como senador, Aquino alegou que Marcos estava a caminho de estabelecer "um estado-guarnição" "inflando o orçamento das forças armadas", sobrecarregando o estabelecimento de defesa com "generais estagnados" e "militarizando nossos gabinetes civis. . " [13] [14]

Aquino ficou conhecido como um crítico constante do regime de Marcos, pois sua retórica extravagante o tornara um queridinho da mídia. Seu discurso mais polêmico, "Um Panteão para Imelda", foi proferido em 10 de fevereiro de 1969. Ele atacou o Centro Cultural, primeiro projeto da primeira-dama Imelda Marcos como extravagante, e o apelidou de "um monumento à vergonha" e rotulou seu criador "um megalomaníaco, com tendência para cativar". No final do dia, os jornais do país berraram que ele rotulou a esposa do presidente, ex-pupila de seu primo Paz, e uma mulher que ele uma vez cortejou, "Eva Peron das Filipinas". O presidente Marcos teria ficado indignado e rotulado Aquino de "um mentiroso congênito". Os amigos da primeira-dama acusaram Aquino com raiva de ser "não galante". Essas chamadas táticas de "fiscalização" de Aquino rapidamente se tornaram sua marca no Senado. [15] [14]

Foi só com o atentado à bomba na Plaza Miranda, em 21 de agosto de 1971, que surgiu o padrão de confronto direto entre Marcos e Aquino. Às 21h15, no comício inicial do Partido Liberal, os candidatos formaram uma fila em uma plataforma improvisada e levantaram as mãos enquanto a multidão aplaudia. A banda tocou, uma queima de fogos atraiu todos os olhares, quando de repente houve duas fortes explosões que obviamente não faziam parte do show. Em um instante, o palco se tornou uma cena de carnificina selvagem. Mais tarde, a polícia descobriu duas granadas de fragmentação que foram atiradas ao palco por "pessoas desconhecidas". Oito pessoas morreram e outras 120 ficaram feridas, muitas delas em estado crítico.

Como Aquino era o único candidato do Partido Liberal ao senador que não estava presente no incidente, muitos presumiram que os amigos de Aquino do NPA o avisaram com antecedência. [16] Anos depois, alguns ex-comunistas assumiram a responsabilidade e acusaram Aquino de estar envolvido, mas a liderança do partido considerou isso um absurdo. Ninguém jamais foi processado pelo ataque. [17] Muitos historiadores continuam a suspeitar de Marcos, pois ele é conhecido por ter usado ataques de bandeira falsa como pretexto para sua declaração de lei marcial na época. [18] [19]

Marcos declarou lei marcial em 21 de setembro de 1972, por meio da Proclamação nº 1081 [20] e foi ao ar a transmitir sua declaração na meia-noite de 23 de setembro. [21] Aquino e o senador Diokno foram um dos primeiros a serem presos e Preso sob acusações forjadas de assassinato, posse ilegal de armas de fogo e subversão. Ele foi julgado perante a Comissão Militar nº 2, chefiada pelo Major-General José Syjuco e levado ao Forte Magsaysay em Laur, Nueva Ecija.

Em 4 de abril de 1975, Aquino anunciou que estava fazendo greve de fome, um jejum de morte para protestar contra as injustiças de seu julgamento militar. Dez dias após sua greve de fome, ele instruiu seus advogados a retirarem todas as moções que ele havia submetido à Suprema Corte. Com o passar das semanas, ele subsistia apenas com comprimidos de sal, bicarbonato de sódio, aminoácidos e dois copos de água por dia. Mesmo enquanto ele ficava mais fraco, sofrendo de calafrios e cólicas, os soldados o arrastaram à força para a sessão do tribunal militar. Sua família e centenas de amigos e apoiadores assistiram à missa todas as noites no Santuario de San Jose em Greenhills, San Juan, orando por sua sobrevivência. Perto do fim, o peso de Aquino caiu de 54 para 36 quilos. Mesmo assim, Aquino foi capaz de superar sua provação. No dia 13 de maio de 1975, no 40º dia, sua família e vários padres e amigos, imploraram-lhe para encerrar o jejum, lembrando que até mesmo Cristo jejuou apenas por 40 dias. Ele aquiesceu, confiante de que havia feito um gesto simbólico. Ele, porém, permaneceu na prisão e o julgamento continuou, prolongado por vários anos. Em 25 de novembro de 1977, a Comissão Militar encontrou Aquino, junto com os líderes do NPA, Bernabe Buscayno (Kumander Dante) e o tenente Victor Corpuz, culpado de todas as acusações e os condenou à morte por fuzilamento. [22] Marcos, no entanto, os poupou da execução. [23]

Em 1978, de sua cela de prisão, Aquino foi autorizado a concorrer nas eleições parlamentares das Filipinas em 1978. Enquanto os colegas do Partido Liberal de Ninoy boicotavam a eleição, ele formou o Lakas ng Bayan Festa. O partido tinha 21 candidatos para a área metropolitana de Manila, incluindo o próprio Ninoy. Todos os candidatos do partido, incluindo Ninoy, perderam a eleição. [24]

Em meados de março de 1980, Aquino sofreu um ataque cardíaco, principalmente em uma cela solitária. Ele foi transportado para o Philippine Heart Center, onde sofreu um segundo ataque cardíaco. O ECG e outros testes mostraram que ele tinha uma artéria bloqueada. Cirurgiões filipinos relutaram em fazer uma cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio, porque isso poderia envolvê-los em uma polêmica. Além disso, Aquino se recusou a se submeter aos médicos filipinos, temendo uma possível "duplicidade" de Marcos, pois preferia ir aos Estados Unidos para o procedimento ou voltar para sua cela no Forte Bonifácio e morrer.

Seu pedido foi atendido e Ninoy foi autorizado a ir aos Estados Unidos para uma cirurgia, junto com toda a família. Isso foi providenciado após uma visita secreta de Imelda Marcos ao hospital. Essa "licença de emergência" foi montada quando Ninoy supostamente concordou com as condições de que, primeiro, ele retornará e, segundo, ele não se manifestará contra Marcos nos Estados Unidos. Ninoy foi operado por Rolando M. Solis, um filipino-americano e cardiologista há mais tempo praticando em Dallas, Texas, onde a operação foi realizada. Após a cirurgia, Ninoy teve uma recuperação rápida, após a qual decidiu renunciar ao acordo, dizendo: "pacto com o diabo não é pacto de jeito nenhum". [25]

Ele, Cory e seus filhos começaram uma nova vida em Massachusetts. Ele continuou a trabalhar em dois livros e deu uma série de palestras enquanto recebia bolsas de estudo da Universidade de Harvard e do Instituto de Tecnologia de Massachusetts. Suas viagens pelos Estados Unidos tornaram-se oportunidades para ele fazer discursos críticos ao governo Marcos. [26] [27] Ao longo de seus anos de expatriação, Aquino sempre esteve ciente de que sua vida nos EUA era temporária. Ele nunca parou de afirmar seu eventual retorno, mesmo desfrutando da hospitalidade americana e de uma vida pacífica com sua família em solo americano. Depois de passar sete anos e sete meses na prisão, as finanças de Aquino estavam em ruínas. Recuperando o tempo perdido como ganha-pão da família, ele viajou pela América participando de simpósios, palestras e discursos em manifestações pela liberdade em oposição à ditadura de Marcos. O mais memorável foi realizado no Wilshire Ebell Theatre em Los Angeles, Califórnia, em 15 de fevereiro de 1981. [28]

No primeiro trimestre de 1983, Aquino recebeu notícias sobre a deterioração da situação política em seu país e os rumores do declínio da saúde do presidente Marcos (devido ao lúpus). Ele acreditava que seria conveniente falar com Marcos e apresentar-lhe suas razões para o retorno do país à democracia, antes que extremistas assumissem o controle e tornassem tal mudança impossível. Além disso, seus anos de ausência fizeram seus aliados temerem que os filipinos pudessem ter se resignado ao governo do homem forte de Marcos e que, sem sua liderança, a oposição centrista morreria de morte natural. [29]

Aquino decidiu voltar para as Filipinas, ciente dos perigos que o aguardavam. Avisado de que seria preso ou morto, Aquino respondeu: "se é meu destino morrer pela bala de um assassino, que seja. Mas não posso ficar petrificado pela inércia ou medo do assassinato e, portanto, ficar ao lado". [30] Sua família, no entanto, soube por um funcionário consular das Filipinas que havia ordens do Ministério das Relações Exteriores para não emitir passaportes para eles. Naquela época, seus passaportes haviam expirado e sua renovação foi negada. Portanto, eles formularam um plano para Aquino voar sozinho (para atrair menos atenção), com o resto da família o seguindo depois de duas semanas. Apesar da proibição do governo de lhe emitir um passaporte, Aquino adquiriu um com a ajuda de Rashid Lucman, um ex-legislador de Mindanao e fundador da Frente de Libertação de Bangsamoro, um grupo separatista Moro contra Marcos. Carregava o apelido Marcial Bonifacio (Marcial pela lei marcial e Bonifácio pelo Forte Bonifácio, sua antiga prisão). [31] Ele finalmente obteve um passaporte legítimo de um simpatizante que trabalhava em um consulado filipino com a ajuda de Roque R. Ablan Jr., que era então deputado. O governo de Marcos advertiu todas as companhias aéreas internacionais que teriam o direito de pouso negado e seriam forçadas a retornar se tentassem levar Aquino de volta às Filipinas. Aquino insistiu que era seu direito natural como cidadão voltar para sua terra natal e que nenhum governo poderia impedi-lo de fazê-lo. Ele deixou o Aeroporto Internacional Logan em 13 de agosto de 1983 e fez uma rota tortuosa de Boston, via Los Angeles até Cingapura. Em Cingapura, o então Tunku Ibrahim Ismail de Johor encontrou Aquino em sua chegada e mais tarde o trouxe a Johor para se encontrar com outros líderes malaios. [32] Uma vez em Johor, Aquino se encontrou com o pai de Tunku Ibrahim, Sultan Iskandar, que era um amigo próximo de Aquino. [33]

Ele então partiu para Hong Kong e depois para Taipei. Ele escolheu Taipei como escala final quando soube que as Filipinas haviam cortado relações diplomáticas com a República da China (Taiwan). Isso o fez se sentir mais seguro de que o governo de Taiwan poderia fingir que não estava ciente de sua presença. Também haveria alguns amigos taiwaneses acompanhando-o. De Taipei, ele voou para Manila na então transportadora de bandeira de Taiwan, China Airlines Flight 811. [ citação necessária ]

Marcos queria que Aquino ficasse fora da política, mas Aquino afirmou estar disposto a sofrer as consequências declarando: "Vale a pena morrer pelo filipino". [34] Ele gostaria de expressar um apelo sincero à renúncia de Marcos, por uma mudança pacífica de regime e um retorno às instituições democráticas. Antecipando o pior, em entrevista em sua suíte no Taipei Grand Hotel, ele revelou que estaria usando um colete à prova de balas, mas também disse que "só faz bem para o corpo, mas na cabeça não há mais nada que nós pode fazer." Sentindo sua própria condenação, ele disse aos jornalistas que o acompanhavam no voo: "Vocês precisam estar bem preparados com sua câmera manual porque essa ação pode se tornar muito rápida. Em questão de três ou quatro minutos tudo pode acabar, vocês sei, e [rindo] posso não ser capaz de falar com você novamente depois disso. " [35] Sua última entrevista televisionada, [36] com o jornalista Jim Laurie, ocorreu no vôo pouco antes de seu assassinato.

Em sua última declaração formal de que não foi capaz de cumprir, ele disse: "Voltei por minha livre vontade para me juntar às fileiras daqueles que lutam para restaurar nossos direitos e liberdades por meio da não-violência. Não busco confronto". [37]

Aquino was shot in the head after returning to the Philippines on August 21, 1983. About 1,000 security personnel had been assigned by the Marcos government to ensure Aquino's safe return to his detention cell in Fort Bonifacio, but this did not prevent the assassination. A subsequent investigation was opened, but provided no definitive answers. 26 individuals (25 military men and one civilian) were charged with involvement in the murder, but were acquitted by the Sandiganbayan on December 2, 1985. After Marcos' government was overthrown, another investigation found sixteen soldiers guilty. They were sentenced to life in prison. Some were released over the years, the last ones in March 2009. [38] [39]

Another man present at the airport tarmac, Rolando Galman, was shot dead shortly after Aquino was killed. The Marcos government claimed that Galman was the trigger man in Aquino's assassination.

After the assassination, the opposition ran for the Regular Batasang Pambansa under the United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) and the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan (PDP–Laban) against the ruling Kilusang Bagong Lipunan of Ferdinand Marcos. In the wake of the massive outpouring of protest and discontent following the assassination of Ninoy, the opposition performed better during the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election compared to the 1978 Philippine parliamentary election, winning 61 seats out of 183 seats, or 33% of the total number of seats. [40]

A day after the assassination, Aquino was autopsied, and the following day, his remains lay in state for eight days, his clothes unchanged, and no effort was made to disguise a bullet wound that had disfigured his face. In an interview with Aquino's mother, Aurora, she told the funeral parlor not to apply makeup nor embalm her son, to see "what they did to my son". Thousands of supporters flocked to see the bloodied body of Aquino, which took place at the Aquino household in Times Street, West Triangle, Quezon City, for eight days. Aquino's wife, Corazon Aquino, and children Ballsy, Pinky, Viel, Noynoy and Kris arrived the day after the assassination. Aquino's funeral procession on August 31 lasted from 9 a.m., when his funeral mass was held at Santo Domingo Church in Santa Mesa Heights, Quezon City, with the Cardinal Archbishop of Manila, Jaime Sin officiating, to 9 p.m., when his body was interred at the Manila Memorial Park. More than two million people lined the streets during the procession which was aired by some stations like the church-sponsored Radio Veritas and DZRH. [41] The procession reached Rizal Park, where the Philippine flag was brought to half-staff. [ citação necessária ]

Jovito Salonga, then head of the Liberal Party, referred to Aquino as "the greatest president we never had", [42] adding:

Ninoy was getting impatient in Boston, he felt isolated by the flow of events in the Philippines. In early 1983, Marcos was seriously ailing, the Philippine economy was just as rapidly declining, and insurgency was becoming a serious problem. Ninoy thought that by coming home he might be able to persuade Marcos to restore democracy and somehow revitalize the Liberal Party. [42]

Although Aquino was recognized as the most prominent and most dynamic politician of his generation, in the years prior to martial law he was regarded by many as being a representative of the entrenched familial elite which to this day dominates Philippine politics. While atypically telegenic and uncommonly articulate, he had his share of detractors and was not known to be immune to ambitions and excesses of the ruling political class. However, during his seven years and seven months imprisoned as a criminal, Aquino read the book Born Again by convicted Watergate conspirator Charles Colson and it inspired him to a rude awakening. [43]

As a result, the remainder of his personal and political life had a distinct spiritual sheen. He emerged as a contemporary counterpart of Jose Rizal, who was among the most vocal proponents of the use of non-violence to combat a repressive regime at the time, following the model of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. [44]

Some oppositionist students who were active in the fight against the Marcos dictatorship recount that at the time they had originally thought of Ninoy as just another "traditional politician," but began to acknowledge he was more than that when he took the risk of returning to the Philippines, and ultimately paid for his choice with his life. [45]

Monuments and memorials Edit

The Manila International Airport (MIA) where he was assassinated was renamed Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) and his image is printed on the 500-peso note together with his wife. August 21, the anniversary of his death, is Ninoy Aquino Day, an annual public holiday in the Philippines. [46] [47]

Several monuments were built because of their demands to be honored. Most renowned is the bronze memorial in Makati near the Philippine Stock Exchange, which has become a popular venue for anti-government rallies and large demonstrations [ citação necessária ] . Another bronze statue is in front of the Municipal Building of Concepcion, Tarlac. [48]

    : Quezon Service Cross - posthumous (August 21, 2004) : Philippine Legion of Honor - Officer (1950) for Meritorious Service and Commander (1954) for the negotiation of Luis Taruc's surrender to the Philippine Government.
  • Plaque of Appreciation from South Korea for the coverage of the Korean War
  • Fellow, Harvard University for International Affairs-(1981–83)
  • Fellow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology- (1981–83)

On October 11, 1954, he married Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco (Cory), with whom he had five children: [49]

  • Maria Elena ("Ballsy", born August 18, 1955), married to Eldon Cruz, with sons Justin Benigno (Jiggy) and Eldon Jr. (Jonty)
  • Aurora Corazon ("Pinky", born December 27, 1957), married to Manuel Abellada, with son Miguel and daughter Nina ("Noynoy", February 8, 1960 – June 24, 2021⁠), the 15thPresident of the Philippines
  • Victoria Elisa ("Viel", born October 27, 1961), married to Joseph Dee, with son Francis (Kiko), daughter Jacinta Patricia (Jia) ("Kris", born February 14, 1971), formerly married to James Yap (separated in 2010), with sons Joshua Philip Aquino Salvador (Josh) and James Aquino Yap Jr. (Bimby)

In a June 1981 interview with Pat Robertson on The 700 Club, Aquino said he was raised Catholic. According to him, his religious awakening began after reading Evangelical Christian author Charles Colson's 1976 book Born Again, during his solitary confinement under the Marcos regime. [50]

In films Edit

He was portrayed by Amado Cortez in the 1994 film Mayor Cesar Climaco. His nephew, future Senator Bam Aquino portrayed him in the documentary film The Last Journey of Ninoy, produced by Unitel and directed by Jun Reyes. He was also prominently featured in the film A Dangerous Life.


Philippine democracy scion, ex-leader Benigno Aquino dies

MANILA, Philippines (AP) — Former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III, the son of pro-democracy icons who helped topple dictator Ferdinand Marcos and had troublesome ties with China, died Tuesday, a cousin and public officials said. He was 61.

Former Sen. Bam Aquino said he was heartbroken by the death of his cousin. “He gave his all for the Filipino, he did not leave anything,” he said.

Details of his death were not immediately made public by members of his family, who were seen rushing to a metropolitan Manila hospital in the morning. But one of his former Cabinet official, Rogelio Singson, said Aquino had been undergoing dialysis and was preparing for a kidney transplant.

Condolences poured in from Philippine politicians, the Catholic church and others.

Aquino, who served as president from 2010 to 2016, was the heir to a political legacy of a family that has been regarded as a bulwark against authoritarianism in the Philippines.

His father, former Sen. Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated in 1983 while under military custody at the Manila international airport, which now bears his name. His mother, Corazon Aquino, led the 1986 “people power” revolt that ousted Marcos. The army-backed uprising became a harbinger of popular revolts against authoritarian regimes worldwide.

Although a scion of a wealthy land-owning political clan in the northern Philippines, Aquino, who was fondly called Noynoy or Pinoy by many Filipinos and had an image as an incorruptible politician, battled poverty and frowned over excesses by the country’s elite families and powerful politicians. One of his first orders that lingered throughout his presidency was to ban the use of sirens in vehicles that carried VIPs through Manila’s notorious traffic jams.

Aquino, whose family went into exile in the U.S. during Marcos’s rule, had turbulent ties with China as president. After China effectively seized a disputed shoal in 2012 following a tense standoff between Chinese and Philippine ships in the South China Sea, Aquino authorized the filing of a complaint before an international arbitration tribunal that questioned the validity of China’s sweeping claims in the strategic waterway on historical grounds.

“We do not wish to increase tensions with anyone, but we must let the world know that we are ready to protect what is ours,” Aquino said in his State of the Nation Address to Congress in 2011.

The Philippines largely won. China refused to join in the arbitration and dismissed as a sham the tribunal’s 2016 ruling, which invalidated Beijing’s claims to virtually the entire South China Sea based on a 1982 U.N. maritime treaty and continues to defy it. Aquino’s legal challenge and the eventual ruling plunged the relations between Beijing and Manila to an all-time low.

Born in 1960 as the third of five children, Aquino never married and had no children. An economics graduate, Aquino engaged in businesses before entering politics.

During the politically tumultuous presidency of her mother, Aquino was wounded by gunfire during a failed 1987 coup attempt by rebel soldiers, who attempted to lay siege on the heavily guarded Malacanang presidential palace. Aquino was in a car with companions on the way back to the palace in Manila when they came under heavy gunfire. Three of his security escorts were killed and Aquino was severely wounded, with one bullet remaining embedded in his neck all his life because it was too dangerous to take out by surgery.

He won a seat in the powerful House of Representatives in 1998, where he served until 2007, then successfully ran for a Senate seat. Aquino announced his presidential campaign in September 2009 by saying he was answering the call of the people to continue his mother’s legacy. She had died just weeks earlier of colon cancer.

“I accept the responsibility of continuing our fight for the people. I accept the challenge to lead this fight,” he said.

He won by a large margin on a promise to fight corruption and poverty, but his victory was also seen as a protest vote due to exasperation with the corruption scandals that rocked the presidency of his predecessor, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was detained for nearly five years and was released after the Supreme Court cleared her of the charges. Arroyo later successfully returned to political power, at one time serving as House speaker under Aquino’s successor, current President Rodrigo Duterte.

Public expectations of Aquino were high and while he moved against corruption — detaining Arroyo and three powerful senators over corruption allegations — and initiated anti-poverty programs, the problems in his disaster-prone Southeast Asian nation, which remained wracked by decades-old communist and Muslim insurgencies, remained daunting.

Under Aquino, the government expanded a program that provides cash dole-outs to the poorest of the poor in exchange for commitments by parents to ensure their children would attend classes and receive government health care. Big business, meanwhile, benefited from government partnership deals that allowed them to finance major infrastructure projects such as highways and airports for long-term gain.

One of the legacies of the Aquino presidency was the signing of a 2014 peace deal with the largest Muslim separatist rebel group in the country, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, in 2014 that eased decades of sporadic fighting in the country’s south, homeland of minority Muslims in the largely Roman Catholic nation.

Political opponents have pounded on what they say were his administration’s bungling of a number of crises, including a Manila bus hostage crisis that ended with the shooting deaths of eight Chinese tourists from Hong Kong by a disgruntled police officer, and delays in recovery efforts in the massively disastrous aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan in 2013.

Aquino came under heavy criticism in 2015 for his absence in a solemn ceremony at a Manila airbase, where air force aircraft brought the remains of police commandos who had been killed by Muslim insurgents while staging a covert raid that killed one of Asia’s most-wanted terror suspects. Aquino proceeded with a scheduled inauguration of a car manufacturing plant and was criticized by his opponents for his lack of empathy amid a national mourning for the deaths of the anti-terror commandos.

Aquino retained high approval ratings when his single, six-year term ended in 2016. But the rise of the populist Duterte, whose deadly crackdown on illegal drugs has killed thousands of mostly petty drug suspects, was a reality check on the extent of public dissatisfaction and perceived failures during Aquino’s reformist rule.

Aquino campaigned against Duterte, warning he could be a looming dictator and could set back the democracy and economic momentum achieved in his own term.

After his presidency, Aquino stayed away from politics and the public eye. His former Public Works Secretary, Singson, told DZMM radio that Aquino told him in a cellphone message on June 3 that he was undergoing dialysis and was preparing for angioplasty, a delicate medical procedure to treat a blocked artery ahead of a possible kidney transplant.

Singson said he would pray for the ailing presidency and for a successful treatment. “That was the last time,” said Singson, a respected former member of Aquino’s Cabinet who, like the late president, had an image as an incorruptible official in an Asian nation long plagued by corruption scandals.


Philippine democracy scion, ex-leader Benigno Aquino dies

MANILA, Philippines -- Former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III, the son of pro-democracy icons who helped topple dictator Ferdinand Marcos and a defender of good governance who took China's sweeping territorial claims to an international court, has died. He was 61.

Aquino’s family told a news conference that he died in his sleep early Thursday due to “renal failure secondary to diabetes.” A former Cabinet official, Rogelio Singson, said Aquino had been undergoing dialysis and was preparing for a kidney transplant.

“Mission accomplished Noy, be happy now with Dad and Mom,” said Pinky Aquino-Abellada, a sister of the late president, using his nickname and struggling to hold back her tears.

Condolences poured in from political leaders such as President Joe Biden and Aquino's successor Rodrigo Duterte and the dominant Catholic Church. Philippine flags were lowered at half-staff on government buildings.

“For beyond politics and much public acrimony, I knew Noynoy as a kind and simple soul. He will be deeply missed,” Sen. Imee Marcos, a daughter of the late dictator, said in a statement, using Aquino’s nickname.

Biden called Aquino a “valued friend and partner to the United States” and said he enjoyed their time working together.

“President Aquino’s steadfast commitment to advancing peace, upholding the rule of law, and driving economic growth for all Filipinos, while taking bold steps to promote the rules-based international order, leaves a remarkable legacy at home and abroad that will endure for years to come,” Biden said in a statement mourning Aquino’s death.

Aquino, who served as president from 2010 to 2016, was the heir of a family that has been regarded as a bulwark against authoritarianism in the Philippines.

His father, former Sen. Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated in 1983 while under military custody at the Manila international airport, which now bears his name. His mother, Corazon Aquino, led the 1986 “people power” revolt that ousted Marcos. The army-backed uprising became a harbinger of popular revolts against authoritarian regimes worldwide.

A scion of a wealthy land-owning political clan in the northern Philippines, Aquino, who was fondly called Noynoy or Pnoy by many Filipinos, built an image of an incorruptible politician who battled poverty and frowned over excesses by the country’s elites, including powerful politicians. One of his first orders that lingered throughout his presidency was to ban the use of sirens in vehicles that carried VIPs through Manila’s notorious traffic jams.

Aquino, whose family went into exile in the U.S. during Marcos’s rule, had turbulent ties with China as president. After China seized a disputed shoal in 2012 following a tense standoff in the South China Sea, Aquino authorized the filing of a complaint before an international arbitration tribunal that questioned the validity of China’s sweeping claims in the strategic waterway Beijing claims virtually the entire South China Sea on historical grounds.

“We will not be pushed around because we are a tiny state compared with theirs,” Aquino told The Associated Press in June 2011. “We think we have very solid grounds to say ‘do not intrude into our territory.’”

The Philippines largely won. But China refused to join in the arbitration and dismissed as a sham the tribunal’s 2016 ruling, which invalidated Beijing’s claims based on a 1982 U.N. maritime treaty. Aquino’s legal challenge and the eventual ruling plunged the relations between Beijing and Manila to an all-time low.

Born in 1960 as the third of five children, Aquino never married and had no children. An economics graduate, he pursued business opportunities before entering politics.

During his mother's tumultuous presidency, after democracy was restored, Aquino was wounded by gunfire during a failed 1987 coup attempt by rebel soldiers who attempted to lay siege on the heavily guarded Malacanang presidential palace. Three of his security escorts were killed. A bullet had remained embedded in Aquino's neck.

He won a seat in the House of Representatives in 1998, where he served until 2007, then successfully ran for the Senate. Aquino announced his presidential campaign in September 2009, saying he was answering the call of the people to continue his mother’s legacy. She had died just weeks earlier of colon cancer.

His won with a battle cry "without the corrupt, there won’t be poor people.” He called ordinary Filipinos his “boss” and offered himself as their servant. Friends said he often carried a copy of the Philippine Constitution in his pocket, a reflection of his steadfast belief that no one is above the law.

His victory was also seen as a protest vote due to exasperation with the corruption scandals of his predecessor, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. She was detained for nearly five years before the Supreme Court cleared her of the charges. Arroyo later served as House speaker under Duterte.

Public expectations of Aquino were high. While he moved against corruption — detaining Arroyo and three powerful senators — and initiated anti-poverty programs, the deep-seated inequalities and weak institutions in the Southeast Asian nation wracked by decades-old communist and Muslim insurgencies remained too daunting.

Under Aquino, the government expanded a program that provides cash dole-outs to the poorest in exchange for commitments by parents to send children to school. Big business, meanwhile, benefited from government partnership deals to finance major infrastructure projects.

One of Aquino's major successes was the signing of a 2014 peace deal with the largest Muslim separatist rebel group, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. It eased decades of fighting in the country’s south, homeland of minority Muslims in the largely Roman Catholic nation.

Opponents pounded on missteps, including a Manila bus hostage crisis that ended with the shooting deaths of eight Chinese tourists from Hong Kong by a disgruntled police officer, and delays in recovery efforts in the disastrous aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. He was also criticized in 2015 for his absence at an air base ceremony honoring police commandos who were killed by Muslim insurgents during a covert raid that killed one of Asia’s most-wanted terror suspects.

Aquino retained high approval ratings when his single, six-year term ended in 2016. The rise of the populist Duterte, whose deadly crackdown on illegal drugs has killed thousands of mostly petty drug suspects, was a reality check on the extent of public dissatisfaction and perceived failures during Aquino’s reformist rule.

Aquino campaigned against Duterte, warning he could be a looming dictator and could set back the democracy and economic momentum achieved in his own term.

Time magazine named Aquino as one of 100 most influential people in the world in 2013, praising him for stabilizing a sputtering economy and for bravely confronting China over the South China Sea disputes.

After leaving office, Aquino stayed away from politics and the public eye.

He is survived by four sisters. His cremated remains are to be taken Friday to a Roman Catholic church at Ateneo de Manila University, his former school, for a daylong public visitation subject to coronavirus safeguards before a planned weekend interment, organizers said.

Associated Press journalists Joeal Calupitan and Aaron Favila contributed to this report.


Heir of Family Who Fought for Democracy, Former Philippine President Benigno Aquino Dead at 61

Former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III, the son of pro-democracy icons who helped topple dictator Ferdinand Marcos and a defender of good governance who was not afraid to take China's sweeping territorial claims to an international court, has died. He was 61.

Aquino's family told a news conference that he died in his sleep early Thursday due to "renal failure secondary to diabetes."

Condolences poured in from politicians led by President Rodrigo Duterte and others, including the dominant Catholic Church and Sen. Imee Marcos, a daughter of the late dictator. Philippine flags were lowered at half-staff on government buildings.

"We are saddened by President Aquino's passing and will always be thankful for our partnership," U.S. Embassy Charge d' Affaires John Law said in a statement.

Parents Were Icons of Democracy

Aquino served as the country's president from 2010 to 2016. His administration made its mark in Philippine history by fighting corruption and poverty.

He was the son of two icons of democracy. His father, former Sen. Benigno Aquino, Jr., spoke with CBN on The 700 Club back in 1981. He challenged dictator Ferdinand Marcos and was assassinated in 1983 while under military custody at the Manila international airport, which now bears his name.

His mother, Corazon Aquino, led the 1986 "people power" revolt that ousted Marcos and restored democracy to the Philippines. The army-backed uprising became a harbinger of popular revolts against authoritarian regimes worldwide.

Aquino, who was fondly called Noynoy or Pnoy by many Filipinos, built an image of an incorruptible politician who battled poverty and frowned over excesses by the country's elites, including powerful politicians. One of his first orders that lingered throughout his presidency was to ban the use of sirens in vehicles that carried VIPs through Manila's notorious traffic jams.

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Aquino had turbulent relations with China while serving as president. After China seized a disputed shoal in 2012 following a tense standoff in the South China Sea, he authorized the filing of a complaint before an international arbitration tribunal that questioned the validity of China's sweeping claims in the strategic waterway. The communist regime in Beijing claims virtually the entire South China Sea belongs to it.

"We will not be pushed around because we are a tiny state compared with theirs," Aquino said in June 2011. "We think we have very solid grounds to say 'do not intrude into our territory.'"

The Philippines largely won. But China refused to join in the arbitration and rejected the tribunal's 2016 ruling, which invalidated Beijing's claims based on a 1982 UN maritime treaty. Aquino's legal challenge and the eventual ruling plunged the relations between Beijing and Manila to an all-time low.

No One is Above the Law

Born in 1960 as the third of five children, Aquino never married and had no children. An economics graduate, he pursued business opportunities before entering politics.

He won a seat in the House of Representatives in 1998, where he served until 2007, then successfully ran for the Senate. Aquino announced his presidential campaign in September 2009, saying he was answering the call of the people to continue his mother's legacy. She had died just weeks earlier of colon cancer.

He won with a battle cry "without the corrupt, there won't be poor people." He called ordinary Filipinos his "boss" and offered himself as their servant. Friends said he often carried a copy of the Philippine Constitution in his pocket as a reminder that no one is above the law.

Under Aquino, the government expanded a program that provides cash dole-outs to the poorest in exchange for commitments by parents to send children to school. Big business, meanwhile, benefited from government partnership deals that allowed them to finance major infrastructure projects such as highways and airports for long-term gain.

One of Aquino's major successes was the signing of a 2014 peace deal with the largest Muslim separatist rebel group, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. It eased decades of fighting in the country's south, the homeland of minority Muslims in the largely Roman Catholic nation.

Aquino retained high approval ratings when his single, six-year term ended in 2016. The rise of the populist Duterte, whose deadly crackdown on illegal drugs has killed thousands of mostly petty drug suspects, was a reality check on the extent of public dissatisfaction and perceived failures during Aquino's reformist rule.

He campaigned against Duterte, warning he could be a looming dictator and could set back the democracy and economic momentum achieved in his own term.

Named One of The Most Influential People in the World in 2013

Time magazine named Aquino as one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2013, praising him for stabilizing a sputtering economy and for bravely confronting China over the South China Sea disputes.

After leaving office, Aquino stayed away from politics and the public eye.

He is survived by four sisters. His cremated remains are to be taken Friday to a Roman Catholic church at Ateneo de Manila University, his former school, for a daylong public visitation subject to coronavirus safeguards before a planned weekend interment, organizers said.

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Former Philippine Leader Benigno Aquino III Dead At 61

MANILA, Philippines (AP) — Former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III, the son of pro-democracy icons who helped topple dictator Ferdinand Marcos and had troublesome ties with China, died Thursday, a cousin and public officials said. He was 61.

Former Sen. Bam Aquino said he was heartbroken by the death of his cousin. “He gave his all for the Filipino, he did not leave anything,” he said.

Details of his death were not immediately made public by members of his family, who were seen rushing to a metropolitan Manila hospital in the morning. But one of his former Cabinet officials, Rogelio Singson, said Aquino had been undergoing dialysis and was preparing for a kidney transplant.

Condolences poured in from Philippine politicians, the Catholic church and others, including the U.S government, current President Rodrigo Duterte’s administration and a daughter of Marcos who is now a senator. Philippine flags were lowered at half-staff in government buildings.

“We are saddened by President Aquino’s passing and will always be thankful for our partnership,” U.S. Embassy Charge d’ Affaires John Law said in a statement. Duterte’s spokesman, Harry Roque, called for a moment of silence and prayers at the start of a televised news conference and Sen. Imee Marcos, a daughter of the late dictator, also offered her condolences.

“For beyond politics and much public acrimony, I knew Noynoy as a kind and simple soul. He will be deeply missed,” Marcos said in a statement, using Aquino’s nickname.

Aquino, who served as president from 2010 to 2016, was the heir to a political legacy of a family that has been regarded as a bulwark against authoritarianism in the Philippines.

His father, former Sen. Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated in 1983 while under military custody at the Manila international airport, which now bears his name. His mother, Corazon Aquino, led the 1986 “people power” revolt that ousted Marcos. The army-backed uprising became a harbinger of popular revolts against authoritarian regimes worldwide.

Although a scion of a wealthy land-owning political clan in the northern Philippines, Aquino, who was fondly called Noynoy or Pinoy by many Filipinos and had an image as an incorruptible politician, battled poverty and frowned over excesses by the country’s elite families and powerful politicians. One of his first orders that lingered throughout his presidency was to ban the use of sirens in vehicles that carried VIPs through Manila’s notorious traffic jams.

Aquino, whose family went into exile in the U.S. during Marcos’s rule, had turbulent ties with China as president. After China effectively seized a disputed shoal in 2012 following a tense standoff between Chinese and Philippine ships in the South China Sea, Aquino authorized the filing of a complaint before an international arbitration tribunal that questioned the validity of China’s sweeping claims in the strategic waterway on historical grounds.

“We do not wish to increase tensions with anyone, but we must let the world know that we are ready to protect what is ours,” Aquino said in his State of the Nation Address to Congress in 2011.

The Philippines largely won. China refused to join in the arbitration and dismissed as a sham the tribunal’s 2016 ruling, which invalidated Beijing’s claims to virtually the entire South China Sea based on a 1982 U.N. maritime treaty and continues to defy it. Aquino’s legal challenge and the eventual ruling plunged the relations between Beijing and Manila to an all-time low.

Born in 1960 as the third of five children, Aquino never married and had no children. An economics graduate, Aquino engaged in businesses before entering politics.

During the politically tumultuous presidency of her mother, Aquino was wounded by gunfire during a failed 1987 coup attempt by rebel soldiers, who attempted to lay siege on the heavily guarded Malacanang presidential palace. Aquino was in a car with companions on the way back to the palace in Manila when they came under heavy gunfire. Three of his security escorts were killed and Aquino was severely wounded, with one bullet remaining embedded in his neck all his life because it was too dangerous to take out by surgery.

He won a seat in the powerful House of Representatives in 1998, where he served until 2007, then successfully ran for a Senate seat. Aquino announced his presidential campaign in September 2009 by saying he was answering the call of the people to continue his mother’s legacy. She had died just weeks earlier of colon cancer.

“I accept the responsibility of continuing our fight for the people. I accept the challenge to lead this fight,” he said.

He won by a large margin on a promise to fight corruption and poverty, but his victory was also seen as a protest vote due to exasperation with the corruption scandals that rocked the presidency of his predecessor, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was detained for nearly five years and was released after the Supreme Court cleared her of the charges. Arroyo later successfully returned to political power, at one time serving as House speaker under Duterte.

Public expectations of Aquino were high and while he moved against corruption — detaining Arroyo and three powerful senators over corruption allegations — and initiated anti-poverty programs, the problems in his disaster-prone Southeast Asian nation, which remained wracked by decades-old communist and Muslim insurgencies, remained daunting.

Under Aquino, the government expanded a program that provides cash dole-outs to the poorest of the poor in exchange for commitments by parents to ensure their children would attend classes and receive government health care. Big business, meanwhile, benefited from government partnership deals that allowed them to finance major infrastructure projects such as highways and airports for long-term gain.

One of the legacies of the Aquino presidency was the signing of a 2014 peace deal with the largest Muslim separatist rebel group in the country, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, in 2014 that eased decades of sporadic fighting in the country’s south, homeland of minority Muslims in the largely Roman Catholic nation.

Political opponents have pounded on what they say were his administration’s bungling of a number of crises, including a Manila bus hostage crisis that ended with the shooting deaths of eight Chinese tourists from Hong Kong by a disgruntled police officer, and delays in recovery efforts in the massively disastrous aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan in 2013.

Aquino came under heavy criticism in 2015 for his absence in a solemn ceremony at a Manila airbase, where air force aircraft brought the remains of police commandos who had been killed by Muslim insurgents while staging a covert raid that killed one of Asia’s most-wanted terror suspects. Aquino proceeded with a scheduled inauguration of a car manufacturing plant and his opponents said he lacked empathy.

Aquino retained high approval ratings when his single, six-year term ended in 2016. But the rise of the populist Duterte, whose deadly crackdown on illegal drugs has killed thousands of mostly petty drug suspects, was a reality check on the extent of public dissatisfaction and perceived failures during Aquino’s reformist rule.

Aquino campaigned against Duterte, warning he could be a looming dictator and could set back the democracy and economic momentum achieved in his own term.

After his presidency, Aquino stayed away from politics and the public eye. His former Public Works Secretary, Singson, told DZMM radio that Aquino told him in a cellphone message on June 3 that he was undergoing dialysis and was preparing for angioplasty, a delicate medical procedure to treat a blocked artery ahead of a possible kidney transplant.

Singson said he would pray for the ailing presidency and for a successful treatment. “That was the last time,” said Singson, a respected former member of Aquino’s Cabinet who, like the late president, had an image as an incorruptible official in an Asian nation long plagued by corruption scandals.


Philippine democracy scion, ex-leader Benigno Aquino III dies at 61

Benigno Aquino III, the son of pro-democracy icons who helped topple Philippines dictator Ferdinand Marcos, died Thursday, a cousin and public officials said.

Former Sen. Bam Aquino said he was heartbroken by the death of his cousin. “He gave his all for the Filipino, he did not leave anything,” he said.

Details of his death were not immediately made public, but one of his former Cabinet officials, Rogelio Singson, said Aquino had been undergoing dialysis and was preparing for a kidney transplant.

Condolences poured in from Philippine politicians, the Catholic church and others, including the U.S government, and current President Rodrigo Duterte's administration. Philippine flags were lowered at half-staff in government buildings.

“We are saddened by President Aquino’s passing and will always be thankful for our partnership,” U.S. Embassy Charge d’ Affaires John Law said in a statement.

Duterte’s spokesman, Harry Roque, called for a moment of silence and prayers at the start of a televised news conference and Sen. Imee Marcos, daughter of the late dictator, also offered her condolences.

On behalf of the U.S. Embassy, I offer our deepest condolences to former President Benigno Aquino III’s family and loved ones at this heartbreaking time. We are saddened by President Aquino’s passing and will always be thankful for our partnership.

— Chargé d’Affaires John Law (@USEmbassyPHDCM) June 24, 2021

Aquino, president from 2010 to 2016, was the heir to a political family that has been regarded as a bulwark against authoritarianism in the Philippines.

His father, former Sen. Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated in 1983 while under military custody at the Manila international airport, which now bears his name. His mother, Corazon Aquino, led the 1986 “people power” revolt that ousted Marcos and secured her presidency. Aquino, who was fondly called Noynoy or Pinoy by many Filipinos and had an image as an incorruptible politician, battled poverty and frowned over excesses by the country’s elite.

Aquino won a seat in the House of Representatives in 1998, where he served until 2007. He then successfully ran for Senate and announced his presidential campaign in September 2009 by saying he was answering the call of the people to continue his late mother’s legacy.

He won by a large margin on a promise to fight corruption and poverty, but his victory was also seen as a protest vote due to exasperation with the corruption scandals of his predecessor, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.

Under Aquino, the government expanded a program that provides cash dole-outs to the poor in exchange for commitments by parents to ensure their children would attend classes and receive government health care. Big business, meanwhile, benefited from government partnership deals that allowed them to finance major infrastructure projects such as highways and airports.

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One of the legacies of the Aquino presidency was the signing of a 2014 peace deal with the largest Muslim separatist rebel group in the country, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, that eased decades of sporadic fighting in the country’s south, homeland of minority Muslims in the largely Roman Catholic nation.

Political opponents criticized what they say were his administration’s bungling of a number of crises, including a Manila bus hostage crisis that ended with the shooting deaths of eight Chinese tourists from Hong Kong by a disgruntled police officer, and delays in recovery efforts in the disastrous aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan in 2013.


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Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III, the former Philippine president who oversaw the fastest period of growth since the 1970s and challenged China’s expansive territorial claims before a United Nations-backed tribunal, has died. He was 61.

Aquino, who served as the nation’s leader from 2010 to 2016, died peacefully in his sleep, his sister Pinky Aquino-Abellada said, adding that he was pronounced dead in a hospital in Quezon City due to renal disease secondary to diabetes. “No words can express how broken our hearts are and how long it will take for us to accept the reality that he is gone. Mission accomplished, Noy.”

Benigno Aquino III in 2012.

Photographer: Phil Walter/Getty Images

President Rodrigo Duterte, through his spokesman Harry Roque, sent condolences to Aquino’s family. “We are grateful for his contribution and services to the country,” he said.

A bachelor with a weakness for cigarettes and computer games who had spent much of his life in the shadow of his parents -- icons of Philippine democracy -- Aquino had said he didn’t aspire to lead the nation.

His father, senator and opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., was jailed under the regime of Ferdinand Marcos and assassinated in 1983 upon his return from U.S. exile. Three years later, his mother Corazon Aquino ran against Marcos in a snap election that led to the dictator’s ouster.

The 2009 death of Corazon, the nation’s first female president, prompted calls for Aquino, then a senator, to run for the top post the following year. “I didn’t have any ambition to be president,” he said in a 2013 interview with Bloomberg News. “It was fate. The people found me.”

Aquino was born on Feb. 8, 1960, the only son among five children. An economics graduate from the Ateneo de Manila University, he served as a congressman and senator. Prior to his public sector career, he worked as retail supervisor and promotions manager at Nike Inc.’s Philippine unit.

Aquino with his mother Corazon Aquino in 2007.

Photographer: Enrique Soriano/Bloomberg

Economic Boom

Under Aquino’s six-year presidential term, the nation’s economy grew an average of 6.2% and twice exceeded 7%, the fastest pace since the 1970s. His administration pursued tax evaders, narrowed the budget deficit from a record level, and enabled the Philippines to clinch its first investment grade score from a major credit rating company.

“The turnaround story of the Philippines -- from Asia’s sick man to Asia’s bright star -- is without doubt one of his greatest legacies,” Cesar Purisima, who served as finance secretary under Aquino, said in a statement. “His six years in office was proof of his fundamental thesis: that good governance delivers great economics.”

He brought China before a UN-backed tribunal in March 2014 to challenge Beijing’s push for control of the South China Sea, portions of which the Philippines claims. Aquino initiated the proceedings after a standoff between vessels from the two countries in the disputed Scarborough Shoal in April 2012.

After Aquino left office, the Permanent Court of Arbitration in 2016 ruled in favor of the Philippines, saying China’s expansive territorial claims in the South China Sea breached international law -- a decision Beijing has rejected. Rodrigo Duterte, Aquino’s successor, has said the ruling was “just a piece of paper,” while pushing the country toward China and away from the U.S., which has had a mutual defense treaty with the Philippines since the 1950s.

Aquino’s predecessor Gloria Arroyo was jailed on corruption charges during his term. The country’s ranking on Berlin-based Transparency International’s Corruption Index improved 11 notches in his last full year in office in 2015 from six years earlier.

His administration was criticized, however, for not spending enough to improve the country’s decrepit infrastructure. Os engarrafamentos que levaram a deslocamentos de horas de duração desencadearam o desencanto público, que seu sucessor Duterte capitalizou durante a campanha para sucedê-lo.


Assista o vídeo: HISTORY 2 of 5 The Assassination of Benigno Ninoy Aquino, Jr. (Outubro 2022).

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